Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

  1. Ball HJ, Jusof FF, Bakmiwewa SM, Hunt NH, Yuasa HJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:485.
    PMID: 25346733 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00485
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that have independently evolved to catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP). The depletion of tryptophan and formation of KP metabolites modulates the activity of the mammalian immune, reproductive, and central nervous systems. IDO and TDO enzymes can have overlapping or distinct functions depending on their expression patterns. The expression of TDO and IDO enzymes in mammals differs not only by tissue/cellular localization but also by their induction by distinct stimuli. To add to the complexity, these genes also have undergone duplications in some organisms leading to multiple isoforms of IDO or TDO. For example, many vertebrates, including all mammals, have acquired two IDO genes via gene duplication, although the IDO1-like gene has been lost in some lower vertebrate lineages. Gene duplications can allow the homologs to diverge and acquire different properties to the original gene. There is evidence for IDO enzymes having differing enzymatic characteristics, signaling properties, and biological functions. This review analyzes the evolutionary convergence of IDO and TDO enzymes as tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes and the divergent evolution of IDO homologs to generate an enzyme family with diverse characteristics not possessed by TDO enzymes, with an emphasis on the immune system.
  2. Rich AM, Hussaini HM, Parachuru VP, Seymour GJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:464.
    PMID: 25309546 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00464
    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. The microenvironment may promote tumor cell survival and proliferation or, alternatively may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins, expressed on immune cells and epithelial cells, that recognize exogenous and endogenous macromolecules. Once activated, they initiate signaling pathways leading to the release of cytokines and chemokines, which recruit immune cells inducing further cytokine production, the production of angiogenic mediators and growth factors, all of which may influence tumor progression. This paper examines the actions of TLRs in carcinogenesis with particular emphasis on their role in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  3. Ansari AW, Kamarulzaman A, Schmidt RE
    Front Immunol, 2013;4:312.
    PMID: 24109479 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00312
    Active tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among the HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Although significant success has been achieved in bringing down the number of HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity following implementation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Yet, co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has posed severe clinical and preventive challenges in our efforts to eradicate the virus from the body. Both HIV-1 and Mtb commonly infect macrophages and trigger production of host inflammatory mediators that subsequently regulate the immune response and disease pathogenesis. These inflammatory mediators can impose beneficial or detrimental effects on each pathogen and eventually on host. Among these, inflammatory C-C chemokines play a central role in HIV-1 and Mtb pathogenesis. However, their role in lung-specific mechanisms of HIV-1 and Mtb interaction are poorly understood. In this review we highlight current view on the role of C-C chemokines, more precisely CCL2, on HIV-1: Mtb interaction, potential mechanisms of action and adverse clinical consequences in a setting HIV-1/Mtb co-infection. Targeting common chemokine regulators of HIV-1/Mtb pathogenesis can be an attractive and potential anti-inflammatory intervention in HIV/AIDS-related comorbidities.
  4. Brandon-Mong GJ, Che Mat Seri NA, Sharma RS, Andiappan H, Tan TC, Lim YA, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2015;6:143.
    PMID: 25972863 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00143
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80-14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health surveillance program on toxoplasmosis should be implemented among people having close contact with animals in general and confirmed Toxoplasma seronegative individuals in particular to prevent seroconversion.
  5. Kouwaki T, Fukushima Y, Daito T, Sanada T, Yamamoto N, Mifsud EJ, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2016;7:335.
    PMID: 27630638 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00335
    The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN)-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80(+) cells. Moreover, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from HBV-infected hepatocytes contained viral nucleic acids and induced NKG2D ligand expression in macrophages by stimulating MyD88, TICAM-1, and MAVS-dependent pathways. In addition, depletion of exosomes from EVs markedly reduced NKG2D ligand expression, suggesting the importance of exosomes for NK cell activation. In contrast, infection of hepatocytes with HBV increased immunoregulatory microRNA levels in EVs and exosomes, which were transferred to macrophages, thereby suppressing IL-12p35 mRNA expression in macrophages to counteract the host innate immune response. IFN-γ increased the hepatic expression of DDX60 and augmented the DDX60-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic HBV RNA. Our results elucidated the crucial role of exosomes in antiviral innate immune response against HBV.
  6. Yıldırım-Buharalıoğlu G, Bond M, Sala-Newby GB, Hindmarch CC, Newby AC
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:92.
    PMID: 28228757 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00092
    BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or interleukin-4 (IL-4) drives widely different transcriptional programs in macrophages. However, how IFN-γ and IL-4 alter expression of histone-modifying enzymes involved in epigenetic regulation and how this affects the resulting phenotypic polarization is incompletely understood.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated steady-state messenger RNA levels of 84 histone-modifying enzymes and related regulators in colony-stimulating factor-1 differentiated primary human macrophages using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IFN-γ or IL-4 treatment for 6-48 h changed 11 mRNAs significantly. IFN-γ increased CIITA, KDM6B, and NCOA1, and IL-4 also increased KDM6B by 6 h. However, either cytokine decreased AURKB, ESCO2, SETD6, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, whereas IFN-γ alone decreased KAT2A, PRMT7, and SMYD3 mRNAs only after 18 h, which coincided with decreased cell proliferation. Rendering macrophages quiescent by growth factor starvation or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of p27(kip1) inhibited expression of AURKB, ESCO2, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, and mRNA levels were restored by overexpressing the S-phase transcription factor E2F1, implying their expression, at least partly, depended on proliferation. However, CIITA, KDM6B, NCOA1, KAT2A, PRMT7, SETD6, and SMYD3 were regulated independently of effects on proliferation. Silencing KDM6B, the only transcriptional activator upregulated by both IFN-γ and IL-4, pharmacologically or with short hairpin RNA, blunted a subset of responses to each cytokine.

    CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that IFN-γ or IL-4 can regulate the expression of histone acetyl transferases and histone methyl transferases independently of effects on proliferation and that upregulation of the histone demethylase, KDM6B, assists phenotypic polarization by both cytokines.

  7. Ahmad F, Shankar EM, Yong YK, Tan HY, Ahrenstorf G, Jacobs R, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:338.
    PMID: 28396665 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00338
    The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4(-)iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4(+) iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ART-naïve individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-γ. Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.
  8. Yong YK, Saeidi A, Tan HY, Rosmawati M, Enström PF, Batran RA, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:472.
    PMID: 29616020 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00472
    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, defined as CD161++TCR iVα7.2+ T cells, play an important role in the innate defense against bacterial infections, and their functionality is impaired in chronic viral infections. Here, we investigated the frequency and functional role of MAIT cells in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The peripheral CD3+CD161++TCR iVα7.2+ MAIT cells in chronic HBV-infected patients and healthy controls were phenotypically characterized based on CD57, PD-1, TIM-3, and CTLA-4, as well as HLA-DR and CD38 expression. The frequency of MAIT cells was significantly decreased among chronic HBV-infected individuals as compared to controls. Expression of CD57, PD-1, CTLA-4, as well as HLA-DR and CD38 on MAIT cells was significantly elevated in chronic HBV-infected individuals relative to controls. The percentage of T cell receptor (TCR) iVα7.2+ CD161+ MAIT cells did not correlate with HBV viral load but inversely with HLA-DR on CD4+ T cells and MAIT cells and with CD57 on CD8+ T cells suggesting that decrease of MAIT cells may not be attributed to direct infection by HBV but driven by HBV-induced chronic immune activation. The percentage and expression levels of PD-1 as well as CTLA-4 on MAIT cells inversely correlated with plasma HBV-DNA levels, which may suggest either a role for MAIT cells in the control of HBV infection or the effect of HBV replication in the liver on MAIT cell phenotype. We report that decrease of TCR iVα7.2+ MAIT cells in the peripheral blood and their functions were seemingly impaired in chronic HBV-infected patients likely because of the increased expression of PD-1.
  9. Kared H, Martelli S, Tan SW, Simoni Y, Chong ML, Yap SH, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:686.
    PMID: 29731749 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00686
    Repetitive stimulation by persistent pathogens such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces the differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells. This maturation pathway is characterized by the acquisition of phenotypic markers, CD2, CD57, and NKG2C, and effector functions-a process regulated by Tim-3 and orchestrated by a complex network of transcriptional factors, involving T-bet, Eomes, Zeb2, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, and Foxo3. Here, we show that persistent immune activation during chronic viral co-infections (HCMV, hepatitis C virus, and HIV) interferes with the functional phenotype of NK cells by modulating the Tim-3 pathway; a decrease in Tim-3 expression combined with the acquisition of inhibitory receptors skewed NK cells toward an exhausted and cytotoxic phenotype in an inflammatory environment during chronic HIV infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying NK cell differentiation could aid the identification of new immunological targets for checkpoint blockade therapies in a manner that is relevant to chronic infection and cancer.
  10. Luk ADW, Lee PP, Mao H, Chan KW, Chen XY, Chen TX, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:808.
    PMID: 28747913 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00808
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH) has been associated with earlier diagnosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD) and time to the diagnosis of SCID.

    METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP), and AD were selected for study.

    RESULTS: A total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57). A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine infection (n = 19) were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1.05 × 10(9)/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 10(9)/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002) and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008), but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494). Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008) and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003). BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: FH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of SCID were not recognized by clinicians to shorten the time to diagnosis. We suggest that lymphocyte subset should be performed for any infant with one or more of the following four clinical features: FH, candidiasis, BCG infections, and ALC below 3 × 10(9)/L.

  11. Johdi NA, Ait-Tahar K, Sagap I, Jamal R
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:620.
    PMID: 28611777 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00620
    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, play a pivotal role in regulating immune homeostasis. An increase in Tregs was reported in many tumors to be associated with immune suppression and evasion in cancer patients. Despite the importance of Tregs, the molecular signatures that contributed to their pathophysiological relevance remain poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Tregs derived from patients with colorectal cancer [colorectal carcinoma (CRC), n = 15], colorectal polyps (P, n = 15), and in healthy volunteers (N, n = 15). Tregs were analyzed using CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)FoxP3(+) antibody markers. Gene expression profiling analysis leads to the identification of 61 and 66 immune-related genes in Tregs derived from CRC and P patients, respectively, but not in N-derived Treg samples. Of these, 30 genes were differentially expressed both in CRC- and P-derived Tregs when compared to N-derived Tregs. Most of the identified genes were involved in cytokine/chemokine mediators of inflammation, chemokine receptor, lymphocyte activation, and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. This study highlights some of the molecular signatures that may affect Tregs' expansion and possible suppression of function in cancer development. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the immunomodulatory nature of Tregs and could, therefore, open up new avenues in immunotherapy.
  12. Abdolmaleki M, Yeap SK, Tan SW, Satharasinghe DA, Bello MB, Jahromi MZ, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:1386.
    PMID: 29973933 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01386
    The intestinal intraepithelial natural killer cells (IEL-NK) are among the earliest effectors of antiviral immunity in chicken. Unfortunately, their role during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection remains obscure. Previous study has reported the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) known as 28-4, which is specifically directed against the CD3- IEL-NK cells. In the present study, we used this mAb to investigate the effects of velogenic and lentogenic NDV infection on avian IEL-NK cells. Our findings revealed that chickens infected with velogenic NDV strains have a reduced population of purified CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells as determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells from chicken infected with velogenic NDV strains were shown to have a downregulated expression of activating receptors (CD69 and B-Lec), effector peptide (NK-LYSIN), and IFN gamma. On the contrary, the expression of the inhibitory receptor (B-NK) and bifunctional receptor (CHIR-AB1) were upregulated on these purified CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells following velogenic NDV infection. Meanwhile, the lentogenic NDV demonstrated insignificant effects on both the total population of CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells and the expression of their surface receptors. In addition, using real-time PCR and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells were susceptible to velogenic but not lentogenic NDV infection. These findings put together demonstrate the ability of different strains of NDV to manipulate the activating and inhibitory receptors of CD3-/28-4+ IEL-NK cells following infection. Further studies are, however, required to ascertain the functional importance of these findings during virulent or avirulent NDV infection.
  13. Paul A, Tang TH, Ng SK
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:1831.
    PMID: 30147694 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01831
    Interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) is an integral transcription factor in mediating the type I interferon antiviral response, as part of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3. However, the role of IRF9 in many important non-communicable diseases has just begun to emerge. The duality of IRF9's role in conferring protection but at the same time exacerbates diseases is certainly puzzling. The regulation of IRF9 during these conditions is not well understood. The high homology of IRF9 DNA-binding domain to other IRFs, as well as the recently resolved IRF9 IRF-associated domain structure can provide the necessary insights for progressive inroads on understanding the regulatory mechanism of IRF9. This review sought to outline the structural basis of IRF9 that guides its regulation and interaction in antiviral immunity and other diseases.
  14. Ahmad S, Azid NA, Boer JC, Lim J, Chen X, Plebanski M, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:2572.
    PMID: 30473698 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02572
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including allergy. TNF is produced at the early stage of allergen sensitization, and then continues to promote the inflammation cascade in the effector phase of allergic reactions. Consequently, anti-TNF treatment has been proposed as a potential therapeutic option. However, recent studies reveal anti-intuitive effects of TNF in the activation and proliferative expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs, tolerogenic DCs and MDSCs. This immunosuppressive effect of TNF is mediated by TNFR2, which is preferentially expressed by immunosuppressive cells. These findings redefine the role of TNF in allergic reaction, and suggest that targeting TNF-TNFR2 interaction itself may represent a novel strategy in the treatment of allergy.
  15. Saeidi A, Zandi K, Cheok YY, Saeidi H, Wong WF, Lee CYQ, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:2569.
    PMID: 30473697 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02569
    T-cell exhaustion is a phenomenon of dysfunction or physical elimination of antigen-specific T cells reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as well as cancer. Exhaustion appears to be often restricted to CD8+ T cells responses in the literature, although CD4+ T cells have also been reported to be functionally exhausted in certain chronic infections. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the transcriptional regulation of T-cell exhaustion is advancing, it is imperative to also explore the central mechanisms that control the altered expression patterns. Targeting metabolic dysfunctions with mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants are also expected to improve the antiviral functions of exhausted virus-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, it is crucial to consider the contributions of mitochondrial biogenesis on T-cell exhaustion and how mitochondrial metabolism of T cells could be targeted whilst treating chronic viral infections. Here, we review the current understanding of cardinal features of T-cell exhaustion in chronic infections, and have attempted to focus on recent discoveries, potential strategies to reverse exhaustion and reinvigorate optimal protective immune responses in the host.
  16. Kampan NC, Madondo MT, McNally OM, Stephens AN, Quinn MA, Plebanski M
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:1482.
    PMID: 29163543 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01482
    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs.

    Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2(+) Tregs and TNFR2(-) Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.

    Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2(+) Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2(+) Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2(+) Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2(+) T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2(+) Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets.

    Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.

  17. Jumat NR, Chong MY, Seman Z, Jamaluddin R, Wong NK, Abdullah M
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:680.
    PMID: 28649252 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00680
    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA(+)) non-CD4(+) lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69(+) cells, and higher percentage of CD69(+) populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a(+) NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4(+) T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.
  18. Mohamud R, LeMasurier JS, Boer JC, Sieow JL, Rolland JM, O'Hehir RE, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:1812.
    PMID: 29312323 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01812
    Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) (PS50G), unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2) expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.
  19. Ellegård R, Khalid M, Svanberg C, Holgersson H, Thorén Y, Wittgren MK, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:899.
    PMID: 29760706 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00899
    Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV) were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.
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