Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Atan R, Crosbie DC, Bellomo R
    Ren Fail, 2013 Sep;35(8):1061-70.
    PMID: 23866032 DOI: 10.3109/0886022X.2013.815089
    Hypercytokinemia is believed to be harmful and reducing cytokine levels is considered beneficial. Extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques have been studied for the purpose of cytokine reduction. We aimed to study the efficacy of various EBP techniques for cytokine removal as defined by technical measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  2. Appanna R, Wang SM, Ponnampalavanar SA, Lum LC, Sekaran SD
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2012 Nov;87(5):936-42.
    PMID: 22987650 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0606
    Plasma leakage in severe dengue has been postulated to be associated with skewed cytokine immune responses. In this study, the association of cytokines with vascular permeability in dengue patients was investigated. Human serum samples collected from 48 persons (13 with dengue fever, 29 with dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 6 healthy) were subjected to cytokines analysis by using Luminex Multiplex Technology. Selected serum samples from patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever sera and recombinant human cytokines were then tested for roles on inducing vascular permeability by treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Confocal immunofluorescence staining indicated morphologic alteration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with serum samples from patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever compared with serum samples from healthy persons. The findings suggest that cytokines produced during dengue hemorrhagic infections could induce alterations in the vascular endothelium, which may play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  3. Islam M, Mohamed EH, Esa E, Kamaluddin NR, Zain SM, Yusoff YM, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 Nov 07;117(10):1551-1556.
    PMID: 28898234 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.316
    BACKGROUND: Although aberrant expression of cytokines and small molecules (analytes) is well documented in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), their co-expression patterns are not yet identified. In addition, plasma baselines for some analytes that are biomarkers for other cancers have not been previously reported in AML.

    METHODS: We used multiplex array technology to simultaneously detect and quantify 32 plasma analyte (22 reported analytes and 10 novel analytes) levels in 38 patients.

    RESULTS: In our study, 16 analytes are found to be significantly deregulated (13 higher, 3 lower, Mann-Whitney U-test, P-value <0.005), where 5 of them have never been reported before in AML. We predicted a seven-analyte-containing multiplex panel for diagnosis of AML and, among them, MIF could be a possible therapeutic target. In addition, we observed that circulating analytes show five co-expression signatures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Circulating analyte expression in AML significantly differs from normal, and follow distinct expression patterns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  4. Chandramathi S, Suresh KG, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitol Res, 2010 May;106(6):1459-63.
    PMID: 20358228 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1825-y
    The fact whether Blastocystis hominis can invade has always been in question. Apart from a few sporadic studies such as that done on gnotobiotic guinea pigs which showed surface invasion and mucosal inflammation of the host's intestine caused by B. hominis infection, no real documentation of invasion has been proven. Studies have shown that hyaluronidase is secreted during the penetration into the host's skin and gut by nematode parasites. Hyaluronidase activity in protozoa namely Entamoeba histolytica has also been described previously. This study attempts to determine hyaluronidase in urine samples of B. hominis-infected rats. The presence of hyaluronidase in urine provides an indirect evidence of invasion by B. hominis into colonic epithelium causing the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins namely hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is depolymerized by hyaluronidase which may be used by organisms to invade one another. In this study, the levels of urinary hyaluronidase of Sprague-Dawley rats infected with B. hominis were monitored for 30 days. Hyaluronidase levels in the infected rats were significantly higher on days 28 and 30 compared to the day before inoculation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). During this stage, parasitic burden in infected stools was also at a high level. Proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the serum of infected rats. The study demonstrates that since no other pathogen was present and that amoeboid forms of the parasites have been shown to exist previously, the elevated levels of hyaluronidase in this preliminary finding suggests that the organism is capable of having invasion or penetration activity in the hosts' intestine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  5. Atan R, Crosbie D, Bellomo R
    Int J Artif Organs, 2013 Mar;36(3):149-58.
    PMID: 23446761 DOI: 10.5301/ijao.5000128
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Extracorporeal cytokine removal may be desirable. We sought to assess extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) techniques for cytokine removal in experimental animal studies.

    METHODS: We conducted a targeted, systematic search and identified 17 articles. We analyzed cytokine clearance, sieving coefficient (SC), ultrafiltrate (UF) concentration, and percentage removal. As this review concerns technical appraisal of EBP techniques, we made no attempts to appraise the methodology of the studies included. Results are in descriptive terms only.

    RESULTS: Applying predicted clearance for 80 kg human, high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) techniques and plasmafiltration (PF) showed the highest rates of cytokine removal. High cutoff (HCO)/HF and PF techniques showed modest ability to clear cytokines using low to medium flows. Standard hemofiltration had little efficacy. At higher flows, HCO/HF achieved clearances between 30 and 70 ml/min for IL-6 and IL-10. There was essentially no removal of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha outside of PF.

    CONCLUSIONS: Experimental animal studies indicate that HVHF (especially with HCO filters) and plasmafiltration have the potential to achieve appreciable IL-6 and IL-10 clearances. However, only PF can remove TNF-alpha reliably.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  6. John DV, Lin YS, Perng GC
    J Biomed Sci, 2015;22:83.
    PMID: 26462910 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-015-0191-6
    Dengue virus infection presents a wide spectrum of manifestations including asymptomatic condition, dengue fever (DF), or severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in affected individuals. The early prediction of severe dengue in patients without any warning signs who may later develop severe DHF is very important to choose appropriate intensive supportive therapy since available vaccines for immunization are yet to be approved. Severe dengue responses include T and B cell activation and apoptosis, cytokine storm, hematologic disorders and complement activation. Cytokines, complement and other unidentified factors may transiently act on the endothelium and alter normal fluid barrier function of the endothelial cells and cause plasma leakage. In this review, the host factors such as activated immune and endothelial cells and their products which can be utilized as biomarkers for severe dengue disease are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  7. Immaculate Mbongo L, Yamunah Devi A, Zain S, Omar SZ, Mohamed Z
    Pharmacology, 2015;96(1-2):44-8.
    PMID: 26065725 DOI: 10.1159/000430857
    Preterm birth (PTB) is the largest cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. Ethnicity disparity in the occurrence of PTB has been associated with the cytokine function. In this study, we aimed at examining cytokine levels in women with spontaneous preterm and term births.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  8. Byrne L, Obonyo NG, Diab SD, Dunster KR, Passmore MR, Boon AC, et al.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2018 10 15;198(8):1043-1054.
    PMID: 29882682 DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201801-0064OC
    RATIONALE: Fluid resuscitation is widely considered a life-saving intervention in septic shock; however, recent evidence has brought both its safety and efficacy in sepsis into question.

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to compare fluid resuscitation with vasopressors with the use of vasopressors alone in a hyperdynamic model of ovine endotoxemia.

    METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in 16 sheep, after which they received fluid resuscitation with 40 ml/kg of 0.9% saline or commenced hemodynamic support with protocolized noradrenaline and vasopressin. Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the arterial circulation, heart, brain, kidney, and liver to monitor local metabolism. Blood samples were recovered to measure serum inflammatory cytokines, creatinine, troponin, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and hyaluronan. All animals were monitored and supported for 12 hours after fluid resuscitation.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After resuscitation, animals that received fluid resuscitation required significantly more noradrenaline to maintain the same mean arterial pressure in the subsequent 12 hours (68.9 mg vs. 39.6 mg; P = 0.04). Serum cytokines were similar between groups. Atrial natriuretic peptide increased significantly after fluid resuscitation compared with that observed in animals managed without fluid resuscitation (335 ng/ml [256-382] vs. 233 ng/ml [144-292]; P = 0.04). Cross-sectional time-series analysis showed that the rate of increase of the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was greater in the fluid-resuscitated group over the course of the study (P = 0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: Fluid resuscitation resulted in a paradoxical increase in vasopressor requirement. Additionally, it did not result in improvements in any of the measured microcirculatory- or organ-specific markers measured. The increase in vasopressor requirement may have been due to endothelial/glycocalyx damage secondary to atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated glycocalyx shedding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  9. Chung ELT, Jesse FFA, Marza AD, Ibrahim HH, Abba Y, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Jul;51(6):1773-1782.
    PMID: 30919320 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01870-w
    Sudden death is usually the main finding in field animals during haemorrhagic septicaemia outbreaks caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2 that causes acute, fatal and septicaemic disease in cattle and buffaloes. This situation may be due to failure in early detection of the disease where early treatment of antibiotics may improve the prognosis of the animal and other surviving animals. Thus, there is a grey area on the knowledge on the potential usage of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins as early biomarkers in the diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. In addition, exploration of the cerebrospinal fluid during infection has never been studied before. Therefore, this study was designed to fill up the grey areas in haemorrhagic septicaemia research. Twenty-one buffalo calves were divided into seven treatment groups where group 1 was inoculated orally with 10 mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline pH 7 which act as a negative control group. Groups 2 and 3 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 mL of 1012 colony-forming unit of P. multocida type B:2. Group 4 and 5 buffaloes were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 mL of lipopolysaccharide broth. Groups 6 and 7 were administered orally and subcutaneously with 10 mL of outer membrane protein broth. During the post-infection period of 21 days, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were sampled for the analyses of pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and cytological examination. Buffalo calves infected with P. multocida and its immunogens via different routes of inoculation showed significant changes (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  10. Farhangi MA, Javid AZ, Sarmadi B, Karimi P, Dehghan P
    Clin Nutr, 2018 08;37(4):1216-1223.
    PMID: 28669666 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.06.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine the efficacy of a resistant dextrin on immune-mediated inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    METHODS: Females (n = 55) with T2DM were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 25), in which they received 10 g/d of Nutriose®06 (a resistant dextrin) or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure immune system related parameters like white blood cell count, CD4, CD8, interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL12, IL4, IL10), cortisol, tryptophan (TRP), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Kynurenine (KYN) and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning and end of trial. Mental health was assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS).

    RESULTS: Resistant dextrin caused a significant decrease in levels of cortisol, KYN, KYN/TRP ratio, IFNγ, IL12, IFNγ/IL10 ratio, LPS, and a significant increase in the monocyte, GHQ, DASS, CD8, IL10, IL4 in the intervention group as compared with baseline. A significant decrease in the level of LPS (-6.20 EU/mL, -17.8%), IFNγ (-0.6 pg/ml, -26.8%), cortisol (-2.6 μg/dl, -20.9%), IFNγ/IL10 ratio (0.01, 10%), GHQ (-5.1, -12.5%), DASS (-10.4, -38.4%), KYN/TRP ratio (6.8, 29.1%), and a significant increase in levels of CD8 (6.4%, 6.1%) and IL10 (2.6 pg/ml, 21.6%) in the intervention group as compared with the control group (P blood cell count, CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, ACTH, KYN, TRP, IL4 and IL12 in the intervention group as compared with the control group (P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Supplementation of Nutriose®06 may have beneficial effects on mental health and the immune system response in women with T2DM.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  11. Akram Z, Rahim ZH, Taiyeb-Ali TB, Shahdan MS, Baharuddin NA, Vaithilingam RD, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2017 Jan;73:311-320.
    PMID: 27567495 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.08.016
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of resistin between individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and those without CP, and to evaluate the role of resistin in CP.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is there a difference in the resistin levels between individuals with CP and those without CP?" four electronic databases: Medline, PubMed (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), EMBASE, and Science direct databases from 1977 up to March 2016 for appropriate articles addressing the focused question. EMBASE and Medline were accessed using OVID interface which facilitated simultaneous search of text words, MeSH or Emtree. Unpublished studies (gray literature) were identified by searching the Open-GRAY database and references of the included studies (cross referencing) were performed to obtain new studies. In-vitro studies, animal studies, studies that reported levels of other cytokines but not resistin, letters to the editor and review papers were excluded.

    RESULTS: Ten studies were included. Nine studies compared resistin levels between CP and periodontally healthy (H) individuals and reported higher mean serum and GCF levels of resistin in CP patients than the H controls. Two studies showed comparable resistin levels from GCF and serum between diabetes mellitus with CP (DMCP) and CP groups. Three studies included obese subjects and showed comparable serum and GCF resistin levels between obese subjects with CP (OBCP) and CP subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: CP patients were presented with elevated levels of GCF or serum resistin as compared with H individuals. Resistin modulates inflammation in chronic periodontal disease and may be used as surrogate measure to identify subjects at risk for periodontitis. Resistin levels in patients with CP and systemic inflammatory disorders such as diabetes, obesity, or rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly higher than the levels in patients with only CP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  12. Lew LC, Hor YY, Yusoff NAA, Choi SB, Yusoff MSB, Roslan NS, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2019 10;38(5):2053-2064.
    PMID: 30266270 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.010
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the effects of probiotic in alleviation of stress in stressed adults, along our focus to identify and justify strain specificity on selected health benefits with a precisely targeted population.

    METHODS: This 12-weeks randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum P8; 10 log CFU daily) on psychological, memory and cognition parameters in one hundred and three (P8 n = 52, placebo n = 51) stressed adults with mean age of 31.7 ± 11.1 years old. All subjects fulfilled the criteria of moderate stress upon diagnosis using the PSS-10 questionnaire.

    RESULTS: At the end of study, subjects on P8 showed reduced scores of stress (mean difference 2.94; 95% CI 0.08 to 5.73; P = 0.048), anxiety (mean difference 2.82; 95% CI 0.35 to 5.30; P = 0.031) and total score (mean difference 8.04; 95% CI 0.73 to 15.30; P = 0.041) as compared to placebo after 4-weeks, as assessed by the DASS-42 questionnaire. Although plasma cortisol levels were only marginally different between placebo and P8 (mean difference 3.28 ug/dl; 95% CI -7.09 to 0.52; P = 0.090), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ (mean difference 8.07 pg/ml; 95% CI -11.2 to -4.93; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  13. El-Aswad BEW, Ammar AI, Mahmoud SF, Soliman SS, Abd El-Atty AF
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Mar 01;37(1):75-88.
    PMID: 33612720
    The course of Trichinella (T.) spiralis infection includes intestinal and muscle phases. The aims of this work were to evaluate IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemistry in the muscles of T. spiralis infected mice in a time-course study and to correlate their level with the serum levels of IL-23, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines. The mice were divided into an un-infected control group (UC) (10 mice) and 5 infected mouse groups (each 10 mice/group. Each mouse was infected with 200 T. spiralis larvae) and sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-infection (dpi). IL-23 showed weak expression (+1) on the 21st dpi, then it became moderately expressed (+2) on the 28th dpi and on day 35 pi, the immunoreactivity was strong (+3). COX-2 expressed weakly on 14 dpi, while the other mouse groups (21, 28 and 35) showed strong (+3) expression. IL-23 serum concentrations increased gradually in a significant pattern, in comparison to that of UC mice, from the 21st dpi to the end of the experiment. IFN-γ increased gradually and was significantly higher than those of UC mice from the 7th dpi, reached its maximum level on the 21st dpi, after which it decreased non-significantly. IL-4 up-regulated significantly in all infected groups in comparison to UC mice achieving its highest level on the 21st dpi and decreased after that. IL-10 increased significantly on the 7th dpi, but dropped at the 14th dpi, then reached its peak on the 21st dpi, and decreased again on the 28th and 35th dpi. In conclusion, T. spiralis infection caused increased expression of IL-23 and COX-2 in the muscle of infected mice, the effect being strongest on the 35th day. Also, the infection induced a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a predominance of Th2 at the early muscle phase, after which the immune repose became mainly Th2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  14. Aamir K, Khan HU, Hossain CF, Afrin MR, Jusuf PR, Waheed I, et al.
    Life Sci, 2022 Jan 15;289:120232.
    PMID: 34919901 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120232
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide health issue primarily due to failure of pancreatic β-cells to release sufficient insulin.

    PURPOSE: The present work aimed to assess the antidiabetic potential of arjunolic acid (AA) isolated from Terminalia arjuna in type 2 diabetic rats.

    STUDY DESIGN: After extraction, isolation and purification, AA was orally administered to type 2 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats to investigate antidiabetic effect of AA.

    METHOD: T2DM was induced via single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NIC) in adult male rats. After 10 days, fasting and random blood glucose (FBG and RBG), body weight (BW), food and water intake, serum C-peptide, insulin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured to confirm T2DM development. Dose dependent effects of orally administered AA (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks was investigated by measuring BW variation, fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and levels of serum HbA1c, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum and pancreatic C-peptide, insulin, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), serum and pancreatic inflammatory cytokines.

    RESULTS: The oral administration of AA in preclinical model of T2DM significantly normalized FBG and RBG, restored BW, controlled polyphagia, polydipsia and glucose tolerance. In addition, AA notably reduced serum HbA1c, TC, TG, LDL with non-significant increase in HDL. On the other hand, significant increase in serum and pancreatic C-peptide and insulin was observed with AA treatment, while serum and pancreatic GDF-15 were non-significantly altered in AA treated diabetic rats. Moreover, AA showed dose dependent reduction in serum and pancreatic proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

    CONCLUSION: For the first time our findings highlighted AA as a potential candidate in type 2 diabetic conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  15. Ibrahim NS, Muhamad AS, Ooi FK, Meor-Osman J, Chen CK
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2018 Feb;43(2):180-186.
    PMID: 29024599 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0464
    To our knowledge, the efficacy of combined probiotic supplementation with circuit training has not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated the effects of probiotic supplementation combined with circuit training on isokinetic muscular strength and power and cytokine responses in young males. Forty-eight healthy sedentary young males were recruited and randomised into 4 separate groups: sedentary placebo control, probiotics (P), circuit training with placebo (CT), and circuit training with probiotics (CTP). Participants in the CT and CTP groups performed circuit training 3 times/week with 2 circuits of exercises from weeks 1-8 followed by 3 circuits of exercises from weeks 9-12. Participants in the P and CTP groups consumed multi-strain probiotics containing 3 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. lactis, L. casei, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum and B. infantis twice daily for 12 weeks. Measurements of body height and weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood samples, and isokinetic muscular strength and power were carried out at pre- and post-tests. Isokinetic knee strength and power in CT and CTP groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at post-test. In addition, interleukin (IL)-10 concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.0001) at post-test in P and CT but a trend toward significant increase in CTP (P = 0.09). Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in IL-6. This study suggests that 12 weeks of circuit training alone and the combination of circuit training and probiotic consumption improved muscular performance while circuit training alone and probiotics alone increased IL-10 concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  16. Vk C, Ty L, Wf L, Ywy WS, An S, S Z, et al.
    Microbiol Res, 2018 Mar;207:108-115.
    PMID: 29458845 DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.015
    Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, which accounts for high morbidity and mortality globally. Leptospiral infections are often found in tropical and subtropical regions, with people exposed to contaminated environments or animal reservoirs are at high risk of getting the infection. Leptospirosis has a wide range of clinical manifestations with non-specific signs and symptoms and often misdiagnosed with other acute febrile illnesses at early stage of infection. Despite being one of the leading causes of zoonotic morbidity worldwide, there is still a gap between pathogenesis and human immune responses during leptospiral infection. It still remains obscure whether the severity of the infection is caused by the pathogenic properties of the Leptospira itself, or it is a consequence of imbalance host immune factors. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize the past and present milestone findings on the biomarkers of host immune response aspects during human leptospiral infection, including cytokine and other immune mediators. A profound understanding of the interlink between virulence factors and host immune responses during human leptospirosis is imperative to identify potential biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic applications as well as designing novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
  17. Teo FMS, Nyo M, Wong AA, Tan NWH, Koh MT, Chan YF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 03 06;8(1):4087.
    PMID: 29511232 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22379-6
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a prevalent contagious childhood disease typically associated with fever, oral lesions and limb exanthema. While HFMD is caused by a plethora of serotypes of viruses under the genus Enterovirus within the Picornaviridae family, Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) are considered the main etiological agents. In recent years however, other viruses have also been isolated in considerable numbers from infected individuals in many regions, joining the legion commonly associated with HFMD. The present study investigated the cytokine and chemokine profiles of HFMD patients from Singapore and Malaysia for the first time. Comparative cohort studies of EV-A71-associated HFMD cases revealed that the Malaysia cohort had a distinct profile from the Singapore cohort, and this could be partly attributed by different EV-A71 genotypes. As the isolation of CV-A6, instead of CV-A16, had become prevalent in the Singapore cohort, it was also of particular interest to study the differential cytokine and chemokine profiles. Our data revealed that overlapping as well as unique profiles exist between the two major causative clinical isolates in the Singapore cohort. Having a better understanding of the respective immunological profiles could be useful for more accurate HFMD diagnosis, which is imperative for disease transmission control until multi-valent vaccines and/or broad-spectrum anti-viral drugs become available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  18. Willmott AGB, Hayes M, James CA, Dekerle J, Gibson OR, Maxwell NS
    Physiol Rep, 2018 Dec;6(24):e13936.
    PMID: 30575321 DOI: 10.14814/phy2.13936
    This experiment aimed to investigate the efficacy of twice-daily, nonconsecutive heat acclimation (TDHA) in comparison to once-daily heat acclimation (ODHA) and work matched once- or twice-daily temperate exercise (ODTEMP, TDTEMP) for inducing heat adaptations, improved exercise tolerance, and cytokine (immune) responses. Forty males, matched biophysically and for aerobic capacity, were assigned to ODHA, TDHA, ODTEMP, or TDTEMP. Participants completed a cycling-graded exercise test, heat acclimation state test, and a time to task failure (TTTF) at 80% peak power output in temperate (TTTFTEMP : 22°C/40% RH) and hot conditions (TTTFHOT : 38°C/20% RH), before and after 10-sessions (60 min of cycling at ~2 W·kg-1 ) in 45°C/20% RH (ODHA and TDHA) or 22°C/40% RH (ODTEMP or TDTEMP). Plasma IL-6, TNF-α, and cortisol were measured pre- and postsessions 1, 5, and 10. ODHA and TDHA induced equivalent heat adaptations (P  0.05) following ODHA (+14 ± 4%), TDHA (14 ± 8%), ODTEMP (9 ± 10%) or TDTEMP (8 ± 13%). Acute (P  0.05) increases were observed in IL-6, TNF-α, or cortisol during ODHA and TDHA, or ODTEMP and TDTEMP. Once- and twice-daily heat acclimation conferred similar magnitudes of heat adaptation and exercise tolerance improvements, without differentially altering immune function, thus nonconsecutive TDHA provides an effective, logistically flexible method of HA, benefitting individuals preparing for exercise-heat stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  19. Ziganshin RH, Ivanova OM, Lomakin YA, Belogurov AA, Kovalchuk SI, Azarkin IV, et al.
    Mol Cell Proteomics, 2016 Jul;15(7):2366-78.
    PMID: 27143409 DOI: 10.1074/mcp.M115.056036
    Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) - the main form of Guillain-Barre syndrome-is a rare and severe disorder of the peripheral nervous system with an unknown etiology. One of the hallmarks of the AIDP pathogenesis is a significantly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level. In this paper CSF peptidome and proteome in AIDP were analyzed and compared with multiple sclerosis and control patients. A total protein concentration increase was shown to be because of even changes in all proteins rather than some specific response, supporting the hypothesis of protein leakage from blood through the blood-nerve barrier. The elevated CSF protein level in AIDP was complemented by activization of protein degradation and much higher peptidome diversity. Because of the studies of the acute motor axonal form, Guillain-Barre syndrome as a whole is thought to be associated with autoimmune response against neurospecific molecules. Thus, in AIDP, autoantibodies against cell adhesion proteins localized at Ranvier's nodes were suggested as possible targets in AIDP. Indeed, AIDP CSF peptidome analysis revealed cell adhesion proteins degradation, however no reliable dependence on the corresponding autoantibodies levels was found. Proteome analysis revealed overrepresentation of Gene Ontology groups related to responses to bacteria and virus infections, which were earlier suggested as possible AIDP triggers. Immunoglobulin blood serum analysis against most common neuronal viruses did not reveal any specific pathogen; however, AIDP patients were more immunopositive in average and often had polyinfections. Cytokine analysis of both AIDP CSF and blood did not show a systemic adaptive immune response or general inflammation, whereas innate immunity cytokines were up-regulated. To supplement the widely-accepted though still unproven autoimmunity-based AIDP mechanism we propose a hypothesis of the primary peripheral nervous system damaging initiated as an innate immunity-associated local inflammation following neurotropic viruses egress, whereas the autoantibody production might be an optional complementary secondary process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood*
  20. Tan LY, Komarasamy TV, Rmt Balasubramaniam V
    Front Immunol, 2021;12:742941.
    PMID: 34659238 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.742941
    The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused devastating health, economic and social impact worldwide. Its clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic to respiratory failure and multi-organ failure or death. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is attributed to a complex interplay between virus and host immune response. It involves activation of multiple inflammatory pathways leading to hyperinflammation and cytokine storm, resulting in tissue damage, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure. Accumulating evidence has raised concern over the long-term health effects of COVID-19. Importantly, the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 may have devastating consequences in the brain. This review provides a conceptual framework on how the virus tricks the host immune system to induce infection and cause severe disease. We also explore the key differences between mild and severe COVID-19 and its short- and long-term effects, particularly on the human brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cytokines/blood
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