OBJECTIVES: In this individual patient data meta-analysis of critically ill patients with severe sepsis, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of those treated with continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics.
METHODS: We identified relevant randomized controlled trials comparing continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. We assessed the quality of the studies according to four criteria. We combined individual patient data from studies and assessed data integrity for common baseline demographics and study endpoints, including hospital mortality censored at 30 days and clinical cure. We then determined the pooled estimates of effect and investigated factors associated with hospital mortality in multivariable analysis.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified three randomized controlled trials in which researchers recruited a total of 632 patients with severe sepsis. The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, sex, and illness severity. The rates of hospital mortality and clinical cure for the continuous versus intermittent infusion groups were 19.6% versus 26.3% (relative risk, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.00; P = 0.045) and 55.4% versus 46.3% (relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.40; P = 0.021), respectively. In a multivariable model, intermittent β-lactam administration, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, use of renal replacement therapy, and infection by nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were significantly associated with hospital mortality. Continuous β-lactam administration was not independently associated with clinical cure.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with intermittent dosing, administration of β-lactam antibiotics by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with severe sepsis is associated with decreased hospital mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and geographic variability that exists in a sensitization pattern to common and specific allergens, including house dust mite and fungi, and to correlate such patterns to airway immune-inflammatory status and clinical outcomes in bronchiectasis.
METHODS: Patients with bronchiectasis were recruited in Asia (Singapore and Malaysia) and the United Kingdom (Scotland) (n = 238), forming the Cohort of Asian and Matched European Bronchiectasis, which matched recruited patients on age, sex, and bronchiectasis severity. Specific IgE response against a range of common allergens was determined, combined with airway immune-inflammatory status and correlated to clinical outcomes. Clinically relevant patient clusters, based on sensitization pattern and airway immune profiles ("immunoallertypes"), were determined.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A high frequency of sensitization to multiple allergens was detected in bronchiectasis, exceeding that in a comparator cohort with allergic rhinitis (n = 149). Sensitization was associated with poor clinical outcomes, including decreased pulmonary function and more severe disease. "Sensitized bronchiectasis" was classified into two immunoallertypes: one fungal driven and proinflammatory, the other house dust mite driven and chemokine dominant, with the former demonstrating poorer clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Allergic sensitization occurs at high frequency in patients with bronchiectasis recruited from different global centers. Improving endophenotyping of sensitized bronchiectasis, a clinically significant state, and a "treatable trait" permits therapeutic intervention in appropriate patients, and may allow improved stratification in future bronchiectasis research and clinical trials.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.
METHODS: We analysed 18,554 adults from the BOLD study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analysed. We carried out similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough and chronic phlegm.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (ORmen=1.20, 95%CI 0.94-1.53; ORwomen=0.88, 95%CI 0.67-1.15). This was true for low/middle and high income sites. Among never smokers there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (ORmen=1.00, 95%CI 0.57-1.76; ORwomen=1.00, 95%CI 0.76-1.32). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never smokers and those who had been exposed for ≥20 years.
CONCLUSION: Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to compare fluid resuscitation with vasopressors with the use of vasopressors alone in a hyperdynamic model of ovine endotoxemia.
METHODS: Endotoxemic shock was induced in 16 sheep, after which they received fluid resuscitation with 40 ml/kg of 0.9% saline or commenced hemodynamic support with protocolized noradrenaline and vasopressin. Microdialysis catheters were inserted into the arterial circulation, heart, brain, kidney, and liver to monitor local metabolism. Blood samples were recovered to measure serum inflammatory cytokines, creatinine, troponin, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and hyaluronan. All animals were monitored and supported for 12 hours after fluid resuscitation.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After resuscitation, animals that received fluid resuscitation required significantly more noradrenaline to maintain the same mean arterial pressure in the subsequent 12 hours (68.9 mg vs. 39.6 mg; P = 0.04). Serum cytokines were similar between groups. Atrial natriuretic peptide increased significantly after fluid resuscitation compared with that observed in animals managed without fluid resuscitation (335 ng/ml [256-382] vs. 233 ng/ml [144-292]; P = 0.04). Cross-sectional time-series analysis showed that the rate of increase of the glycocalyx glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan was greater in the fluid-resuscitated group over the course of the study (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Fluid resuscitation resulted in a paradoxical increase in vasopressor requirement. Additionally, it did not result in improvements in any of the measured microcirculatory- or organ-specific markers measured. The increase in vasopressor requirement may have been due to endothelial/glycocalyx damage secondary to atrial natriuretic peptide-mediated glycocalyx shedding.