METHODS: This was a retrospective study utilizing records of patients referred to a tertiary urogynecological service between November 2012 and March 2013. Patients underwent a standardized interview, clinical assessment using the POP quantification system of the International Continence Society and four-dimensional translabial ultrasound. The craniocaudal difference in the location of minimal distances in mid-sagittal and coronal planes was determined by offline analysis of ultrasound volumes, and provided a numerical measure of warping. We tested potential predictors, such as demographic factors, signs and symptoms of prolapse, levator avulsion and levator distensibility, for an association with warping.
RESULTS: Full datasets were available for 190 women. The mean craniocaudal difference in location of minimal distances in mid-sagittal and coronal planes was -1.26 mm (range, -6.7 to 4.6 mm; P