Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that have independently evolved to catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP). The depletion of tryptophan and formation of KP metabolites modulates the activity of the mammalian immune, reproductive, and central nervous systems. IDO and TDO enzymes can have overlapping or distinct functions depending on their expression patterns. The expression of TDO and IDO enzymes in mammals differs not only by tissue/cellular localization but also by their induction by distinct stimuli. To add to the complexity, these genes also have undergone duplications in some organisms leading to multiple isoforms of IDO or TDO. For example, many vertebrates, including all mammals, have acquired two IDO genes via gene duplication, although the IDO1-like gene has been lost in some lower vertebrate lineages. Gene duplications can allow the homologs to diverge and acquire different properties to the original gene. There is evidence for IDO enzymes having differing enzymatic characteristics, signaling properties, and biological functions. This review analyzes the evolutionary convergence of IDO and TDO enzymes as tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes and the divergent evolution of IDO homologs to generate an enzyme family with diverse characteristics not possessed by TDO enzymes, with an emphasis on the immune system.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. The microenvironment may promote tumor cell survival and proliferation or, alternatively may induce tumor cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins, expressed on immune cells and epithelial cells, that recognize exogenous and endogenous macromolecules. Once activated, they initiate signaling pathways leading to the release of cytokines and chemokines, which recruit immune cells inducing further cytokine production, the production of angiogenic mediators and growth factors, all of which may influence tumor progression. This paper examines the actions of TLRs in carcinogenesis with particular emphasis on their role in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Active tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among the HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Although significant success has been achieved in bringing down the number of HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity following implementation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Yet, co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has posed severe clinical and preventive challenges in our efforts to eradicate the virus from the body. Both HIV-1 and Mtb commonly infect macrophages and trigger production of host inflammatory mediators that subsequently regulate the immune response and disease pathogenesis. These inflammatory mediators can impose beneficial or detrimental effects on each pathogen and eventually on host. Among these, inflammatory C-C chemokines play a central role in HIV-1 and Mtb pathogenesis. However, their role in lung-specific mechanisms of HIV-1 and Mtb interaction are poorly understood. In this review we highlight current view on the role of C-C chemokines, more precisely CCL2, on HIV-1: Mtb interaction, potential mechanisms of action and adverse clinical consequences in a setting HIV-1/Mtb co-infection. Targeting common chemokine regulators of HIV-1/Mtb pathogenesis can be an attractive and potential anti-inflammatory intervention in HIV/AIDS-related comorbidities.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection and its risk association among people having close contact with animals. A total of 312 blood samples were collected from veterinary personnel (veterinarian, technicians, and students) and pet owners from veterinary clinics and hospitals in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4 cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA I, II, and III kits. Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets. Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%) participants being 7 (18.4%) in veterinarians, 15 (33.3%) in veterinary technicians, 29 (14.9%) in veterinary students, and 11 (31.4%) in pet owners. Of 19.9% Toxoplasma seropositive samples, 18.3% was positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% for IgM antibody, and 0.6% for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Of three different IgG avidity ELISA kits, ELISA III showed high avidity in all five seropositive samples (IgM and IgG/IgM antibodies) indicating chronic Toxoplasma infection which is consistent with no evidence of clinical toxoplasmosis diagnosed during the time of this study. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender, study population, gardening, task performance, and working duration were significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group of ≥30 years old (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.63, p = 0.001) and working or study duration of >10 years having close contact with animals (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 1.80-14.24, p = 0.002) were identified as significant risks for Toxoplasma infection. Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive Toxoplasma screening and health surveillance program on toxoplasmosis should be implemented among people having close contact with animals in general and confirmed Toxoplasma seronegative individuals in particular to prevent seroconversion.
Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV) were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.
Objective: To present the frequency and spectrum of viral infections in primary immunodeficient children. Methods: The data was obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders (PIDs) Registry during the period of 2004-2018. Results: A total of 274 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Overall infectious complications affected 82.4% of the patients, and viral infections affected 31.7% of the registered patients. Forty-five patients (16.4%) developed viral infections caused by at least 2 organisms, among those 20 patients were affected by three or more viral infections. There was a statistically significant association between viral infections and PID category. However, there was no statistically significant association between viral infections and gender or the patients' onset age. There was a total of 170 viral infections during the study period and the causes of these infections were predominated by CMV (22.2%), adenovirus (11.7%), EBV (11.1%), and enteroviruses (7.4%). CMV and parainfluenza infections were more common in the group of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity while EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV) were more common in the immune dysregulation group and combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, respectively. The most common presentation was viremia (28.8%) followed by pneumonia (28.2%) and skin infections (17.6%). The most common causes of viremia were CMV followed by adenovirus and EBV, while the most common organisms causing pneumonia were CMV followed by rhinovirus and parainfluenza. There were 80 deaths among the registered patients, 10% were caused by viral infections. Conclusions: Viral infections are common in PIDs and result into a wide-range of clinical manifestations causing significant morbidity and mortality.
Objective: To present the report from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry between 2004 and 2018. Methods: The patients were followed prospectively between January 2004 and December 2018 and their collected data included sociodemographic, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and treatment. Results: A total of 314 PID patients (165 males and 149 females) were registered during the study period. Most of the patients (n = 287, 91.4%) were Kuwaiti nationals and the prevalence among Kuwaitis was 20.27/100,000 with a cumulative incidence of 24.96/100,000 Kuwaitis. The distribution of the patients according to PID categories was as follow: immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity, 100 patients (31.8%); combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features, 68 patients (21.7%); predominantly antibody deficiencies, 56 patients (17.8%); diseases of immune dysregulation, 47 patients (15%); congenital defects of phagocyte number or function, 20 patients (6.4%); autoinflammatory disorders, 1 patient (0.3%); and complement deficiencies, 22 patients (7%). The mean age of the patients at onset of symptoms was 26 months while the mean age at diagnosis was 53 months and the mean delay in diagnosis was 27 months. Most of the patients (n = 272, 86%) had onset of symptoms before the age of 5 years. Parental consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 78% and a positive family history of PID was noticed in 50% of the patients. Genetic testing was performed in 69% of the patients with an overall diagnostic yield of 90%. Mutations were identified in 46 different genes and more than 90% of the reported genetic defects were transmitted by an autosomal recessive pattern. Intravenous immunoglobulins and stem cell transplantation were used in 58% and 25% of the patients, respectively. There were 81 deaths (26%) among the registered patients with a mean age of death of 25 months. Conclusions: PID is not infrequent in Kuwait and the reported prevalence is the highest in the literature with increased proportion of more severe forms. Collaborative efforts including introduction of newborn screening should be implemented to diagnose such cases earlier and improve the quality of life and prevent premature deaths.
Exosomes, a category of small lipid bilayer extracellular vesicles that are naturally secreted by many cells (both healthy and diseased), carry cargo made up of proteins, lipids, DNAs, and RNAs; all of which are functional when transferred to their recipient cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the powerful role that exosomes play in the mediation of cell-to-cell communication to induce a pro-tumoral environment to encourage tumor progression and survival. Recently, considerable interest has developed in regard to the role that exosomes play in immunity; with studies demonstrating the ability of exosomes to either metabolically alter immune players such as dendritic cells, T cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the function of exosomes in regulating a key process that has long been associated with the progression of cancer-inflammation and immunity.
Sepsis is defined as dysregulated host response caused by systemic infection, leading to organ failure. It is a life-threatening condition, often requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The causative agents and processes involved are multifactorial but are characterized by an overarching inflammatory response, sharing elements in common with severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) of non-infectious origin. Sepsis presents with a range of pathophysiological and genetic features which make clinical differentiation from SIRS very challenging. This may reflect a poor understanding of the key gene inter-activities and/or pathway associations underlying these disease processes. Improved understanding is critical for early differential recognition of sepsis and SIRS and to improve patient management and clinical outcomes. Judicious selection of gene biomarkers suitable for development of diagnostic tests/testing could make differentiation of sepsis and SIRS feasible. Here we describe a methodologic framework for the identification and validation of biomarkers in SIRS, sepsis and septic shock patients, using a 2-tier gene screening, artificial neural network (ANN) data mining technique, using previously published gene expression datasets. Eight key hub markers have been identified which may delineate distinct, core disease processes and which show potential for informing underlying immunological and pathological processes and thus patient stratification and treatment. These do not show sufficient fold change differences between the different disease states to be useful as primary diagnostic biomarkers, but are instrumental in identifying candidate pathways and other associated biomarkers for further exploration.
Background: Infection/inflammation is an important causal factor in spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Most mechanistic studies have concentrated on the role of bacteria, with limited focus on the role of viruses in sPTB. Murine studies support a potential multi-pathogen aetiology in which a double or sequential hit of both viral and bacterial pathogens leads to a higher risk preterm labour. This study aimed to determine the effect of viral priming on bacterial induced inflammation in human in vitro models of ascending and haematogenous infection. Methods: Vaginal epithelial cells, and primary amnion epithelial cells and myocytes were used to represent cell targets of ascending infection while interactions between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and placental explants were used to model systemic infection. To model the effect of viral priming upon the subsequent response to bacterial stimuli, each cell type was stimulated first with a TLR3 viral agonist, and then with either a TLR2 or TLR2/6 agonist, and responses compared to those of each agonist alone. Immunoblotting was used to detect cellular NF-κB, AP-1, and IRF-3 activation. Cellular TLR3, TLR2, and TLR6 mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR. Immunoassays were used to measure supernatant cytokine, chemokine and PGE2 concentrations. Results: TLR3 ("viral") priming prior to TLR2/6 agonist ("bacterial") exposure augmented the pro-inflammatory, pro-labour response in VECs, AECs, myocytes and PBMCs when compared to the effects of agonists alone. In contrast, enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-10) was observed in placental explants. Culturing placental explants in conditioned media derived from PBMCs primed with a TLR3 agonist enhanced TLR2/6 agonist stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8, suggesting a differential response by the placenta to systemic inflammation compared to direct infection as a result of haematogenous spread. TLR3 agonism generally caused increased mRNA expression of TLR3 and TLR2 but not TLR6. Conclusion: This study provides human in vitro evidence that viral infection may increase the susceptibility of women to bacterial-induced sPTB. Improved understanding of interactions between viral and bacterial components of the maternal microbiome and host immune response may offer new therapeutic options, such as antivirals for the prevention of PTB.
Introduction: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are under-reported in Malaysia. The actual disease frequency of PID in this country is unknown due to the absence of a national patient registry for PID. Objective: This systematic review aimed to determine the prevalence rates of PID cases diagnosed and published in Malaysia from 1st of January 1979 until 1st of March 2020. It also aimed to describe the various types of PIDs reported in Malaysia. Method: Following the development of a comprehensive search strategy, all published literature of PID cases from Malaysia was identified and collated. All cases that fulfilled the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification diagnosis were included in the systematic review. Data were retrieved and collated into a proforma. Results: A total of 4,838 articles were identified and screened, with 34 publications and 119 patients fulfilling the criteria and being included in the systematic review. The prevalence rate was 0.37 per 100,000 population. In accordance with the IUIS, the distribution of diagnostic classifications was immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunities (36 patients, 30.3%), combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (21 patients, 17.6%), predominant antibody deficiencies (24 patients, 20.2%), diseases of immune dysregulation (13 patients, 10.9%), congenital defects in phagocyte number or function (20 patients, 16.8%), defects in intrinsic and innate immunity (4 patients, 3.4%), and autoinflammatory disorders (1 patient, 0.8%). Parental consanguinity was 2.5%. Thirteen different gene mutations were available in 21.8% of the cases. Conclusion: PIDs are underdiagnosed and under-reported in Malaysia. Developing PID healthcare and a national patient registry is much needed to enhance the outcome of PID patient care.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world with increasing incidence and mortality rates globally. Standard treatments for colorectal cancer have always been surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may be used in combination to treat patients. However, these treatments have many side effects due to their non-specificity and cytotoxicity toward any cells including normal cells that are growing and dividing. Furthermore, many patients succumb to relapse even after a series of treatments. Thus, it is crucial to have more alternative and effective treatments to treat CRC patients. Immunotherapy is one of the new alternatives in cancer treatment. The strategy is to utilize patients' own immune systems in combating the cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy overcomes the issue of specificity which is the major problem in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The normal cells with no cancer antigens are not affected. The outcomes of some cancer immunotherapy have been astonishing in some cases, but some which rely on the status of patients' own immune systems are not. Those patients who responded well to cancer immunotherapy have a better prognostic and better quality of life.
Background: The Asia Pacific Society for Immunodeficiencies (APSID) conducted nine primary immunodeficiency (PID) Schools in 5 years since inauguration to provide PID care training for early career physicians in Asia Pacific, a region with divergent needs in PID resources and training. Objective: To identify differences in PID patient care resource and training needs across Asia Pacific and propose a corresponding action plan. Methods: The Human Development Index (HDI) indicates the degree of socio-economic development in each country/region. Information related to investigations and learning issues were extracted from the abstracts and personal statements from all Schools and mapped onto resource and training needs. Correlations between HDI and country/region-specific parameters were tested by two-tailed Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 427 abstracts were received in nine Schools between 2015 and 2020, predominantly on immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity. Genetic confirmation was described in 61.8% of abstracts, and its absence negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.696, p = 0.004). Essential immunologic and genetic tests were not available in 25.4 and 29.5% of abstracts, respectively, and their absence negatively correlated with HDI (r = -0.788, p < 0.001; r = -0.739, p = 0.002). HDI positively correlated with average testing level (r = 0.742, p = 0.002). Cases from medium-HDI countries/regions focused on learning how to investigate a patient for PIDs in cases of severe or atypical infections, whereas those from very-high-HDI countries/regions, from which most faculty members originated, listed hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy, newborn screening, and research as learning issues more frequently. Conclusion: There are unique HDI-related PID resource and training needs in each country/region. APSID proposes HDI group-specific strategies to improve PID care and education in her member countries/regions. Further quantitative analysis of needs in PID care in Asia Pacific is needed for lobbying governments to increase their support for PID care and research.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ involvement, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system and the haematopoietic system, with a large number of complications. Despite years of study, the etiology of SLE remains unclear; thus, safe and specifically targeted therapies are lacking. In the last 20 years, researchers have explored the potential of nutritional factors on SLE and have suggested complementary treatment options through diet. This study systematically reviews and evaluates the clinical and preclinical scientific evidence of diet and dietary supplementation that either alleviate or exacerbate the symptoms of SLE. For this review, a systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases only for articles written in the English language. Based on the currently published literature, it was observed that a low-calorie and low-protein diet with high contents of fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and polyphenols contain sufficient potential macronutrients and micronutrients to regulate the activity of the overall disease by modulating the inflammation and immune functions of SLE.
Objectives: To present a prospective report on the characteristics of autoimmune manifestations in patients with primary immunodeficient children registered in the Kuwait National PIDs Registry (KNPIDR). Methods: The data were obtained from the Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders Registry during the period of January 2004 to December 2019. Results: A total of 286 PID children were registered in KNPIDR during the study period with a predominance of immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated syndromic features and diseases of immune dysregulation. Fifty-seven (19.9%) patients presented with a total of 107 autoimmune manifestations. There was no significant statistical association between autoimmune manifestations and gender. Patients with autoimmune manifestations were older at onset of PID symptoms compared to those with no such manifestations, but this did not reach level of significance. The diagnosis delay was longer in patients with autoimmune manifestations compared to those with no such manifestations (p = 0.038). Forty-seven percent of these manifestations were among the presenting symptoms while 53% were documented later during the course of the disease. Fifty-seven percent of the patients developed 1 autoimmune manifestation, 30% developed 2 such manifestations, and 16% had ≥3 autoimmune manifestations. The most common autoimmune manifestation was cytopenia, followed by gastrointestinal manifestations and manifestations of the skin, hair, and nails. Autoimmune cytopenia were more common in patients with immune dysregulation syndromes, while gastrointestinal and skin manifestations predominate in patients with immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity and endocrine manifestations were more common in immune dysregulation syndromes. There were significant statistical associations between developing autoimmune manifestations and death as well as PID categories, being more common in patients with immune dysregulation. The frequency of autoimmunity was high among patients with RAG, WAS, STAT5b, NF-κB2, Fas, FasL, LRBA, APECED, IL-10, and C4 deficiencies. Conclusions: Autoimmunity is frequent in patients with PIDs in Kuwait. This should prompt the suspicion of a PID in patients who present initially with autoimmunity, especially autoimmune cytopenia. Such patients should be managed with extra care since they are at a higher risk of death.
Lipids, glycolipids and lipopeptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are presented to T cells by monomorphic molecules known as CD1. This is the case of the Mtb-specific sulfoglycolipid Ac2SGL, which is presented by CD1b molecules and is recognized by T cells found in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in individuals with latent infections. Our group, using filamentous phage display technology, obtained two specific ligands against the CD1b-Ac2SGL complex: (i) a single chain T cell receptor (scTCR) from a human T cell clone recognizing the CD1b-AcSGL complex; and (ii) a light chain domain antibody (dAbκ11). Both ligands showed lower reactivity to a synthetic analog of Ac2SGL (SGL12), having a shorter acyl chain as compared to the natural antigen. Here we put forward the hypothesis that the CD1b endogenous spacer lipid (EnSpacer) plays an important role in the recognition of the CD1b-Ac2SGL complex by specific T cells. To support this hypothesis we combined: (a) molecular binding assays for both the scTCR and the dAbκ11 antibody domain against a small panel of synthetic Ac2SGL analogs having different acyl chains, (b) molecular modeling of the CD1b-Ac2SGL/EnSpacer complex, and (c) modeling of the interactions of this complex with the scTCR. Our results contribute to understand the mechanisms of lipid presentation by CD1b molecules and their interactions with T-cell receptors and other specific ligands, which may help to develop specific tools targeting Mtb infected cells for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.