MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, DET (0.625. 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in rats for 21 days and those animals were challenged with single injection of LPS (250 μg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days. Cognitive and behavioral assessment was carried out for 7 days followed by molecular assessment on brain hippocampus. Statistical significance was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test to compare the treatment groups with the control group.
KEY FINDINGS: DET ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing major pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, DET enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokines and concomitantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine production. DET treatment also reversed LPS-induced behavioral and memory deficits and attenuated LPS-induced elevation of the expression of AD markers. DET improved synaptic-functionality via enhancing the activity of pre- and post-synaptic markers, like PSD-95 and SYP. DET also prevented LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration via inhibition of PARP-1, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3.
SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our studies suggest DET can prevent neuroinflammation-associated memory impairment and neurodegeneration and it could be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-mediated and neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.
MAIN METHODS: Human bone marrow derived MSCs were isolated, expanded in vitro and transfected with adiponectin gene containing plasmid vector. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of adiponectin gene and protein in GM-MSCs was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting respectively. The secretion of adiponectin protein from GM-MSCs was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
KEY FINDINGS: The expression of adiponectin gene and plasmid DNA was detected in GM-MSCs but not in control group of MSCs. Adiponectin gene expression was detected in GM-MSCs at 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28days after transfection. Western blotting analysis revealed the expression of adiponectin protein only in GM-MSCs. The GM-MSCs stably secreted adiponectin protein into culture media at least for 4weeks.
SIGNIFICANCE: GM-MSCs express and secret adiponectin protein. Therefore, these adiponectin secreting GM-MSCs could be instrumental for the supplementation of adiponectin in the treatment of adiponectin deficiency related diseases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ciproxifan in Aβ25-35 - induced SK-N-SH cells. For the in vivo study, ciproxifan (1 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to transgenic mice for 15days and behaviour was assessed using the radial arm maze (RAM). Brain tissues were collected to measure Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activities, cyclooxygenases (COX) and cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6), while plasma was collected to measure TGF-1β.
RESULTS: The in vitro studies demonstrated neuroprotective effect of ciproxifan by increasing cell viability and inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Aβ25-35-induced SK-N-SH cells. Ciproxifan significantly improved the behavioural parameters in RAM. Ciproxifan however, did not alter the Aβ levels in APP transgenic mice. Ciproxifan increased ACh and showed anti-oxidant properties by reducing NO and LPO levels as well as enhancing antioxidant levels. The neuroinflammatory analysis showed that ciproxifan reduced both COX-1 and COX-2 activities, decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-1β.
CONCLUSION: This present study provides scientific evidence of the use of ciproxifan via antioxidant and cholinergic pathways in the management of AD.
MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.
KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. MP, diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. metformin, and diabetic on MP and metformin combined therapy. Treatment was done orally for 4 weeks, and NC and DC groups received distilled water as vehicle.
KEY FINDINGS: Results showed increased fasting blood glucose and serum markers of hepatic lesion (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase), increased hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity, decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, increased immunoexpressions of nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β and caspase-3, and decreased immunoexpressions of IL-10 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver of DC group. Histopathology of the liver revealed numerous hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltration, while periodic acid-schiff staining decreased in the liver of DC group. Treatment with MP attenuated these negative effects and was comparable to metformin. Furthermore, these effects were better attenuated in the combined therapy-treated diabetic rats.
SIGNIFICANCE: Malaysian propolis attenuates hepatic lesion in DM and exerts a synergistic protective effect with the anti-hyperglycemic medication, metformin.
MAIN METHODS: The expression of AR, 5α-reductase type1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase type2 (5αR2) were examined in the bladder cancer cell line T24 and surgical pathology specimens. We also evaluated the status of androgen related cell proliferation and migration using the potent, non-aromatizable androgen agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
KEY FINDINGS: DHT treatment significantly increased AR mRNA expression level, but not those of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in T24 cells. DHT also suppressed cellular migration with weaker and opposite effects on cell proliferation. A significant inverse correlation was detected between pT stage and AR, 5αR1 and 5αR2 immunoreactivity.
SIGNIFICANCE: Inverse correlations detected between tumor grade and AR/androgen metabolizing enzyme also suggested that the loss of AR and androgen-producing enzymes could be associated with tumor progression. Effects of DHT on cells also suggest that androgens may regulate cellular behavior.
MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet for 8weeks. Firstly, OB rats were divided into (1) OB and (2) OB+R (100mg/kg, p.o, 28days). Then, OB rats were subjected to MI (ISO, 85mg/kg, s.c, 2days) and divided into three groups: (1) OB+MI, (2) OB+MI+R and (3) OB+MI+enalapril for another 4weeks.
KEY FINDINGS: Roselle ameliorated OB and OB+MI's cardiac systolic dysfunction and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The increased oxidative markers and decreased antioxidant enzymes in OB and OB+MI groups were all attenuated by roselle.
SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate the protective effect of roselle on cardiac dysfunction in OB and OB+MI rats, which suggest its potential to be developed as a nutraceutical product for obese and obese patients with MI in the future.
MAIN METHODS: In silico approaches were utilized to characterize a set of 88 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from intestinal cells of rat CMA model. Interaction networks were constructed for DEGs by GeneMANIA and hub genes as well as enriched clusters in the network were screened using GLay. Gene Ontology (GO) was used for enriching functions in each cluster.
KEY FINDINGS: Four gene hubs, i.e., trefoil factor 1, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5a, solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 11, and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, n-methyl d-aspartate 2b, exhibiting the highest node degree were predicted. Six biologically related gene clusters were also predicted. Functional enrichment of GO terms predicted neurological processes such as neurological system process regulation and nerve impulse transmission which are related to negative and positive regulation of digestive system processes., intestinal motility and absorption and maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelium.
SIGNIFICANCE: The study predicted several important genomic pathways that potentially play significant roles in metabolic disruptions or compensatory adaptations of intestinal epithelium induced by CMA. The results provide a further insight into underlying molecular mechanisms associated with CMA.