METHODS: Wistar rats employed for this study consisted of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats in nine experimental groups. The normoglycaemic and diabetic rats were either treated with metformin (500 mg/kg b.w.), quercetin (10 mg/kg b.w.), or ethanol extract of H. verticillata leaf (250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w.) administered orally for 28 days.
KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that H. verticillata significantly lowered blood glucose level, attenuated dyslipidaemia, decreased atherogenic coefficient, atherogenic and coronary risk indices, and increased cardioprotective index in diabetic rats. Also, H. verticillata significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and unconjugated bilirubin levels, relative to untreated diabetic rats. Further, H. verticillata increased serum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level, and decreased malondialdehyde level in diabetic rats in a manner similar to metformin and quercetin. Histopathological investigation of the liver and kidney revealed restored hepatocytes and amelioration of congested interstitial blood vessel of the Bowman's space of the kidneys upon intervention with H. verticillata.
SIGNIFICANCE: H. verticillata in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic activity ameliorates oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia, atherogenicity and hepatorenal lesions in DM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity screening of chalepin against MCF7 cells was conducted using SRB assay. Apoptosis induction was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays including phase contrast and Hoechst/PI staining fluorescence microscope. Similarly, Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays were conducted using flow cytometry whereas caspase-3 activity was evaluated using microplate reader.
KEY FINDINGS: The result indicates remarkable cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells, whereas it shows moderate cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB231 cells. Interestingly, chalepin did not present any toxicity against MRC5 normal cell line. Morphological examination using both phase contrast and fluorescence microscope displays typical apoptotic features such as membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies' formation following chalepin treatment against MCF7 cells at different concentration for 48 h. Apoptosis induction is significantly associated with externalisation of phosphatidylserine, and DNA fragmentation in MCF7 cells chalepin treated cells when compared with control. The protein expressions of caspase-8, 9 and cleaved PARP1 were upregulated which correlated well with increased caspase-3 activity.
SIGNIFICANCE: From our recent findings, chalepin was able to induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells and therefore, could be evaluated further as a potential source of anticancer agent for cancer treatment such as breast cancer.