Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

  1. Oukkache N, Ahmad Rusmili MR, Othman I, Ghalim N, Chgoury F, Boussadda L, et al.
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 1;124:1-7.
    PMID: 25623852 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.031
    Scorpion venoms contain complex mixtures of molecules, including peptides. These peptides specifically bind to various targets, in particular ion channels. Toxins modulating Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-) currents were described from venoms. The Androctonus and Buthus geni of scorpions are widely distributed in Morocco. Their stings can cause pain, inflammation, necrosis, muscle paralysis and death. The myotoxicity is predominantly associated with neurotoxic effects and is a cause of mortality and morbidity. In this study, pharmacological effects of venoms were investigated in vitro on neuromuscular transmission.
  2. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 15;125:42-8.
    PMID: 25534439 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.012
    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMGCoA reductase and are commonly used as antihypercholesterolemic agents. Experimental studies clearly demonstrate the beneficial effects of statins on bone. Tocotrienols have also been shown to have anti-osteoporotic effects on the skeletal system. This study was conducted to observe the effect of a combination of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin on structural bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical strength in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses, and to compare it with the effect of delta-tocotrienol or lovastatin.
  3. Ooi JP, Kuroyanagi M, Sulaiman SF, Muhammad TS, Tan ML
    Life Sci, 2011 Feb 28;88(9-10):447-54.
    PMID: 21219911 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2010.12.019
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been implicated in a large number of preventable drug-herb interactions. Andrographis paniculata Nees, a tropical herb widely used for various health conditions contains two major diterpenoids, andrographolide and 14-Deoxy-11, 12-Didehydroandrographolide. These compounds were evaluated systematically for their effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 expressions in HepG2 cells.
  4. Ahmad R, Ali AM, Israf DA, Ismail NH, Shaari K, Lajis NH
    Life Sci, 2005 Mar 11;76(17):1953-64.
    PMID: 15707878
    The antioxidant, radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of seven Hedyotisspecies were investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods while the radical scavenging activity was measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The anti-inflammatory activity related to NO inhibition of the plant extracts was measured by the Griess assay while cytotoxicity were measured by the MTT assay against CEM-SS cell line. The antibacterial bioassay (against 4 bacteria, i.e. Bacillus subtilis B28 (mutant), Bacillus subtilis B29 (wild-type), Pseudomonas aeruginosa UI 60690 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) was also carried out using the disc-diffusion method. All tested extracts exhibited very strong antioxidant properties when compared to Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) with percent inhibition of 89-98% in the FTC and 60-95% in the TBA assays. In the DPPH method, H. herbacea exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 32 microg/ml. The results from the Griess assay showed that the tested extracts are weak inhibitors of NO synthase. However, all tested extracts exhibited moderate cytotoxic properties against CEM-SS cell line giving CD50 values in the range of 21-41 microg/ml. In the antibacterial bioassay, the stems and the roots of H. capitellata showed moderate activity against the 4 tested bacteria while the leaves showed moderate activity towards B. subtilis B28, MRSA and P. aeruginosa only. The roots of H. dichotoma showed strong antibacterial activity against all 4 bacteria. All other extracts did not exhibit any antibacterial activity.
  5. Khor ES, Noor SM, Wong PF
    Life Sci, 2016 Apr 1;150:67-75.
    PMID: 26916825 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.076
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital in modulating lifespan and various biological processes including vascular function. The pivotal roles of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating senescence and angiogenesis have been extensively described. However, the roles of its orthologue, zebrafish target of rapamycin (zTOR) in senescence and angiogenesis remain to be unravelled. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of zTOR and identify miRNAs associated with senescence and angiogenesis.
  6. Ong JY, Yong PV, Lim YM, Ho AS
    Life Sci, 2015 Aug 15;135:158-64.
    PMID: 25896662 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.03.019
    The compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) was previously shown to be cytotoxic against several cancer cell lines, but its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of MNQ-induced cytotoxicity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.
  7. Hossain MM, Mukheem A, Kamarul T
    Life Sci, 2015 Aug 15;135:55-67.
    PMID: 25818192 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.03.010
    Hypoadiponectinemia is characterized by low plasma adiponectin levels that can be caused by genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the adiponectin gene or by visceral fat deposition/obesity. Reports have suggested that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have highlighted several potential strategies to up-regulate adiponectin secretion and function, including visceral fat reduction through diet therapy and exercise, administration of exogenous adiponectin, treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists (e.g., thiazolidinediones (TZDs)) and ligands (e.g., bezafibrate and fenofibrate) or the blocking of the renin-angiotensin system. Likewise, the up-regulation of the expression and stimulation of adiponectin receptors by using adiponectin receptor agonists would be an effective method to treat obesity-related conditions. Notably, adiponectin is an abundantly expressed bioactive protein that also exhibits a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Although targeting adiponectin and its receptors has been useful for treating diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases in experimental studies, current drug development based on adiponectin/adiponectin receptors for clinical applications is scarce, and there is a lack of available clinical trial data. This comprehensive review discusses the strategies that are presently being pursued to harness the potential of adiponectin up-regulation. In addition, we examined the current status of drug development and its potential for clinical applications.
  8. Yahya MD, Watson RR
    Life Sci, 1987 Dec 07;41(23):2503-10.
    PMID: 2824957
    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances, although there are reports that they may not produce any deleterious effect and may even enhance some aspects of host immunity. They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals.
  9. Israf DA, Lajis NH, Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR
    Life Sci, 2004 Jun 11;75(4):397-406.
    PMID: 15147827
    An experiment was conducted with the objective to enhance mucosal immunity against ovalbumin (OVA) by co-administration of OVA with an aqueous extract from the fruit of Solanum torvum (STE). Five groups of female ICR mice aged approximately 8 weeks at the commencement of the experiment were caged in groups of eight and received various treatments. The treatments included OVA alone, OVA with cholera toxin (CT), and OVA with various doses of STE. Mice were primed intraperitoneally with 500 microg of OVA alone or co-administered with 0.1 microg CT, or with 1 microg STE. All mice were boosted orally via gastric intubation 14 days after priming with 10 mg OVA alone, or co-administered with 10 microg CT or with 10 mg, 1 mg or 0.1 mg STE. One week later all mice were killed and organs obtained for analysis of the immune response. Intestinal, faecal and pulmonary OVA-specific sIgA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice that received booster combinations of OVA/CT and OVA with all extract doses (p<0.05). Specific serum IgG titres did not differ significantly between groups. It is concluded that STE can significantly enhance secretory immunity in the intestine to OVA with mucosal homing to the lungs. The adjuvant effect of STE is comparable to that of CT.
  10. Ajay M, Gilani AU, Mustafa MR
    Life Sci, 2003 Dec 19;74(5):603-12.
    PMID: 14623031
    The potency, structure-activity relationship, and mechanism of vasorelaxation of a series of flavonoids, representing different subclasses (flavonols: fisetin, rutin, quercetin; flavones: chrysin, flavone, baicalein; flavanones: naringenin, naringin; isoflavones: diadzein and flavanes: epigallo catechin gallate), were examined in the isolated rat aorta. Most of the flavonoids tested showed concentration dependent relaxant effects against K+ (80 mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 0.1 microM)-induced contractions with a greater inhibition of the responses to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist. The relaxant effects of most of the flavonoids involve in part the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandins from the endothelium as pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin attenuated the responses. In addition, the relaxant action of the flavonoids includes inhibition of Ca+2 influx and release of Ca+2 from intracellular stores. A structure-activity relationship amongst the flavonoids was suggested.
  11. V Subramaniam A, Yehya AHS, Cheng WK, Wang X, Oon CE
    Life Sci, 2019 Sep 01;232:116652.
    PMID: 31302197 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116652
    The development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature is called angiogenesis. The growth of tumors depends on a network of supplying vessels that provide them with oxygen and nutrients. Pro-angiogenic factors that are secreted by tumors will trigger the sprouting of nearby existing blood vessels towards themselves and therefore researchers have developed targeted therapy towards these pro-angiogenic proteins to inhibit angiogenesis. However, certain pro-angiogenic proteins tend to bypass the inhibition. Thus, instead of targeting these expressed proteins, research towards angiogenesis inhibition had been focused on a deeper scale, epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are a heritable change in a sequence of stable but reversible gene function modification yet do not affect the DNA primary sequence directly. Methylation of DNA, modification of histone and silencing of micro-RNA (miRNA)-associated gene are currently considered to initiate and sustain epigenetic changes. Recent findings on the subject matter have provided an insight into the mechanism of epigenetic modifications, thus this review aims to present an update on the latest studies.
  12. Tang KS
    Life Sci, 2019 Sep 15;233:116695.
    PMID: 31351082 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116695
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with memory and cognitive decline in the older adults. Scopolamine is commonly used as a behavioral model in studying cognitive disorders including AD. Many studies have also concurrently examined the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the behavioral modifications by scopolamine treatment. Nonetheless, the scopolamine model has not become a standard tool in the early assessment of drugs. Furthermore, the use of scopolamine as a pharmacological model to study AD remains debatable. This report reviews the scopolamine-induced cellular and molecular changes and discusses how these changes relate to AD pathogenesis.
  13. H S N, Paudel YN, K L K
    Life Sci, 2019 Sep 15;233:116686.
    PMID: 31348946 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116686
    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate and aggravate epileptic seizures affecting around 1% of global population making it a serious health concern. Despite the recent advances in epilepsy research, no disease-modifying treatment able to terminate epileptogenesis have been reported yet reflecting the complexity in understanding the disease pathogenesis. To overcome the current treatment gap against epilepsy, one effective approach is to explore anti-epileptic effects from a drug that are approved to treat non-epileptic diseases. In this regard, Metformin emerged as an ideal candidate which is a first line treatment option for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has conferred neuroprotection in several in vivo neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Stroke, Huntington's diseases (HD) including epilepsy. In addition, Metformin has ameliorated cognitive alteration, learning and memory induced by epilepsy as well as in animal model of AD. Herein, we review the promising findings demonstrated upon Metformin treatment against animal model of epilepsy however, the precise underlying mechanism of anti-epileptic potential of Metformin is not well understood. However, there is a growing understanding that Metformin demonstrates its anti-epileptic effect mainly via ameliorating brain oxidative damage, activation of AMPK, inhibition of mTOR pathway, downregulation of α-synuclein, reducing apoptosis, downregulation of BDNF and TrkB level. These reflects that Metformin being non-anti-epileptic drug (AED) has a potential to ameliorate the cellular pathways that were impaired in epilepsy reflecting its therapeutical potential against epileptic seizure that might plausibly overcome the limitations of today epilepsy treatment.
  14. Ogar I, Egbung GE, Nna VU, Atangwho IJ, Itam EH
    Life Sci, 2019 Feb 15;219:283-293.
    PMID: 30668955 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.027
    AIMS: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the production of free radicals which results in oxidative stress and related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, compromised hepatic and renal functions. Hyptis verticillata reportedly demonstrated glucose lowering activity in previous studies. The present study therefore evaluated the effect of H. verticillata on hyperglycaemia-induced dyslipidaemia, hepatorenal distortions, oxidative stress, as well as calculated indices of cardiovascular function.

    METHODS: Wistar rats employed for this study consisted of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats in nine experimental groups. The normoglycaemic and diabetic rats were either treated with metformin (500 mg/kg b.w.), quercetin (10 mg/kg b.w.), or ethanol extract of H. verticillata leaf (250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w.) administered orally for 28 days.

    KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that H. verticillata significantly lowered blood glucose level, attenuated dyslipidaemia, decreased atherogenic coefficient, atherogenic and coronary risk indices, and increased cardioprotective index in diabetic rats. Also, H. verticillata significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and unconjugated bilirubin levels, relative to untreated diabetic rats. Further, H. verticillata increased serum superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione level, and decreased malondialdehyde level in diabetic rats in a manner similar to metformin and quercetin. Histopathological investigation of the liver and kidney revealed restored hepatocytes and amelioration of congested interstitial blood vessel of the Bowman's space of the kidneys upon intervention with H. verticillata.

    SIGNIFICANCE: H. verticillata in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic activity ameliorates oxidative stress, dyslipidaemia, atherogenicity and hepatorenal lesions in DM.

  15. Fakai MI, Abd Malek SN, Karsani SA
    Life Sci, 2019 Mar 01;220:186-193.
    PMID: 30682342 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.029
    AIMS: Chalepin, a naturally occurring compound isolated from Ruta angustifolia have been shown to exert a promising anticancer activity through various mechanisms. Hence, the need to investigate the apoptotic inducing ability of chalepin in MCF7 cells by various detection assays.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity screening of chalepin against MCF7 cells was conducted using SRB assay. Apoptosis induction was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays including phase contrast and Hoechst/PI staining fluorescence microscope. Similarly, Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays were conducted using flow cytometry whereas caspase-3 activity was evaluated using microplate reader.

    KEY FINDINGS: The result indicates remarkable cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells, whereas it shows moderate cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB231 cells. Interestingly, chalepin did not present any toxicity against MRC5 normal cell line. Morphological examination using both phase contrast and fluorescence microscope displays typical apoptotic features such as membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies' formation following chalepin treatment against MCF7 cells at different concentration for 48 h. Apoptosis induction is significantly associated with externalisation of phosphatidylserine, and DNA fragmentation in MCF7 cells chalepin treated cells when compared with control. The protein expressions of caspase-8, 9 and cleaved PARP1 were upregulated which correlated well with increased caspase-3 activity.

    SIGNIFICANCE: From our recent findings, chalepin was able to induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells and therefore, could be evaluated further as a potential source of anticancer agent for cancer treatment such as breast cancer.

  16. Aziz NF, Ramalingam A, Latip J, Zainalabidin S
    Life Sci, 2021 Mar 15;269:119080.
    PMID: 33465387 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119080
    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is an extensively studied natural product which has been proven to confer cardioprotection. This potentiates SAC into many clinical relevance possibilities, hence, the use of it ought to be optimally elucidated. To further confirm this, an ischemia/reperfusion model has been used to determine SAC at 10 mM and 50 mM on cardiac function, cardiac marker, and mitochondrial permeability. Using Langendorff setup, 24 adult male Wistar rats' hearts were isolated to be perfused with Kreb-Henseleit buffer throughout the ischemia/reperfusion method. After 20 min of stabilization, global ischemia was induced by turning off the perfusion for 35 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion with either Kreb-Henseleit buffer or SAC with the dose of 10 mM or 50 mM. The cardiac function was assessed and coronary effluent was collected at different timepoints throughout the experiment for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement. The harvested hearts were then used to measure glutathione while isolated mitochondria for mPTP analysis. SAC-reperfused hearts were shown to prevent the aggravation of cardiac function after I/R induction. It also dose-dependently upregulated glutathione reductase and glutathione level and these were also accompanied by significant reduction of LDH leakage and preserved mitochondrial permeability. Altogether, SAC dose-dependently was able to recover the post-ischemic cardiac function deterioration alongside with improvement of glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial preservation. These findings highly suggest that SAC when sufficiently supplied to the heart would be able to prevent the deleterious complications after the ischemic insult.
  17. Yahya EB, Alqadhi AM
    Life Sci, 2021 Mar 15;269:119087.
    PMID: 33476633 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119087
    Cancer treatment has been always considered one of the most critical and vital themes of clinical issues. Many approaches have been developed, depending on the type and the stage of tumor. Gene therapy has the potential to revolutionize different cancer therapy. With the advent of recent bioinformatics technologies and genetic science, it become possible to identify, diagnose and determine the potential treatment using the technology of gene delivery. Several approaches have been developed and experimented in vitro and vivo for cancer therapy including: naked nucleic acids based therapy, targeting micro RNAs, oncolytic virotherapy, suicide gene based therapy, targeting telomerase, cell mediated gene therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9 based therapy. In this review, we present a straightforward introduction to cancer biology and occurrence, highlighting different viral and non-viral gene delivery systems for gene therapy and critically discussed the current and various strategies for cancer gene therapy.
  18. Lee LY, Hew GSY, Mehta M, Shukla SD, Satija S, Khurana N, et al.
    Life Sci, 2021 Feb 15;267:118973.
    PMID: 33400932 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118973
    Eosinophils are bi-lobed, multi-functional innate immune cells with diverse cell surface receptors that regulate local immune and inflammatory responses. Several inflammatory and infectious diseases are triggered with their build up in the blood and tissues. The mobilization of eosinophils into the lungs is regulated by a cascade of processes guided by Th2 cytokine generating T-cells. Recruitment of eosinophils essentially leads to a characteristic immune response followed by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are hallmarks of chronic respiratory diseases. By analysing the dynamic interactions of eosinophils with their extracellular environment, which also involve signaling molecules and tissues, various therapies have been invented and developed to target respiratory diseases. Having entered clinical testing, several eosinophil targeting therapeutic agents have shown much promise and have further bridged the gap between theory and practice. Moreover, researchers now have a clearer understanding of the roles and mechanisms of eosinophils. These factors have successfully assisted molecular biologists to block specific pathways in the growth, migration and activation of eosinophils. The primary purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the eosinophil biology with a special emphasis on potential pharmacotherapeutic targets. The review also summarizes promising eosinophil-targeting agents, along with their mechanisms and rationale for use, including those in developmental pipeline, in clinical trials, or approved for other respiratory disorders.
  19. Shao Y, Dang M, Lin Y, Xue F
    Life Sci, 2019 Aug 15;231:116422.
    PMID: 31059689 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.048
    This study was performed to evaluate the antidiabetic and wound healing activity of plumbagin in diabetic rats by macroscopical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular methods. Percentage of wound closure and contraction was delayed in diabetic rats when compared to non-diabetic group. There was significant reduction in period of epithelialization, collagen and protein content. Serum insulin level was significantly lowered together with increase in glucose level in diabetic rats. Lipid levels were increased significantly with concomitant decrease in HDL level. The mRNA levels of Nrf2, collagen-1, TGF-β and α-SMA were significantly lowered whereas Keap-1 levels were increased in diabetic rats. The level of lipid peroxides was increased while the levels of antioxidants were lowered significantly. ELISA results reveal upregulated levels of inflammatory markers. Western blot result shows upregulated levels of CD68 and CD163 proteins in wound area of diabetic rats. Histopathological observation revealed increased inflammatory cells infiltration in diabetic control. Immunofluorescent staining and immunohistochemical analysis also displayed delayed wound healing in diabetic groups. Diabetic rats treated with 10% and 20% plumbagin showed increased epithelialization, collagen deposition, increased serum insulin level and increased antioxidant status. Lipid peroxides and lipid levels were lowered significantly with increase in HDL level. Inflammatory markers were lowered, and growth factors expressions were increased markedly. Thus, the results of the study indicated that plumbagin administration could improve wound healing activity and could serve as a potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.
  20. Se Thoe E, Fauzi A, Tang YQ, Chamyuang S, Chia AYY
    Life Sci, 2021 Jul 01;276:119129.
    PMID: 33515559 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119129
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease which is mainly characterized by progressive impairment in cognition, emotion, language and memory in older population. Considering the impact of AD, formulations of pharmaceutical drugs and cholinesterase inhibitors have been widely propagated, receiving endorsement by FDA as a form of AD treatment. However, these medications were gradually discovered to be ineffective in removing the root of AD pathogenesis but merely targeting the symptoms so as to improve a patient's cognitive outcome. Hence, a search for better disease-modifying alternatives is put into motion. Having a clear understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms and diverse properties undertaken by specific genes, antibodies and nanoparticles is central towards designing novel therapeutic agents. In this review, we provide a brief introduction on the background of Alzheimer's disease, the biology of blood-brain barrier, along with the potentials and drawbacks associated with current therapeutic treatment avenues pertaining to gene therapy, immunotherapy and nanotherapy for better diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease.
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