Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Brandon-Mong GJ, Che Mat Seri NA, Sharma RS, Andiappan H, Tan TC, Lim YA, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2015;6:143.
    PMID: 25972863 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00143
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80-14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health surveillance program on toxoplasmosis should be implemented among people having close contact with animals in general and confirmed Toxoplasma seronegative individuals in particular to prevent seroconversion.
  2. Ball HJ, Jusof FF, Bakmiwewa SM, Hunt NH, Yuasa HJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:485.
    PMID: 25346733 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00485
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that have independently evolved to catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP). The depletion of tryptophan and formation of KP metabolites modulates the activity of the mammalian immune, reproductive, and central nervous systems. IDO and TDO enzymes can have overlapping or distinct functions depending on their expression patterns. The expression of TDO and IDO enzymes in mammals differs not only by tissue/cellular localization but also by their induction by distinct stimuli. To add to the complexity, these genes also have undergone duplications in some organisms leading to multiple isoforms of IDO or TDO. For example, many vertebrates, including all mammals, have acquired two IDO genes via gene duplication, although the IDO1-like gene has been lost in some lower vertebrate lineages. Gene duplications can allow the homologs to diverge and acquire different properties to the original gene. There is evidence for IDO enzymes having differing enzymatic characteristics, signaling properties, and biological functions. This review analyzes the evolutionary convergence of IDO and TDO enzymes as tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes and the divergent evolution of IDO homologs to generate an enzyme family with diverse characteristics not possessed by TDO enzymes, with an emphasis on the immune system.
  3. Rich AM, Hussaini HM, Parachuru VP, Seymour GJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:464.
    PMID: 25309546 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00464
    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. The microenvironment may promote tumor cell survival and proliferation or, alternatively may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins, expressed on immune cells and epithelial cells, that recognize exogenous and endogenous macromolecules. Once activated, they initiate signaling pathways leading to the release of cytokines and chemokines, which recruit immune cells inducing further cytokine production, the production of angiogenic mediators and growth factors, all of which may influence tumor progression. This paper examines the actions of TLRs in carcinogenesis with particular emphasis on their role in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  4. Ansari AW, Kamarulzaman A, Schmidt RE
    Front Immunol, 2013;4:312.
    PMID: 24109479 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00312
    Active tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among the HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Although significant success has been achieved in bringing down the number of HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity following implementation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Yet, co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has posed severe clinical and preventive challenges in our efforts to eradicate the virus from the body. Both HIV-1 and Mtb commonly infect macrophages and trigger production of host inflammatory mediators that subsequently regulate the immune response and disease pathogenesis. These inflammatory mediators can impose beneficial or detrimental effects on each pathogen and eventually on host. Among these, inflammatory C-C chemokines play a central role in HIV-1 and Mtb pathogenesis. However, their role in lung-specific mechanisms of HIV-1 and Mtb interaction are poorly understood. In this review we highlight current view on the role of C-C chemokines, more precisely CCL2, on HIV-1: Mtb interaction, potential mechanisms of action and adverse clinical consequences in a setting HIV-1/Mtb co-infection. Targeting common chemokine regulators of HIV-1/Mtb pathogenesis can be an attractive and potential anti-inflammatory intervention in HIV/AIDS-related comorbidities.
  5. Kouwaki T, Fukushima Y, Daito T, Sanada T, Yamamoto N, Mifsud EJ, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2016;7:335.
    PMID: 27630638 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00335
    The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN)-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80(+) cells. Moreover, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from HBV-infected hepatocytes contained viral nucleic acids and induced NKG2D ligand expression in macrophages by stimulating MyD88, TICAM-1, and MAVS-dependent pathways. In addition, depletion of exosomes from EVs markedly reduced NKG2D ligand expression, suggesting the importance of exosomes for NK cell activation. In contrast, infection of hepatocytes with HBV increased immunoregulatory microRNA levels in EVs and exosomes, which were transferred to macrophages, thereby suppressing IL-12p35 mRNA expression in macrophages to counteract the host innate immune response. IFN-γ increased the hepatic expression of DDX60 and augmented the DDX60-dependent degradation of cytoplasmic HBV RNA. Our results elucidated the crucial role of exosomes in antiviral innate immune response against HBV.
  6. Yıldırım-Buharalıoğlu G, Bond M, Sala-Newby GB, Hindmarch CC, Newby AC
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:92.
    PMID: 28228757 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00092
    BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or interleukin-4 (IL-4) drives widely different transcriptional programs in macrophages. However, how IFN-γ and IL-4 alter expression of histone-modifying enzymes involved in epigenetic regulation and how this affects the resulting phenotypic polarization is incompletely understood.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated steady-state messenger RNA levels of 84 histone-modifying enzymes and related regulators in colony-stimulating factor-1 differentiated primary human macrophages using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IFN-γ or IL-4 treatment for 6-48 h changed 11 mRNAs significantly. IFN-γ increased CIITA, KDM6B, and NCOA1, and IL-4 also increased KDM6B by 6 h. However, either cytokine decreased AURKB, ESCO2, SETD6, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, whereas IFN-γ alone decreased KAT2A, PRMT7, and SMYD3 mRNAs only after 18 h, which coincided with decreased cell proliferation. Rendering macrophages quiescent by growth factor starvation or adenovirus-mediated overexpression of p27(kip1) inhibited expression of AURKB, ESCO2, SUV39H1, and WHSC1, and mRNA levels were restored by overexpressing the S-phase transcription factor E2F1, implying their expression, at least partly, depended on proliferation. However, CIITA, KDM6B, NCOA1, KAT2A, PRMT7, SETD6, and SMYD3 were regulated independently of effects on proliferation. Silencing KDM6B, the only transcriptional activator upregulated by both IFN-γ and IL-4, pharmacologically or with short hairpin RNA, blunted a subset of responses to each cytokine.

    CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that IFN-γ or IL-4 can regulate the expression of histone acetyl transferases and histone methyl transferases independently of effects on proliferation and that upregulation of the histone demethylase, KDM6B, assists phenotypic polarization by both cytokines.

  7. Kow ASF, Chik A, Soo KM, Khoo LW, Abas F, Tham CL
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:190.
    PMID: 30809224 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00190
    Background: Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening allergic response. Classically and most commonly, it can be mediated by the crosslinking of allergens to immunoglobulin E (IgE)- high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) complex found mostly on mast cells. However, there is another pathway of anaphylaxis that is less well-studied. This pathway known as the alternative pathway is mediated by IgG and its Fc gamma receptor (Fcγ). Though it was not documented in human anaphylaxis, a few studies have found that IgG-mediated anaphylaxis can happen as demonstrated in rodent models of anaphylaxis. In these studies, a variety of soluble mediators were being evaluated and they differ from each study which causes confusion in the suitability, and reliability of choice of soluble mediators to be analyzed for diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Hence, the objective of this meta-analysis is to identify the potential soluble mediators that are involved in an IgG-mediated anaphylaxis reaction. Methods: Studies related to IgG-mediated anaphylaxis were sourced from five search engines namely PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Center for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI) regardless of publication year. Relevant studies were then reviewed based on specific inclusion factors. The means and standard deviations of each soluble mediator studied were then extracted using ImageJ or Get Data Graph Digitiser software and the data were subjected to meta-analysis. Results: From our findings, we found that histamine, serotonin, platelet activating factor (PAF), β-hexosaminidase, leukotriene C4 (LTC4), mucosal mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1), interleukins (IL)-4,-6, and-13; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) were often being analyzed. Out of these soluble mediators, histamine, PAF, β-hexosaminidase, IL-6, and-13, MIP-1α and TNF-α were more significant with positive effect size and p < 0.001. As study effect was relatively small, we performed publication bias and found that there was publication bias and this could be due to the small sample size studied. Conclusion: As such, we proposed that through meta-analysis, the potential soluble mediators involved in rodent IgG-mediated anaphylaxis to be histamine, PAF, β-hexosaminidase, IL-6 and-13 and MIP-1α, and TNF-α but will require further studies with larger sample size.
  8. Al-Herz W, Essa S
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:1231.
    PMID: 31191561 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01231
    Objective: To present the frequency and spectrum of viral infections in primary immunodeficient children. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders (PIDs) Registry during the period of 2004-2018. Results: A total of 274 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Overall infectious complications affected 82.4% of the patients, and viral infections affected 31.7% of the registered patients. Forty-five patients (16.4%) developed viral infections caused by at least 2 organisms, among those 20 patients were affected by three or more viral infections. There was a statistically significant association between viral infections and PID category. However, there was no statistically significant association between viral infections and gender or the patients' onset age. There was a total of 170 viral infections during the study period and the causes of these infections were predominated by CMV (22.2%), adenovirus (11.7%), EBV (11.1%), and enteroviruses (7.4%). CMV and parainfluenza infections were more common in the group of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity while EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV) were more common in the immune dysregulation group and combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, respectively. The most common presentation was viremia (28.8%) followed by pneumonia (28.2%) and skin infections (17.6%). The most common causes of viremia were CMV followed by adenovirus and EBV, while the most common organisms causing pneumonia were CMV followed by rhinovirus and parainfluenza. There were 80 deaths among the registered patients, 10% were caused by viral infections. Conclusions: Viral infections are common in PIDs and result into a wide-range of clinical manifestations causing significant morbidity and mortality.
  9. Al-Herz W, Chou J, Delmonte OM, Massaad MJ, Bainter W, Castagnoli R, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2018;9:3146.
    PMID: 30697212 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03146
    Objective: To present the genetic causes of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) in Kuwait between 2004 and 2017. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry. Genomic DNA from patients with clinical and immunological features of PID was sequenced using Sanger sequencing (SS), next generation sequencing (NGS) of targeted genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), and/or whole genome sequencing (WGS). Functional assays were utilized to assess the biologic effect of identified variants. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for 22q11.2 deletion and genomic hybridizations arrays were performed when thymic defects were suspected. Results: A total of 264 patients were registered during the study period with predominance of patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity (35.2%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features (24%). Parental consanguinity and family history suggestive of PID were reported in 213 (81%) and 145 patients (55%), respectively. Genetic testing of 206 patients resulted in a diagnostic yield of 70%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by in an autosomal recessive pattern. The majority of the mutations were missense mutations (57%) followed by deletions and frame shift mutations. Five novel disease-causing genes were discovered. Conclusions: Genetic testing should be an integral part in the management of primary immunodeficiency patients. This will help the delivery of precision medicine and facilitate proper genetic counseling. Studying inbred populations using sophisticated diagnostic methods can allow better understanding of the genetics of primary immunodeficiency disorders.
  10. Al-Herz W, Al-Ahmad M, Al-Khabaz A, Husain A, Sadek A, Othman Y
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:1754.
    PMID: 31396239 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01754
    Objective: To present the report from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The patients were followed prospectively between January 2004 and December 2018 and their collected data included sociodemographic, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and treatment. Results: A total of 314 PID patients (165 males and 149 females) were registered during the study period. Most of the patients (n = 287, 91.4%) were Kuwaiti nationals and the prevalence among Kuwaitis was 20.27/100,000 with a cumulative incidence of 24.96/100,000 Kuwaitis. The distribution of the patients according to PID categories was as follow: immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, 100 patients (31.8%); combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, 68 patients (21.7%); predominantly antibody deficiencies, 56 patients (17.8%); diseases of immune dysregulation, 47 patients (15%); congenital defects of phagocyte number or function, 20 patients (6.4%); autoinflammatory disorders, 1 patient (0.3%); and complement deficiencies, 22 patients (7%). The mean age of the patients at onset of symptoms was 26 months while the mean age at diagnosis was 53 months and the mean delay in diagnosis was 27 months. Most of the patients (n = 272, 86%) had onset of symptoms before the age of 5 years. Parental consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 78% and a positive family history of PID was noticed in 50% of the patients. Genetic testing was performed in 69% of the patients with an overall diagnostic yield of 90%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by an autosomal recessive pattern. Intravenous immunoglobulins and stem cell transplantation were used in 58% and 25% of the patients, respectively. There were 81 deaths (26%) among the registered patients with a mean age of death of 25 months. Conclusions: PID is not infrequent in Kuwait and the reported prevalence is the highest in the literature with increased proportion of more severe forms. Collaborative efforts including introduction of newborn screening should be implemented to diagnose such cases earlier and improve the quality of life and prevent premature deaths.
  11. Othman N, Jamal R, Abu N
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:2103.
    PMID: 31555295 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02103
    Exosomes, a category of small lipid bilayer extracellular vesicles that are naturally secreted by many cells (both healthy and diseased), carry cargo made up of proteins, lipids, DNAs, and RNAs; all of which are functional when transferred to their recipient cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the powerful role that exosomes play in the mediation of cell-to-cell communication to induce a pro-tumoral environment to encourage tumor progression and survival. Recently, considerable interest has developed in regard to the role that exosomes play in immunity; with studies demonstrating the ability of exosomes to either metabolically alter immune players such as dendritic cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the function of exosomes in regulating a key process that has long been associated with the progression of cancer-inflammation and immunity.
  12. Tan K, Zhang H, Lim LS, Ma H, Li S, Zheng H
    Front Immunol, 2019;10:3041.
    PMID: 32010132 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.03041
    Carotenoids are biologically active pigments that are well-known to enhance the defense and immunity of the vertebrate system. However, in invertebrates, the role of carotenoids in immunity is not clear. Therefore, this study aims to review the scientific evidence for the role of carotenoids in invertebrate immunization. From the analysis of published literatures and recent studies from our laboratory, it is obvious that carotenoids are involved in invertebrate immunity in two ways. On the one hand, carotenoids can act as antioxidant enzymes to remove singlet oxygen, superoxide anion radicals, and hydroxyl radicals, thereby reducing SOD activity and reducing the cost of immunity. In some organisms, carotenoids have been shown to promote SOD activity by up-regulating the expression of the ZnCuSOD gene. Carotenoids, on the other hand, play a role in the expression and regulation of many genes involved in invertebrate immunity, including thioredoxins (TRX), peptidoglycan recognition receptor proteins (PGRPs), ferritins, prophenoloxidase (ProPO), vitellogenin (Vg), toll-like receptor (TLRs), heat shock proteins (HSPs), and CuZnSOD gene. The information in this review is very useful for updating our understanding of the progress of carotenoid research in invertebrate immunology and to help identify topics for future topics.
  13. Tong DL, Kempsell KE, Szakmany T, Ball G
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:380.
    PMID: 32318053 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00380
    Sepsis is defined as dysregulated host response caused by systemic infection, leading to organ failure. It is a life-threatening condition, often requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The causative agents and processes involved are multifactorial but are characterized by an overarching inflammatory response, sharing elements in common with severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) of non-infectious origin. Sepsis presents with a range of pathophysiological and genetic features which make clinical differentiation from SIRS very challenging. This may reflect a poor understanding of the key gene inter-activities and/or pathway associations underlying these disease processes. Improved understanding is critical for early differential recognition of sepsis and SIRS and to improve patient management and clinical outcomes. Judicious selection of gene biomarkers suitable for development of diagnostic tests/testing could make differentiation of sepsis and SIRS feasible. Here we describe a methodologic framework for the identification and validation of biomarkers in SIRS, sepsis and septic shock patients, using a 2-tier gene screening, artificial neural network (ANN) data mining technique, using previously published gene expression datasets. Eight key hub markers have been identified which may delineate distinct, core disease processes and which show potential for informing underlying immunological and pathological processes and thus patient stratification and treatment. These do not show sufficient fold change differences between the different disease states to be useful as primary diagnostic biomarkers, but are instrumental in identifying candidate pathways and other associated biomarkers for further exploration.
  14. Massaad MJ, Zainal M, Al-Herz W
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:1119.
    PMID: 32582199 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01119
    Objectives: To present a prospective report on the characteristics of autoimmune manifestations in patients with primary immunodeficient children registered in the Kuwait National PIDs Registry (KNPIDR). Methods: The data were obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry during the period of January 2004 to December 2019. Results: A total of 286 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with a predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Fifty-seven (19.9%) patients presented with a total of 107 autoimmune manifestations. There was no significant statistical association between autoimmune manifestations and gender. Patients with autoimmune manifestations were older at onset of PID symptoms compared to those with no such manifestations, but this did not reach level of significance. The diagnosis delay was longer in patients with autoimmune manifestations compared to those with no such manifestations (p = 0.038). Forty-seven percent of these manifestations were among the presenting symptoms while 53% were documented later during the course of the disease. Fifty-seven percent of the patients developed 1 autoimmune manifestation, 30% developed 2 such manifestations, and 16% had ≥3 autoimmune manifestations. The most common autoimmune manifestation was cytopenia, followed by gastrointestinal manifestations and manifestations of the skin, hair, and nails. Autoimmune cytopenia were more common in patients with immune dysregulation syndromes, while gastrointestinal and skin manifestations predominate in patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity and endocrine manifestations were more common in immune dysregulation syndromes. There were significant statistical associations between developing autoimmune manifestations and death as well as PID categories, being more common in patients with immune dysregulation. The frequency of autoimmunity was high among patients with RAG, WAS, STAT5b, NF-κB2, Fas, FasL, LRBA, APECED, IL-10, and C4 deficiencies. Conclusions: Autoimmunity is frequent in patients with PIDs in Kuwait. This should prompt the suspicion of a PID in patients who present initially with autoimmunity, especially autoimmune cytopenia. Such patients should be managed with extra care since they are at a higher risk of death.
  15. Ahmad F, Shankar EM, Yong YK, Tan HY, Ahrenstorf G, Jacobs R, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:338.
    PMID: 28396665 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00338
    The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naïve, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4(-)iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4(+) iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ART-naïve individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-γ. Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.
  16. Johdi NA, Ait-Tahar K, Sagap I, Jamal R
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:620.
    PMID: 28611777 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00620
    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, play a pivotal role in regulating immune homeostasis. An increase in Tregs was reported in many tumors to be associated with immune suppression and evasion in cancer patients. Despite the importance of Tregs, the molecular signatures that contributed to their pathophysiological relevance remain poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Tregs derived from patients with colorectal cancer [colorectal carcinoma (CRC), n = 15], colorectal polyps (P, n = 15), and in healthy volunteers (N, n = 15). Tregs were analyzed using CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)FoxP3(+) antibody markers. Gene expression profiling analysis leads to the identification of 61 and 66 immune-related genes in Tregs derived from CRC and P patients, respectively, but not in N-derived Treg samples. Of these, 30 genes were differentially expressed both in CRC- and P-derived Tregs when compared to N-derived Tregs. Most of the identified genes were involved in cytokine/chemokine mediators of inflammation, chemokine receptor, lymphocyte activation, and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. This study highlights some of the molecular signatures that may affect Tregs' expansion and possible suppression of function in cancer development. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the immunomodulatory nature of Tregs and could, therefore, open up new avenues in immunotherapy.
  17. Jumat NR, Chong MY, Seman Z, Jamaluddin R, Wong NK, Abdullah M
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:680.
    PMID: 28649252 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00680
    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA(+)) non-CD4(+) lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69(+) cells, and higher percentage of CD69(+) populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a(+) NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4(+) T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.
  18. Luk ADW, Lee PP, Mao H, Chan KW, Chen XY, Chen TX, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:808.
    PMID: 28747913 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00808
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH) has been associated with earlier diagnosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD) and time to the diagnosis of SCID.

    METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP), and AD were selected for study.

    RESULTS: A total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57). A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine infection (n = 19) were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was 1.05 × 10(9)/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 10(9)/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002) and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008), but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494). Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008) and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003). BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: FH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of SCID were not recognized by clinicians to shorten the time to diagnosis. We suggest that lymphocyte subset should be performed for any infant with one or more of the following four clinical features: FH, candidiasis, BCG infections, and ALC below 3 × 10(9)/L.

  19. Kampan NC, Madondo MT, McNally OM, Stephens AN, Quinn MA, Plebanski M
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:1482.
    PMID: 29163543 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01482
    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). IL-6 is also associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we study the effect of IL-6 and TNF present in ascites on the modulation of TNFR2 expression on T cells, and specifically Tregs.

    Methods: Ascites and respective peripheral blood sera were collected from 18 patients with advanced EOC and soluble biomarkers, including IL-6, sTNFR2, IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF, were quantified using multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were incubated with cell-free ascites for 48 h (or media as a negative control). In some experiments, IL-6 or TNF within the ascites were neutralized by using monoclonal antibodies. The phenotype of TNFR2(+) Tregs and TNFR2(-) Tregs were characterized post incubation in ascites. In some experiments, cell sorted Tregs were utilized instead of PBMC.

    Results: High levels of immunosuppressive (sTNFR2, IL-10, and TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were present in malignant ascites. TNFR2 expression on all T cell subsets was higher in post culture in ascites and highest on CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) Tregs, resulting in an increased TNFR2(+) Treg/effector T cell ratio. Furthermore, TNFR2(+) Tregs conditioned in ascites expressed higher levels of the functional immunosuppressive molecules programmed cell death ligand-1, CTLA-4, and GARP. Functionally, TNFR2(+) Treg frequency was inversely correlated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by effector T cells, and was uniquely able to suppress TNFR2(+) T effectors. Blockade of IL-6, but not TNF, within ascites decreased TNFR2(+) Treg frequency. Results indicating malignant ascites promotes TNFR2 expression, and increased suppressive Treg activity using PBMC were confirmed using purified Treg subsets.

    Conclusion: IL-6 present in malignant ovarian cancer ascites promotes increased TNFR2 expression and frequency of highly suppressive Tregs.

  20. Mohamud R, LeMasurier JS, Boer JC, Sieow JL, Rolland JM, O'Hehir RE, et al.
    Front Immunol, 2017;8:1812.
    PMID: 29312323 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01812
    Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) (PS50G), unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2) expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.
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