Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Gupta K, Singh S, Garg KN
    Arch Oral Biol, 2015 Mar;60(3):439-46.
    PMID: 25540850 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.11.018
    Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The concept of transferring genes to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed nearly half a century, but the ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology has brought this goal to reality. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated using tumour viruses. This led to development of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Applications of gene therapy to dental and oral problems illustrate the potential impact of this technology on dentistry. Preclinical trial results regarding the same have been very promising. In this review we will discuss methods, vectors involved, clinical implication in dentistry and scientific issues associated with gene therapy.
  2. Farea M, Husein A, Halim AS, Abdullah NA, Mokhtar KI, Lim CK, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2014 Dec;59(12):1400-11.
    PMID: 25222336 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.08.015
    Multipotent stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for tissue regeneration. In the present study we decided to test the inductive effect of chitosan and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) as a scaffold/factor combination on SHED proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.
  3. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Hassandarvish P, Rouhollahi E
    Arch Oral Biol, 2014 Sep;59(9):987-99.
    PMID: 24952163 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.06.001
    This study has attempted to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid (EA) on alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats.
  4. Nordin MA, Wan Harun WH, Abdul Razak F
    Arch Oral Biol, 2013 Oct;58(10):1335-42.
    PMID: 23915676 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.07.001
    The adherence of Candida to mucosal surfaces is the initial step for successful invasive process of the oral cavity. The study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant extracts on the non-specific and specific bindings of oral candida.
  5. Gopinath VK, Musa M, Samsudin AR, Lalitha P, Sosroseno W
    Arch Oral Biol, 2006 Apr;51(4):339-44.
    PMID: 16214104
    The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hydroxyapatite (HA)-induced phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). The cells were incubated with HA particles at various incubation time and phagocytosis was assessed using phagocytic index (PI). NO production from the culture supernatants was determined by the Griess reagent. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot. The particles were also incubated with cells pretreated with various concentrations of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL) or L-arginine. Latex beads were used as a control. Our results showed that macrophage phagocytosis induced by HA was higher than that induced by the beads. However, NO production by HA-stimulated cells was lower than that by bead-stimulated cells. iNOS expression in both bead- and HA-stimulated cells was observed expressed at 7, 15, 30, and 60 min. l-Arginine enhanced but l-NIL inhibited both phagocytosis and NO production by HA-stimulated cells. The results of the present study suggest that nitric oxide may play a crucial role in HA-induced phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells.
  6. Li LK, Rola AS, Kaid FA, Ali AM, Alabsi AM
    Arch Oral Biol, 2016 Apr;64:28-38.
    PMID: 26752226 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.12.002
    Goniothalamin is a natural occurring styryl-lactone compound isolated from Goniothalamus macrophyllus. It had been demonstrated to process promising anticancer activity on various cancer cell lines. However, little study has been carried out on oral cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of goniothalamin against H400 oral cancer cells and its underlying molecular pathways. Results from MTT assay demonstrated that goniothalamin exhibited selective cytotoxicity as well as inhibited cells growth of H400 in dose and time-dependent manner. This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where apoptotic bodies and membrane blebbing were observed using AO/PI and DAPI/Annexin V-FITC fluorescence double staining. In order to understand the apoptosis mechanisms induced by goniothalamin, apoptosis assessment based on mitochondrial membrane potential assay and cytochrome c enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were carried out. Results demonstrated that the depolarization of mitochondrial transmembrane potential facilitated the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytosol. Caspases assays revealed the activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3/7 in dose-dependent manners. This form of apoptosis was closely associated with the regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins, cell cycle arrest at S phase and inhibition of NF-κβ translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion, goniothalamin has the potential to act as an anticancer agent against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (H400 cells).
  7. Hossain MZ, Munawar KM, Rahim ZH, Bakri MM
    Arch Oral Biol, 2016 Apr;64:85-91.
    PMID: 26803673 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.01.001
    Stature estimation is an important step during medico-legal and forensic examination. Difficulty arises when highly decomposed and mutilated dead bodies with fragmentary remains are brought for forensic identification like in mass disaster or airplane crash. The body remains could be just a jaw with some teeth. The objective of this study was to explore if the stature of an individual can be determined from the tooth crown dimensions.
  8. Mohd Yusof MY, Cauwels R, Martens L
    Arch Oral Biol, 2015 Oct;60(10):1571-6.
    PMID: 26276268 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.07.017
    Age 18 years is considered as the age of majority by most countries. To ascertain the age of interest, both third molar development (TMD) and eruption (TME) staging scores are beneficial without needing multiple imaging modalities. This study aimed to assess the chronological course of TMD and TME in a Malay sub-adult population and evaluate predictions when specific stage(s) of TMD and TME have been attained that are pertinent to the age group of interest (<18 years or ≥18 years). A sample of 714 digital panoramic images for subjects stratified by age between 14.1 and 23.9 years was retrospectively collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage TMD and TME, respectively. A binary logistic regression was performed to predict the 18-year threshold with staging score as predictors. Stages 4-6 (TMD) and A-B (TME) for males and stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) for females were found to discriminate the <18-year group. For both genders, stages 9-10 (TMD) and D (TME) can be used as reference stages to estimate whether a subject is likely to be ≥18 years, with 94.74-100% and 85.88-96.38% correct predictions, respectively. Stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) can also be used to identify juveniles (<18 years) with a high degree of correct predictions, 100%. The juvenility of an individual is easily anticipated by using the specific staging scores of both third molar variables (TMD and TME) without complex calculations.
  9. Yadav M, Nambiar S, Khoo SP, Yaacob HB
    Arch Oral Biol, 1997 Aug;42(8):559-67.
    PMID: 9347118
    The prevalence and cellular distribution of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) in archival labial salivary glands was analysed for virus-specific DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization signals. In addition, the cellular expression of HHV-7-encoded protein was detected by immunohistochemical staining with a virus-specific monoclonal antibody. Eleven of 20 samples were positive for the HHV-7 DNA sequence by PCR. Eighteen of 20 tissues analysed by in situ hybridization showed signals in ductal, serous and mucous cells. Some nuclei of these cells and also the myoepithelial population were positive. In immunolocalization studies, all 20 salivary glands consistently showed HHV-7-expressed protein in the cytoplasm of ductal cuboidal and columnar cells. The protein was also found in the cytoplasm of mucous and serous acinar cells that were immunopositive for HHV-7. The observations are consistent with the suggestion that the labial salivary gland is a site for virus replication, potential persistence and a source of infective HHV-7 in saliva.
  10. Whittaker DK, Bakri MM
    Arch Oral Biol, 1996 Jan;41(1):15-9.
    PMID: 8833585
    One hundred and ninety-eight single-rooted teeth from individuals aged 21-90 yr of Caucasian, Malay, Chinese Malay and Indian Malay origin were studied. Single or serial longitudinal sections of extracted teeth were cut following dye imbibition of patent dentinal tubules. The extent of sclerosis of apical dentinal tubules was assessed and correlated with the age of the individual. Correlation with age was higher in the Caucasian than the Malay races and within the Malaysian racial groups correlation with age was highest in the Malays and lowest in the Chinese. It is concluded that factors other than age may be important in the formation of sclerotic apical dentine in teeth of different racial origin. The effect of racial origin should be considered when using sclerosis as a means of age determination in forensic cases.
  11. Qamar Z, Haji Abdul Rahim ZB, Neon GS, Chew HP, Zeeshan T
    Arch Oral Biol, 2019 Oct;106:104482.
    PMID: 31325718 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104482
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine demineralisation inhibition and remineralisation potential of poly-γ-glutamic acid with its possible mechanism of action on human dental enamel.

    METHODOLOGY: Three sodium-fluoride(NaF) concentration(0.01%w/v,0.1%w/v and 0.5%w/v respectively)and two poly-γ-glutamic acid(PGGA)concentration(1%w/v and 2%w/v respectively)were prepared in 0.1 M acetic acid(pH4.0)and deionized distilled water.For de/re-mineralisation study, tooth samples (18 teeth varnished, leaving a 2 mm2 window on the mid-buccal surfaces) were immersed in respective acidified NaF and PGGA solutions. The Ca2+ release/uptake was monitored with ISE over 72-hr with increasing pH every 24-h from 4.0 to 6.0.These teeth were later subjected to cross-sectional microhardness to determine integrated mineral recovery of enamel on increasing pH of respective acidified solution.In order to determine mechanism of PGGA,two concentrations of PGGA in deionized-water-solutions were used for tooth samples immersion followed by overnight drying then later subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red(FT-IR) analysis.The FT-IR analysis was also carried out on PGGA powder.For control,the experiment was repeated using hydroxyapatite(HAp)pellets.The density of PGGA solutions(1%and2%)was also measured to determine their dynamic viscosities.

    RESULTS: The ISE and microhardness testing revealed statistically significant (ρ ≤ 0.05) dissolution inhibition and remineralisation potential for tooth sample treated with acidified 2%PGGA. From the FT-IR spectra, it was observed that the profiles of the enamel and HAp surfaces treated with 1%-and 2%-PGGA solutions were similar to those of PGGA powder.It was found that the viscosity of PGGA increases with increasing concentration.

    CONCLUSION: The study implies that 2% PGGA is more effective than NaF as forms a coating layer to protect from demineralisation and promote remineralisation of the tooth surface.

  12. Shafiei Z, Rahim ZHA, Philip K, Thurairajah N, Yaacob H
    Arch Oral Biol, 2020 Jan;109:104554.
    PMID: 31563709 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104554
    OBJECTIVE: Psidium sp., Mangifera sp. and Mentha sp. and its mixture (PEM) are known to have antimicrobial and anti-adherence effects.

    DESIGN: Here, we have investigated these individual plant extracts and its synergistic mixture (PEM) for its anti-cariogenic effect to reduce populations of single and mixed-species of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic or/and biofilm and their others reduced virulence. Bacterial populations in the biofilm after 24 h, hydrophobic cell surface activity to n-hexadecane and pH changes at 5 min' intervals until 90 min of incubation were recorded. Total phenolic content and bioactive compounds in the crude aqueous plant extracts were analysed. Regulatory gene expressions of S. mutans adhesins genes (gtfB, gtfC, gbpB and spaP) upon treatment with PEM were investigated in planktonic and biofilm conditions.

    RESULTS: All plant extracts strongly reduced S. mutans in the biofilm compared to S. sanguinis in single and mixed-species. PEM reduced S. mutans by 84% with S. sanguinis 87% in the mixed population. Psidium sp. and PEM highly reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity of the two bacteria thus reducing adherence and biofilm formation. PEM and Mangifera sp. lowered initial pH change in the mixed populations of S. sanguinis and S. mutans. PEM downregulated the S. mutans gtfB gene expression in the single species planktonic and mixed-species biofilms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of PEM in reducing S. mutans within the biofilm, cell-surface hydrophobicity, acid production and adhesin gene (gtfB) expression in mixed-species with S. sanguinis indicates its potential as an antibacterial agent against dental caries. This is attributed to the phenolic content in the PEM.

  13. Heng BC, Jiang S, Yi B, Gong T, Lim LW, Zhang C
    Arch Oral Biol, 2019 Jun;102:26-38.
    PMID: 30954806 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.03.024
    OBJECTIVE: Dental-derived stem cells originate from the embryonic neural crest, and exhibit high neurogenic potential. This study aimed to investigate whether a cocktail of eight small molecules (Valproic acid, CHIR99021, Repsox, Forskolin, SP600125, GO6983, Y-27632 and Dorsomorphin) can enhance the in vitro neurogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), as a preliminary step towards clinical applications.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neural induction was carried out with a small molecule cocktail based two-step culture protocol, over a total duration of 14 days. At the 8 and 14 day timepoints, the cells were analyzed for expression of neural markers with immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The Fluo 4-AM calcium flux assay was also performed after a further 14 days of neural maturation.

    RESULTS: More pronounced morphological changes characteristic of the neural lineage (i.e. neuritogenesis) were observed in all three cell types treated with small molecules, as compared to the untreated controls. This was corroborated by the immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blot data, which showed upregulated expression of several early and mature neural markers in all three cell types treated with small molecules, versus the corresponding untreated controls. Finally, the Fluo-4 AM calcium flux assay showed consistently higher calcium transient (F/Fo) peaks for the small molecule-treated versus untreated control groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Small molecules can enhance the neurogenic differentiation of DPSCs, SCAPs and GMSCs, which offer much potential for therapeutic applications.

  14. Hamzan NI, Ab Rahman N, Suraiya S, Mohamad I, George Kalarakkal T, Mohamad S
    Arch Oral Biol, 2021 Apr;124:105051.
    PMID: 33581498 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105051
    OBJECTIVE: The present study established a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) for rapid detection of human papillomavirus subtype 16 (HPV-16) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    METHODS: The qLAMP assay was optimized targeting the HPV-16 E7 gene. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined using HPV-18 (ATCC® 45152D™), HPV-35 (ATCC® 40330™), HPV-43 (ATCC® 40338™) and HPV-56 (ATCC® 40549™) viral strains and oral bacteria. HPV-16 standard curve was constructed for determination of HPV-16 viral load. The diagnostic performance of the assay was evaluated from 63 OSCC patients comprising 63 tissue, 13 saliva and 49 blood samples, in comparison with p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC), in-house PCR and nested PCR assays.

    RESULTS: The detection limit of developed LAMP and PCR assays was 4.68 × 101 and 4.68 × 103 copies/μl, respectively. qLAMP assay enabled detection of positive results as early as 23 min at 67 °C. This assay can detect HPV-16 positivity in 23 % (3/13) saliva and 4.8 % (3/63) tissue samples with the viral load ranging from 4.68 × 101 to 4.68 × 104 copies/μl. HPV-16 positivity was not detected in all the blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of qLAMP were 100 % in comparison with that of p16 IHC and nested PCR.

    CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time on the use of qLAMP assay for detection of HPV-16 in OSCC in both tissue and saliva as the sample matrix which holds promise in improving the diagnostic application owing to its rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Sharma M, Hunter KD, Fonseca FP, Shetty SS, Radhakrishnan R
    Arch Oral Biol, 2021 Aug;128:105164.
    PMID: 34044344 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105164
    OBJECTIVE(S): The objective of the present manuscript is to elucidate the role of matrix stiffness in the malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis.

    DESIGN: The role of matrix stiffness in several cancers including oral cancer was reviewed with a tailored search strategy using relevant keywords as per the Medline format. The role of molecular mediators, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) was weighed in the context of OSF along two distinct pathways.

    RESULTS: Increased matrix stiffness activates the transcriptional coactivators, YAP and TAZ shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. YAP and TAZ, serve as mechanical transducers in promoting cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The hypoxic microenvironment in the advanced stage of OSF promotes the migratory phenotype through mechanical memory.

    CONCLUSIONS: Reprogramming of a stiff matrix has the potential to restore the Hippo-YAP/TAZ tumor suppressor pathway and reverse fibrosis-associated tumor development.

  16. Abdulbaqi HR, Himratul-Aznita WH, Baharuddin NA
    Arch Oral Biol, 2016 Oct;70:117-124.
    PMID: 27343694 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.06.011
    OBJECTIVE: Green tea (Gt), leafs of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, is widely consumed as healthy beverage since thousands of years in Asian countries. Chewing sticks (miswak) of Salvadora persica L. (Sp) are traditionally used as natural brush to ensure oral health in developing countries. Both Gt and Sp extracts were reported to have anti-bacterial activity against many dental plaque bacteria. However, their combination has never been tested to have anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effect against primary dental plaque colonizers, playing an initial role in the dental plaque development, which was investigated in this study.

    METHODS: Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria.

    RESULTS: Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (p<0.05) and lower the adherence ability (p<0.003) towards experimental pellicles.

    CONCLUSION: Combination between Gt and Sp aqueous extracts exhibited synergistic anti-plaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products.

  17. Hossain MZ, Daud S, Nambiar P, Razak FA, Ab-Murat N, Saub R, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2017 Aug;80:51-55.
    PMID: 28371626 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.03.018
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between dental pulp cell count of odontoblasts, subodontoblasts and fibroblasts and age, within different age groups. Formulation of regression equations using the dental pulp cell count for predicting age was attempted.

    DESIGN: Eighty-one extracted teeth were grouped into two age groups (6-25 years, 26-80 years). The teeth were demineralized and histological sections were prepared for cell count. Regression equations were generated from regression analysis of cell count and tested for age estimation.

    RESULTS: The number of dental pulp cells were found to increase until around the third decade of life and following this, the odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell numbers began to decline while the fibroblasts seemed to remain almost stationary. The Pearson correlation test revealed a significant positive correlation between the cell number for all type of cells and age in the 6-25 years group (r=+0.791 for odontoblasts, r=+0.600 for subodontoblasts and r=+0.680 for fibroblasts). In the 26-80 years age group, a significant negative correlation of the odontoblasts (r=-0.777) and subodontoblasts (r=-0.715) with age was observed but for fibroblasts, the correlation value was negligible (r=-0.165). Regression equations generated using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number were applicable for age estimation. The standard error of estimates (SEEs) were around±5years for 6-25 years and±8years for 26-80 years age groups. The mean values of the estimated and chronological ages were not significantly different.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation between the cell count of odontoblasts and subodontoblasts with age was demonstrated. Regression equations using odontoblasts and subodontoblasts cell number can be used to predict age with some limitations.

  18. Abdul Razak F, Baharuddin BA, Akbar EFM, Norizan AH, Ibrahim NF, Musa MY
    Arch Oral Biol, 2017 Aug;80:180-184.
    PMID: 28448807 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.04.014
    OBJECTIVE: Compact-structured oral biofilm accumulates acids that upon prolonged exposure to tooth surface, causes demineralisation of enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of alternative sweeteners Equal Stevia(®), Tropicana Slim(®), Pal Sweet(®) and xylitol on the matrix-forming activity of plaque biofilm at both the early and established stages of formation.

    METHODS: Saliva-coated glass beads (sGB) were used as substratum for the adhesion of a mixed-bacterial suspension of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mitis. Biofilms formed on sGB at 3h and 24h represented the early and established-plaque models. The biofilms were exposed to three doses of the sweeteners (10%), introduced at three intervals to simulate the exposure of dental plaque to sugar during three consecutive food intakes. The treated sGB were (i) examined under the SEM and (ii) collected for turbidity reading. The absorbance indicated the amount of plaque mass produced. Analysis was performed comparative to sucrose as control.

    RESULTS: Higher rate of bacterial adherence was determined during the early compared to established phases of formation. Comparative to the sweeteners, sucrose showed a 40% increase in bacterial adherence and produced 70% more plaque-mass. Bacterial counts and SEM micrographs exhibited absence of matrix in all the sweetener-treated biofilms at the early phase of formation. At the established phase, presence of matrix was detected but at significantly lower degree compared to sucrose (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Alternatives sweeteners promoted the formation of oral biofilm with lighter mass and lower bacterial adherence. Hence, suggesting alternative sweeteners as potential antiplaque agents.

  19. Akram Z, Rahim ZH, Taiyeb-Ali TB, Shahdan MS, Baharuddin NA, Vaithilingam RD, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2017 Jan;73:311-320.
    PMID: 27567495 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.08.016
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of resistin between individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and those without CP, and to evaluate the role of resistin in CP.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The addressed focused question was "Is there a difference in the resistin levels between individuals with CP and those without CP?" four electronic databases: Medline, PubMed (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda), EMBASE, and Science direct databases from 1977 up to March 2016 for appropriate articles addressing the focused question. EMBASE and Medline were accessed using OVID interface which facilitated simultaneous search of text words, MeSH or Emtree. Unpublished studies (gray literature) were identified by searching the Open-GRAY database and references of the included studies (cross referencing) were performed to obtain new studies. In-vitro studies, animal studies, studies that reported levels of other cytokines but not resistin, letters to the editor and review papers were excluded.

    RESULTS: Ten studies were included. Nine studies compared resistin levels between CP and periodontally healthy (H) individuals and reported higher mean serum and GCF levels of resistin in CP patients than the H controls. Two studies showed comparable resistin levels from GCF and serum between diabetes mellitus with CP (DMCP) and CP groups. Three studies included obese subjects and showed comparable serum and GCF resistin levels between obese subjects with CP (OBCP) and CP subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: CP patients were presented with elevated levels of GCF or serum resistin as compared with H individuals. Resistin modulates inflammation in chronic periodontal disease and may be used as surrogate measure to identify subjects at risk for periodontitis. Resistin levels in patients with CP and systemic inflammatory disorders such as diabetes, obesity, or rheumatoid arthritis was not significantly higher than the levels in patients with only CP.

  20. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Arch Oral Biol, 2019 Feb;98:195-203.
    PMID: 30502562 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.10.019
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of HIFU on macrophage phenotype, surface micro-topography and nano-scale surface mechanical properties of dental cementum.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root discs (2 mm thickness) were cut apical to CEJ and sectioned into quadrants. HIFU setup with bowl-shaped piezo ceramic transducer submerged in a water tank was used for exposure on each specimen for 15 s, 30 s or 60 s. The specimens of the control group were left without any HIFU exposure. HIFU was generated with a continuous sinusoidal wave of 120Vpp amplitude, 250 KHZ resonance-frequency and highest ultrasonic pressure of ∼10 bar at the focus. Specimens for SEM were viewed, and micro-topography characterization performed, using AFM and Ra parameter and surface area (SA) calculated by specialized SPM surface analysis software. For nano-indentation testing, experiments were carried out using AFM. Macrophage cell isolation and culturing was performed on cementum to receive the HIFU treatment at different time periods. Raman spectroscopy were scanned to create spectra perpendicular to the cementum substrate to analyze generation of standard spectra for Raman intensity ratio of hydroxyapatite normalized to the peaks ν1 960 cm-1. Data was expressed as means ± standard deviations and analyzed by one-way ANOVA in term of Ra, SA, H and Er. Different points for fluorescence intensity ratio were analyzed by Raman using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

    RESULTS: HIFU exposure at 60 s removed the smear layer and most of cementum appeared smoothened. AFM characterisation, showed a slight decrease in the irregularity of the surface as exposure time increased. Intact macrophages can be identified in control and all experimental HIFU groups. The level of fluorescence for the control and HIFU 15 and 30 s were low as compared to HIFU 60 s.

    CONCLUSION: If HIFU can be successfully implemented, it may be a possible alternative to current methods used in periodontal therapy to achieve smooth root surfaces.

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