METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated steady-state messenger RNA levels of 84 histone-modifying enzymes and related regulators in colony-stimulating factor-1 differentiated primary human macrophages using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IFN-γ or IL-4 treatment for 6-48 h changed 11 mRNAs significantly. IFN-γ increased CIITA, KDM6B, and NCOA1, and IL-4 also increased KDM6B by 6 h. However, either cytokine decreased AURKB, ESCO2, SETD6, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, whereas IFN-γ alone decreased KAT2A, PRMT7, and SMYD3 mRNAs only after 18 h, which coincided with decreased cell proliferation. Rendering macrophages quiescent by growth factor starvation or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of p27(kip1) inhibited expression of AURKB, ESCO2, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, and mRNA levels were restored by overexpressing the S-phase transcription factor E2F1, implying their expression, at least partly, depended on proliferation. However, CIITA, KDM6B, NCOA1, KAT2A, PRMT7, SETD6, and SMYD3 were regulated independently of effects on proliferation. Silencing KDM6B, the only transcriptional activator upregulated by both IFN-γ and IL-4, pharmacologically or with short hairpin RNA, blunted a subset of responses to each cytokine.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that IFN-γ or IL-4 can regulate the expression of histone acetyl transferases and histone methyl transferases independently of effects on proliferation and that upregulation of the histone demethylase, KDM6B, assists phenotypic polarization by both cytokines.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD) and time to the diagnosis of SCID.
METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP), and AD were selected for study.
RESULTS: A total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57). A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine infection (n = 19) were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1.05 × 10(9)/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 10(9)/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002) and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008), but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494). Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008) and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003). BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: FH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of SCID were not recognized by clinicians to shorten the time to diagnosis. We suggest that lymphocyte subset should be performed for any infant with one or more of the following four clinical features: FH, candidiasis, BCG infections, and ALC below 3 × 10(9)/L.
Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2(+) Tregs and TNFR2(-) Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.
Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2(+) Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2(+) Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2(+) Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2(+) T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2(+) Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets.
Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.