TECHNIQUE: Under fluoroscopy, needle entry site and pathway are drawn according to the spinal anatomy. The needle is advanced toward the lateral recess and the needle tip is placed medially to the medial border of the pedicle under anteroposterior view and posteriorly to the posterior border of the upper endplate under lateral view. After checking optimal contrast spread, steroids and local anesthetics are injected.
CASE ILLUSTRATION: An 86-year-old woman who suffered from lower back pain with radiculopathy received interventional treatment. Comparing the "traditional" supraneural approach with the FLLR approach, the difference in contrast enhancement to lateral recess is clearly shown.
DISCUSSION: Compared to the pre-existing approaches, the FLLR approach may provide better ventral epidural and lateral recess enhancement. Furthermore, with the advanced needle tip, the injectate may enhance not only the at-level nerve root but also the nerve root of adjacent level during their existence in a single injection. With blunt needle usage, no nerve root injury or dura puncture was noted so far.
CONCLUSION: FLLR TFESI is a modified fluoroscopic technique targeted on lateral recess and anterior epidural space. However, subsequent trials are needed to confirm its efficacy in pain reduction and the rate of complications.
AIMS: This study aimed to determine common combinations of medications used among women aged 77-96 years and to describe characteristics associated with these combinations.
METHODS: A cohort study of older women enroled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health over a 15-year period was used to determine combinations of medications using latent class analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine characteristics associated with these combinations.
RESULTS: The highest medication users during the study were for the cardiovascular (2003: 80.28%; 2017: 85.63%) and nervous (2003: 66.03%; 2017: 75.41%) systems. A 3-class latent model described medication use combinations: class 1: 'Cardiovascular & neurology anatomical group' (27.25%) included participants using medications of the cardiovascular and nervous systems in their later years; class 2: 'Multiple anatomical group' (16.49%) and class 3: 'Antiinfectives & multiple anatomical group' (56.27%). When compared to the reference class (class 1), the risk of participants being in class 3 was slightly higher than being in class 2 if they had > 4 general practitioner visits (RRR 2.37; 95% CI 2.08, 2.71), Department of Veterans Affairs' coverage (RRR 1.59; 95% CI 1.36, 1.86), ≥ 4 chronic diseases (RRR 3.16; 95% CI 2.56, 3.90) and were frail (RRR 1.47; 95% CI 1.27, 1.69).
CONCLUSION: Identification of combinations of medication use may provide opportunities to develop multimorbidity guidelines and target medication reviews, and may help reduce medication load for older individuals.
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