METHODOLOGY: Three sodium-fluoride(NaF) concentration(0.01%w/v,0.1%w/v and 0.5%w/v respectively)and two poly-γ-glutamic acid(PGGA)concentration(1%w/v and 2%w/v respectively)were prepared in 0.1 M acetic acid(pH4.0)and deionized distilled water.For de/re-mineralisation study, tooth samples (18 teeth varnished, leaving a 2 mm2 window on the mid-buccal surfaces) were immersed in respective acidified NaF and PGGA solutions. The Ca2+ release/uptake was monitored with ISE over 72-hr with increasing pH every 24-h from 4.0 to 6.0.These teeth were later subjected to cross-sectional microhardness to determine integrated mineral recovery of enamel on increasing pH of respective acidified solution.In order to determine mechanism of PGGA,two concentrations of PGGA in deionized-water-solutions were used for tooth samples immersion followed by overnight drying then later subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red(FT-IR) analysis.The FT-IR analysis was also carried out on PGGA powder.For control,the experiment was repeated using hydroxyapatite(HAp)pellets.The density of PGGA solutions(1%and2%)was also measured to determine their dynamic viscosities.
RESULTS: The ISE and microhardness testing revealed statistically significant (ρ ≤ 0.05) dissolution inhibition and remineralisation potential for tooth sample treated with acidified 2%PGGA. From the FT-IR spectra, it was observed that the profiles of the enamel and HAp surfaces treated with 1%-and 2%-PGGA solutions were similar to those of PGGA powder.It was found that the viscosity of PGGA increases with increasing concentration.
CONCLUSION: The study implies that 2% PGGA is more effective than NaF as forms a coating layer to protect from demineralisation and promote remineralisation of the tooth surface.
DESIGN: Here, we have investigated these individual plant extracts and its synergistic mixture (PEM) for its anti-cariogenic effect to reduce populations of single and mixed-species of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic or/and biofilm and their others reduced virulence. Bacterial populations in the biofilm after 24 h, hydrophobic cell surface activity to n-hexadecane and pH changes at 5 min' intervals until 90 min of incubation were recorded. Total phenolic content and bioactive compounds in the crude aqueous plant extracts were analysed. Regulatory gene expressions of S. mutans adhesins genes (gtfB, gtfC, gbpB and spaP) upon treatment with PEM were investigated in planktonic and biofilm conditions.
RESULTS: All plant extracts strongly reduced S. mutans in the biofilm compared to S. sanguinis in single and mixed-species. PEM reduced S. mutans by 84% with S. sanguinis 87% in the mixed population. Psidium sp. and PEM highly reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity of the two bacteria thus reducing adherence and biofilm formation. PEM and Mangifera sp. lowered initial pH change in the mixed populations of S. sanguinis and S. mutans. PEM downregulated the S. mutans gtfB gene expression in the single species planktonic and mixed-species biofilms.
CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of PEM in reducing S. mutans within the biofilm, cell-surface hydrophobicity, acid production and adhesin gene (gtfB) expression in mixed-species with S. sanguinis indicates its potential as an antibacterial agent against dental caries. This is attributed to the phenolic content in the PEM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neural induction was carried out with a small molecule cocktail based two-step culture protocol, over a total duration of 14 days. At the 8 and 14 day timepoints, the cells were analyzed for expression of neural markers with immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The Fluo 4-AM calcium flux assay was also performed after a further 14 days of neural maturation.
RESULTS: More pronounced morphological changes characteristic of the neural lineage (i.e. neuritogenesis) were observed in all three cell types treated with small molecules, as compared to the untreated controls. This was corroborated by the immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot data, which showed upregulated expression of several early and mature neural markers in all three cell types treated with small molecules, versus the corresponding untreated controls. Finally, the Fluo-4 AM calcium flux assay showed consistently higher calcium transient (F/Fo) peaks for the small molecule-treated versus untreated control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Small molecules can enhance the neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs, SCAPs and GMSCs, which offer much potential for therapeutic applications.
METHODS: The qLAMP assay was optimized targeting the HPV-16 E7 gene. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined using HPV-18 (ATCC® 45152D™), HPV-35 (ATCC® 40330™), HPV-43 (ATCC® 40338™) and HPV-56 (ATCC® 40549™) viral strains and oral bacteria. HPV-16 standard curve was constructed for determination of HPV-16 viral load. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated from 63 OSCC patients comprising 63 tissue, 13 saliva and 49 blood samples, in comparison with p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC), in-house PCR and nested PCR assays.
RESULTS: The detection limit of developed LAMP and PCR assays was 4.68 × 101 and 4.68 × 103 copies/μl, respectively. qLAMP assay enabled detection of positive results as early as 23 min at 67 °C. This assay can detect HPV-16 positivity in 23 % (3/13) saliva and 4.8 % (3/63) tissue samples with the viral load ranging from 4.68 × 101 to 4.68 × 104 copies/μl. HPV-16 positivity was not detected in all the blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of qLAMP were 100 % in comparison with that of p16 IHC and nested PCR.
CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time on the use of qLAMP assay for detection of HPV-16 in OSCC in both tissue and saliva as the sample matrix which holds promise in improving the diagnostic application owing to its rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity.
DESIGN: The role of matrix stiffness in several cancers including oral cancer was reviewed with a tailored search strategy using relevant keywords as per the Medline format. The role of molecular mediators, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) was weighed in the context of OSF along two distinct pathways.
RESULTS: Increased matrix stiffness activates the transcriptional coactivators, YAP and TAZ shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. YAP and TAZ, serve as mechanical transducers in promoting cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The hypoxic microenvironment in the advanced stage of OSF promotes the migratory phenotype through mechanical memory.
CONCLUSIONS: Reprogramming of a stiff matrix has the potential to restore the Hippo-YAP/TAZ tumor suppressor pathway and reverse fibrosis-associated tumor development.
METHODS: Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria.
RESULTS: Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (p<0.05) and lower the adherence ability (p<0.003) towards experimental pellicles.
CONCLUSION: Combination between Gt and Sp aqueous extracts exhibited synergistic anti-plaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products.
DESIGN: Eighty-one extracted teeth were grouped into two age groups (6-25 years, 26-80 years). The teeth were demineralized and histological sections were prepared for cell count. Regression equations were generated from regression analysis of cell count and tested for age estimation.
RESULTS: The number of dental pulp cells were found to increase until around the third decade of life and following this, the odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell numbers began to decline while the fibroblasts seemed to remain almost stationary. The Pearson correlation test revealed a significant positive correlation between the cell number for all type of cells and age in the 6-25 years group (r=+0.791 for odontoblasts, r=+0.600 for subodontoblasts and r=+0.680 for fibroblasts). In the 26-80 years age group, a significant negative correlation of the odontoblasts (r=-0.777) and subodontoblasts (r=-0.715) with age was observed but for fibroblasts, the correlation value was negligible (r=-0.165). Regression equations generated using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number were applicable for age estimation. The standard error of estimates (SEEs) were around±5years for 6-25 years and±8years for 26-80 years age groups. The mean values of the estimated and chronological ages were not significantly different.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation between the cell count of odontoblasts and subodontoblasts with age was demonstrated. Regression equations using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number can be used to predict age with some limitations.
METHODS: Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis. Biofilms formed on sGB at 3h and 24h represented the early and established-plaque models. The biofilms were exposed to three doses of the sweeteners (10%), introduced at three intervals to simulate the exposure of dental plaque to sugar during three consecutive food intakes. The treated sGB were (i) examined under the SEM and (ii) collected for turbidity reading. The absorbance indicated the amount of plaque mass produced. Analysis was performed comparative to sucrose as control.
RESULTS: Higher rate of bacterial adherence was determined during the early compared to established phases of formation. Comparative to the sweeteners, sucrose showed a 40% increase in bacterial adherence and produced 70% more plaque-mass. Bacterial counts and SEM micrographs exhibited absence of matrix in all the sweetener-treated biofilms at the early phase of formation. At the established phase, presence of matrix was detected but at significantly lower degree compared to sucrose (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Alternatives sweeteners promoted the formation of oral biofilm with lighter mass and lower bacterial adherence. Hence, suggesting alternative sweeteners as potential antiplaque agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is there a difference in the resistin levels between individuals with CP and those without CP?" four electronic databases: Medline, PubMed (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), EMBASE, and Science direct databases from 1977 up to March 2016 for appropriate articles addressing the focused question. EMBASE and Medline were accessed using OVID interface which facilitated simultaneous search of text words, MeSH or Emtree. Unpublished studies (gray literature) were identified by searching the Open-GRAY database and references of the included studies (cross referencing) were performed to obtain new studies. In-vitro studies, animal studies, studies that reported levels of other cytokines but not resistin, letters to the editor and review papers were excluded.
RESULTS: Ten studies were included. Nine studies compared resistin levels between CP and periodontally healthy (H) individuals and reported higher mean serum and GCF levels of resistin in CP patients than the H controls. Two studies showed comparable resistin levels from GCF and serum between diabetes mellitus with CP (DMCP) and CP groups. Three studies included obese subjects and showed comparable serum and GCF resistin levels between obese subjects with CP (OBCP) and CP subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: CP patients were presented with elevated levels of GCF or serum resistin as compared with H individuals. Resistin modulates inflammation in chronic periodontal disease and may be used as surrogate measure to identify subjects at risk for periodontitis. Resistin levels in patients with CP and systemic inflammatory disorders such as diabetes, obesity, or rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly higher than the levels in patients with only CP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root discs (2 mm thickness) were cut apical to CEJ and sectioned into quadrants. HIFU setup with bowl-shaped piezo ceramic transducer submerged in a water tank was used for exposure on each specimen for 15 s, 30 s or 60 s. The specimens of the control group were left without any HIFU exposure. HIFU was generated with a continuous sinusoidal wave of 120Vpp amplitude, 250 KHZ resonance-frequency and highest ultrasonic pressure of ∼10 bar at the focus. Specimens for SEM were viewed, and micro-topography characterization performed, using AFM and Ra parameter and surface area (SA) calculated by specialized SPM surface analysis software. For nano-indentation testing, experiments were carried out using AFM. Macrophage cell isolation and culturing was performed on cementum to receive the HIFU treatment at different time periods. Raman spectroscopy were scanned to create spectra perpendicular to the cementum substrate to analyze generation of standard spectra for Raman intensity ratio of hydroxyapatite normalized to the peaks ν1 960 cm-1. Data was expressed as means ± standard deviations and analyzed by one-way ANOVA in term of Ra, SA, H and Er. Different points for fluorescence intensity ratio were analyzed by Raman using Wilcoxon rank sum test.
RESULTS: HIFU exposure at 60 s removed the smear layer and most of cementum appeared smoothened. AFM characterisation, showed a slight decrease in the irregularity of the surface as exposure time increased. Intact macrophages can be identified in control and all experimental HIFU groups. The level of fluorescence for the control and HIFU 15 and 30 s were low as compared to HIFU 60 s.
CONCLUSION: If HIFU can be successfully implemented, it may be a possible alternative to current methods used in periodontal therapy to achieve smooth root surfaces.