Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Oukkache N, Ahmad Rusmili MR, Othman I, Ghalim N, Chgoury F, Boussadda L, et al.
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 1;124:1-7.
    PMID: 25623852 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.031
    Scorpion venoms contain complex mixtures of molecules, including peptides. These peptides specifically bind to various targets, in particular ion channels. Toxins modulating Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-) currents were described from venoms. The Androctonus and Buthus geni of scorpions are widely distributed in Morocco. Their stings can cause pain, inflammation, necrosis, muscle paralysis and death. The myotoxicity is predominantly associated with neurotoxic effects and is a cause of mortality and morbidity. In this study, pharmacological effects of venoms were investigated in vitro on neuromuscular transmission.
  2. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 15;125:42-8.
    PMID: 25534439 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.012
    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMGCoA reductase and are commonly used as antihypercholesterolemic agents. Experimental studies clearly demonstrate the beneficial effects of statins on bone. Tocotrienols have also been shown to have anti-osteoporotic effects on the skeletal system. This study was conducted to observe the effect of a combination of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin on structural bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical strength in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses, and to compare it with the effect of delta-tocotrienol or lovastatin.
  3. Ooi JP, Kuroyanagi M, Sulaiman SF, Muhammad TS, Tan ML
    Life Sci, 2011 Feb 28;88(9-10):447-54.
    PMID: 21219911 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.12.019
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been implicated in a large number of preventable drug-herb interactions. Andrographis paniculata Nees, a tropical herb widely used for various health conditions contains two major diterpenoids, andrographolide and 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide. These compounds were evaluated systematically for their effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 expressions in HepG2 cells.
  4. Ahmad R, Ali AM, Israf DA, Ismail NH, Shaari K, Lajis NH
    Life Sci, 2005 Mar 11;76(17):1953-64.
    PMID: 15707878
    The antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of seven Hedyotisspecies were investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods while the radical scavenging activity was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The anti-inflammatory activity related to NO inhibition of the plant extracts was measured by the Griess assay while cytotoxicity were measured by the MTT assay against CEM-SS cell line. The antibacterial bioassay (against 4 bacteria, i.e. Bacillus subtilis B28 (mutant), Bacillus subtilis B29 (wild-type), Pseudomonas aeruginosa UI 60690 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) was also carried out using the disc-diffusion method. All tested extracts exhibited very strong antioxidant properties when compared to Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) with percent inhibition of 89-98% in the FTC and 60-95% in the TBA assays. In the DPPH method, H. herbacea exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 32 microg/ml. The results from the Griess assay showed that the tested extracts are weak inhibitors of NO synthase. However, all tested extracts exhibited moderate cytotoxic properties against CEM-SS cell line giving CD50 values in the range of 21-41 microg/ml. In the antibacterial bioassay, the stems and the roots of H. capitellata showed moderate activity against the 4 tested bacteria while the leaves showed moderate activity towards B. subtilis B28, MRSA and P. aeruginosa only. The roots of H. dichotoma showed strong antibacterial activity against all 4 bacteria. All other extracts did not exhibit any antibacterial activity.
  5. Khor ES, Noor SM, Wong PF
    Life Sci, 2016 Apr 1;150:67-75.
    PMID: 26916825 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.076
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital in modulating lifespan and various biological processes including vascular function. The pivotal roles of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating senescence and angiogenesis have been extensively described. However, the roles of its orthologue, zebrafish target of rapamycin (zTOR) in senescence and angiogenesis remain to be unravelled. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of zTOR and identify miRNAs associated with senescence and angiogenesis.
  6. Ong JY, Yong PV, Lim YM, Ho AS
    Life Sci, 2015 Aug 15;135:158-64.
    PMID: 25896662 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.03.019
    The compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) was previously shown to be cytotoxic against several cancer cell lines, but its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of MNQ-induced cytotoxicity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.
  7. Hossain MM, Mukheem A, Kamarul T
    Life Sci, 2015 Aug 15;135:55-67.
    PMID: 25818192 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.03.010
    Hypoadiponectinemia is characterized by low plasma adiponectin levels that can be caused by genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the adiponectin gene or by visceral fat deposition/obesity. Reports have suggested that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have highlighted several potential strategies to up-regulate adiponectin secretion and function, including visceral fat reduction through diet therapy and exercise, administration of exogenous adiponectin, treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists (e.g., thiazolidinediones (TZDs)) and ligands (e.g., bezafibrate and fenofibrate) or the blocking of the renin-angiotensin system. Likewise, the up-regulation of the expression and stimulation of adiponectin receptors by using adiponectin receptor agonists would be an effective method to treat obesity-related conditions. Notably, adiponectin is an abundantly expressed bioactive protein that also exhibits a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Although targeting adiponectin and its receptors has been useful for treating diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases in experimental studies, current drug development based on adiponectin/adiponectin receptors for clinical applications is scarce, and there is a lack of available clinical trial data. This comprehensive review discusses the strategies that are presently being pursued to harness the potential of adiponectin up-regulation. In addition, we examined the current status of drug development and its potential for clinical applications.
  8. Yahya MD, Watson RR
    Life Sci, 1987 Dec 07;41(23):2503-10.
    PMID: 2824957
    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances, although there are reports that they may not produce any deleterious effect and may even enhance some aspects of host immunity. They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals.
  9. Israf DA, Lajis NH, Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR
    Life Sci, 2004 Jun 11;75(4):397-406.
    PMID: 15147827
    An experiment was conducted with the objective to enhance mucosal immunity against ovalbumin (OVA) by co-administration of OVA with an aqueous extract from the fruit of Solanum torvum (STE). Five groups of female ICR mice aged approximately 8 weeks at the commencement of the experiment were caged in groups of eight and received various treatments. The treatments included OVA alone, OVA with cholera toxin (CT), and OVA with various doses of STE. Mice were primed intraperitoneally with 500 microg of OVA alone or co-administered with 0.1 microg CT, or with 1 microg STE. All mice were boosted orally via gastric intubation 14 days after priming with 10 mg OVA alone, or co-administered with 10 microg CT or with 10 mg, 1 mg or 0.1 mg STE. One week later all mice were killed and organs obtained for analysis of the immune response. Intestinal, faecal and pulmonary OVA-specific sIgA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice that received booster combinations of OVA/CT and OVA with all extract doses (p<0.05). Specific serum IgG titres did not differ significantly between groups. It is concluded that STE can significantly enhance secretory immunity in the intestine to OVA with mucosal homing to the lungs. The adjuvant effect of STE is comparable to that of CT.
  10. Ajay M, Gilani AU, Mustafa MR
    Life Sci, 2003 Dec 19;74(5):603-12.
    PMID: 14623031
    The potency, structure-activity relationship, and mechanism of vasorelaxation of a series of flavonoids, representing different subclasses (flavonols: fisetin, rutin, quercetin; flavones: chrysin, flavone, baicalein; flavanones: naringenin, naringin; isoflavones: diadzein and flavanes: epigallo catechin gallate), were examined in the isolated rat aorta. Most of the flavonoids tested showed concentration dependent relaxant effects against K+ (80 mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 0.1 microM)-induced contractions with a greater inhibition of the responses to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist. The relaxant effects of most of the flavonoids involve in part the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandins from the endothelium as pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin attenuated the responses. In addition, the relaxant action of the flavonoids includes inhibition of Ca+2 influx and release of Ca+2 from intracellular stores. A structure-activity relationship amongst the flavonoids was suggested.
  11. Andy SN, Pandy V, Alias Z, Kadir HA
    Life Sci, 2018 Aug 01;206:45-60.
    PMID: 29792878 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.035
    AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, DET (0.625. 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in rats for 21 days and those animals were challenged with single injection of LPS (250 μg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days. Cognitive and behavioral assessment was carried out for 7 days followed by molecular assessment on brain hippocampus. Statistical significance was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test to compare the treatment groups with the control group.

    KEY FINDINGS: DET ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing major pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, DET enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokines and concomitantly suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine production. DET treatment also reversed LPS-induced behavioral and memory deficits and attenuated LPS-induced elevation of the expression of AD markers. DET improved synaptic-functionality via enhancing the activity of pre- and post-synaptic markers, like PSD-95 and SYP. DET also prevented LPS-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration via inhibition of PARP-1, caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our studies suggest DET can prevent neuroinflammation-associated memory impairment and neurodegeneration and it could be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-mediated and neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.

  12. Hossain MM, Murali MR, Kamarul T
    Life Sci, 2017 Aug 01;182:50-56.
    PMID: 28606849 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.06.007
    AIMS: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) hold promises for the treatment of diverse diseases and regeneration of injured tissues. Genetic modification of MSCs through gene delivery might enhance their therapeutic potential. Adiponectin has been appeared as a potential biomarker for predicting various diseases. Plasma adiponectin levels are negatively correlated with various metabolic and vascular diseases and supplementation of exogenous adiponectin ameliorates the diseases. This study aims to develop adiponectin secreting genetically modified MSCs (GM-MSCs) as a potent strategic tool to complement endogenous adiponectin for the treatment of adiponectin deficiency diseases.

    MAIN METHODS: Human bone marrow derived MSCs were isolated, expanded in vitro and transfected with adiponectin gene containing plasmid vector. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of adiponectin gene and protein in GM-MSCs was analyzed by PCR and Western blotting respectively. The secretion of adiponectin protein from GM-MSCs was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    KEY FINDINGS: The expression of adiponectin gene and plasmid DNA was detected in GM-MSCs but not in control group of MSCs. Adiponectin gene expression was detected in GM-MSCs at 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28days after transfection. Western blotting analysis revealed the expression of adiponectin protein only in GM-MSCs. The GM-MSCs stably secreted adiponectin protein into culture media at least for 4weeks.

    SIGNIFICANCE: GM-MSCs express and secret adiponectin protein. Therefore, these adiponectin secreting GM-MSCs could be instrumental for the supplementation of adiponectin in the treatment of adiponectin deficiency related diseases.

  13. Mani V, Jaafar SM, Azahan NSM, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Ming LC, et al.
    Life Sci, 2017 Jul 01;180:23-35.
    PMID: 28501482 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.05.013
    AIM: The present study is aimed to investigate the ability of ciproxifan, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist to inhibit β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells and APP transgenic mouse model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ciproxifan in Aβ25-35 - induced SK-N-SH cells. For the in vivo study, ciproxifan (1 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to transgenic mice for 15days and behaviour was assessed using the radial arm maze (RAM). Brain tissues were collected to measure Aβ levels (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42), acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activities, cyclooxygenases (COX) and cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6), while plasma was collected to measure TGF-1β.

    RESULTS: The in vitro studies demonstrated neuroprotective effect of ciproxifan by increasing cell viability and inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Aβ25-35-induced SK-N-SH cells. Ciproxifan significantly improved the behavioural parameters in RAM. Ciproxifan however, did not alter the Aβ levels in APP transgenic mice. Ciproxifan increased ACh and showed anti-oxidant properties by reducing NO and LPO levels as well as enhancing antioxidant levels. The neuroinflammatory analysis showed that ciproxifan reduced both COX-1 and COX-2 activities, decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6 and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-1β.

    CONCLUSION: This present study provides scientific evidence of the use of ciproxifan via antioxidant and cholinergic pathways in the management of AD.

  14. Zaidun NH, Thent ZC, Latiff AA
    Life Sci, 2018 Sep 01;208:111-122.
    PMID: 30021118 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.017
    The incidence of diseases related to oxidative stress disorders have been increased dramatically. Alternatives medicine or the active compound extracted from the natural products received great attention among researches at the present era. Naringenin (NG), a common dietary flavanone, found in the citrus fruits such as oranges, bergamots, lemons and grapefruit. It is used in the several oxidative stress disorders as the nutraceutical value of the compound emerges. Functionally, the antioxidants effect of NG is primarily attributed by reducing the free radical like reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhancing the antioxidants activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, diabetes, pulmonary, cancer and nephropathy. The present review article summarised the antioxidant property of NG and its molecular mechanism towards such diseases. Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and Google scholar were searched using the terms 'naringenin', 'oxidative stress disorders', 'naringenin and cardiovascular diseases', 'naringenin and diabetes mellitus', 'naringenin and neurodegenerative diseases', 'naringenin and pulmonary diseases', 'naringenin and cancer' and 'naringenin and nephropathy'. There has been special attention on evaluating anti-oxidative effect of NG on neurodegenerative diseases. Although some mechanisms of action remain vague, the current review highlighted the potential use of NG as a oxidative stress reliever which can be used as next prophylaxis compound in the treatment of the various oxidative stress disorders.
  15. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 01;210:214-223.
    PMID: 30145154 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.08.057
    AIMS: Phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens act as agonists/antagonists in bone formation and differentiation. Strong bones are depending of the ability of osteoblasts to form new tissue and to mineralize the newly formed tissue. Dysfunctional or loss of mineralization leads to weak bone and increased fracture risk. In this study, we reported the effect of different types of phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein and equol) on mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells stimulated with bisphenol A (BPA).

    MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.

    KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.

  16. Nna VU, Bakar ABA, Mohamed M
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 15;211:40-50.
    PMID: 30205096 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.09.018
    AIMS: Hepatic oxidative stress and weak antioxidant defence system resulting in hepatic lesion, has been reported in diabetic rats. The present study investigated the possible hepatoprotective effects of Malaysian propolis (MP) in diabetic rats, on the background that MP has been reported to have anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. MP, diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. metformin, and diabetic on MP and metformin combined therapy. Treatment was done orally for 4 weeks, and NC and DC groups received distilled water as vehicle.

    KEY FINDINGS: Results showed increased fasting blood glucose and serum markers of hepatic lesion (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase), increased hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity, decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, increased immunoexpressions of nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β and caspase-3, and decreased immunoexpressions of IL-10 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver of DC group. Histopathology of the liver revealed numerous hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltration, while periodic acid-schiff staining decreased in the liver of DC group. Treatment with MP attenuated these negative effects and was comparable to metformin. Furthermore, these effects were better attenuated in the combined therapy-treated diabetic rats.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Malaysian propolis attenuates hepatic lesion in DM and exerts a synergistic protective effect with the anti-hyperglycemic medication, metformin.

  17. Hata S, Ise K, Azmahani A, Konosu-Fukaya S, McNamara KM, Fujishima F, et al.
    Life Sci, 2017 Dec 01;190:15-20.
    PMID: 28947209 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.09.029
    AIMS: Bladder urothelial carcinoma is increasing in incidence with age and its prognosis could become worse when accompanied with metastasis. Effective treatment of these advanced patients is required and it becomes important to understand its underlying biology of this neoplasm, especially with regard to its biological pathways. A potential proposed pathway is androgen receptor (AR)-mediated intracellular signaling but the details have remained relatively unexplored.

    MAIN METHODS: The expression of AR, 5α-reductase type1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase type2 (5αR2) were examined in the bladder cancer cell line T24 and surgical pathology specimens. We also evaluated the status of androgen related cell proliferation and migration using the potent, non-aromatizable androgen agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

    KEY FINDINGS: DHT treatment significantly increased AR mRNA expression level, but not those of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in T24 cells. DHT also suppressed cellular migration with weaker and opposite effects on cell proliferation. A significant inverse correlation was detected between pT stage and AR, 5αR1 and 5αR2 immunoreactivity.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Inverse correlations detected between tumor grade and AR/androgen metabolizing enzyme also suggested that the loss of AR and androgen-producing enzymes could be associated with tumor progression. Effects of DHT on cells also suggest that androgens may regulate cellular behavior.

  18. Si LY, Ali SAM, Latip J, Fauzi NM, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Life Sci, 2017 Dec 15;191:157-165.
    PMID: 29066253 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.10.030
    AIMS: Obesity increase the risks of hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI) mediated by oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of roselle aqueous extract (R) on cardiotoxicity in obese (OB) rats and thereon OB rats subjected to MI.

    MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet for 8weeks. Firstly, OB rats were divided into (1) OB and (2) OB+R (100mg/kg, p.o, 28days). Then, OB rats were subjected to MI (ISO, 85mg/kg, s.c, 2days) and divided into three groups: (1) OB+MI, (2) OB+MI+R and (3) OB+MI+enalapril for another 4weeks.

    KEY FINDINGS: Roselle ameliorated OB and OB+MI's cardiac systolic dysfunction and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The increased oxidative markers and decreased antioxidant enzymes in OB and OB+MI groups were all attenuated by roselle.

    SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate the protective effect of roselle on cardiac dysfunction in OB and OB+MI rats, which suggest its potential to be developed as a nutraceutical product for obese and obese patients with MI in the future.

  19. Sheikh IA, Malik A, AlBasri SFM, Beg MA
    Life Sci, 2018 Jan 01;192:246-252.
    PMID: 29138116 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.11.014
    AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA.

    MAIN METHODS: In silico approaches were utilized to characterize a set of 88 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from intestinal cells of rat CMA model. Interaction networks were constructed for DEGs by GeneMANIA and hub genes as well as enriched clusters in the network were screened using GLay. Gene Ontology (GO) was used for enriching functions in each cluster.

    KEY FINDINGS: Four gene hubs, i.e., trefoil factor 1, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5a, solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 11, and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, n-methyl d-aspartate 2b, exhibiting the highest node degree were predicted. Six biologically related gene clusters were also predicted. Functional enrichment of GO terms predicted neurological processes such as neurological system process regulation and nerve impulse transmission which are related to negative and positive regulation of digestive system processes., intestinal motility and absorption and maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelium.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The study predicted several important genomic pathways that potentially play significant roles in metabolic disruptions or compensatory adaptations of intestinal epithelium induced by CMA. The results provide a further insight into underlying molecular mechanisms associated with CMA.

  20. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Apr 01;198:1-7.
    PMID: 29432759 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.02.013
    Bisphenol A (BPA) (2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane), a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED), is the exogenous chemical that mimic the natural endogenous hormone like oestrogen. Due to its extensive exposure to humans, BPA is considered to be a major toxicological agent for general population. Environmental exposure of BPA results in adverse health outcomes including bone loss. BPA disturbs the bone health by decreasing the plasma calcium level and inhibiting the calcitonin secretion. BPA also stimulated differentiation and induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the untoward effect of BPA against bone metabolism. The present review gives an overview on the possible mechanisms of BPA towards bone loss. The previous literature shows that BPA exerts its toxic effect on bone cells by binding to the oestrogen related receptor-gamma (ERγ), reducing the bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. BPA interrupts the bone metabolism via RANKL, apoptosis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. It is, however, still debated on the exact underlying mechanism of BPA against bone health. We summarised the molecular evidences with possible mechanisms of BPA, an old environmental culprit, in bone loss and enlightened the underlying understanding of adverse action of BPA in the society.
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