Four new species of Cephennomicrus are described from Malaysia: C. curvidens sp. n., C. gentingensis sp. n. (both from the Genting Highlands, West Malaysia), C. santubongensis sp. n. and C. muluensis sp. n. (both from Sarawak, East Malaysia). Male genitalia of all new taxa are illustrated and diagnostic characters are discussed.
A new species of the Oriental genus Elacatophora, E. euconnoides sp. n., is described from the Cameron Highlands, West Malaysia. Diagnostic characters, including the male genitalia, are illustrated and discussed. A new case of subjective synonymy was discovered: Elacatophora minae (Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011) is placed as syn. n. of E. soesilae (Makhan & Ezzatpanah, 2011).
Several sizes of plastic cap were designed and made to fit the vertex of the penile glans. The foreskin is prepared in the usual manner, the glans capped with the specially made plastic cap and the foreskin pulled forwards over the cap. A crushing or non-crushing forceps is applied across the foreskin. The plastic cap separates the glans from the clamp, and its unwanted portion is cut with a knife without fear of injuries in the glans. We find this method to be safe even if it is used by a surgeon with limited experience.
Matched MeSH terms: Circumcision, Male/instrumentation*; Male
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Bulk of research on this virus are carried out to unveil its multivariate pathology. Surprisingly, men are reportedly more vulnerable to COVID-19 even with higher fatality rate compared to women. Thus, it is crucial to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection can even affect male fertility as an immediate or long-term consequence of the disease. Among the discrete data available, an important finding is that angiotensin converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) receptor, that aids the SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, is profoundly expressed in testicular cells. In addition, the endogenous androgen milieu and its receptors are associated with ACE2 activation reflecting that enhanced testosterone levels may trigger the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In contrary, hypogonadism has also been reported in the acute phase of some COVID-19 cases. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced uncontrolled inflammatory responses may lead to systemic oxidative stress (OS), whose severe disruptive effects on testicular functions are well-documented. This article aims to precisely present the possible impact of COVID-19 on male reproductive functions, and to highlight the speculations that need in-depth research for the exact underlying mechanisms how COVID-19 is associated with men's health and fertility.
Matched MeSH terms: Infertility, Male/metabolism; Infertility, Male/epidemiology*; Infertility, Male/pathology*; Male
Scrotal tuberculosis (TB) is rare. Lack of awareness may lead to a misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of scrotal TB. Clinicians should have a high suspicion index for scrotal TB when facing a patient with a chronic scrotal lump. Since scrotal TB can be medically cured, biopsy of the scrotal lump for pathology study and/or urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for M. tuberculosis should be performed first for rapid diagnostic purposes, and therefore unnecessary surgery may thereby be circumvented.
Matched MeSH terms: Male; Tuberculosis, Male Genital/diagnosis*
Male factor infertility which accounts for 30-50% of infertility is a major problem faced by married couples. Congenital absence of the vas deferens, though uncommon, remains the most common abnormality seen in extratesticular ductal and ejaculatory system, accounting for 1-2% of male infertility. It may be unilateral or bilateral. Association with renal abnormality has also been reported with congenital absence of vas deferens (1). The patients are asymptomatic and the congenital abnormality is usually detected when investigation for infertility is carried out. We present a case of an unusual presentation of congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD).
Matched MeSH terms: Infertility, Male; Male; Male Urogenital Diseases
A one year old boy was admitted with left shoulder pain with reduced range of motion of five days' duration associated. Inflammatory markers were raised and radiograph of the left shoulder revealed widening of the metaphysis of the proximal humerus. Empirically, he was started on intravenous C-penicillin and cloxacillin after initial joint aspiration yielded only synovial fluid with negative culture. Subsequent MRI revealed acute osteomyelitis of the proximal left humerus with concurrent septic arthritis of the shoulder joint. Cultures from the arthrotomy washout grew Salmonella sp, sensitive to ampicillin. He recovered following six weeks of intravenous unasyn ( ampicillin and sulbactum). This rare case of salmonella osteomyelitis in a non-sickle cell disease patient was diagnosed with serial laboratory and radiological studies and was successfully treated with adequate duration of antibiotics and operative intervention.
A 13-year-old boy who had epigastric pain and pallor for 2 months and found to have an ulcerative mass in the stomach and underwent partial gastrectomy. A diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) of the stomach was made on histological examination. Three years later, recurrence in the stomach, with invasion into the pancreas and hilum of the spleen was noted and was managed by wide wedge resection of the stomach, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. The patient has been recurrence-free for the past 2 years. Gastric IMT is an uncommon tumour in children with unpredictable prognosis.
A case of carotid body tumour is presented. Pathology, diagnostic investigations, modalities of treatment and prognosis are discussed. With greater awareness of this condition and improvement in diagnostic investigations and surgical techniques, the outlook in managing this condition should be better.
Sexually deviant behaviour is a fairly common phenomenon but because it is socially embarassing, a few cases come forward for consultation and treatment on a voluntary basis. Most cases are referred by the law courts. Two such cases, one of exhibitionism and the other offetishism, were referred to the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur in 1982. Their development histories were elaborated. A third case of sexual sadism came voluntarily for help out defaulted after the initial session. A review on the current western concepts on sexual deviation is included in the text. It is concluded that although it is generally thought that neurological conditions give rise to deviant sexual behaviour, this assumption should not be arrived at hastily, as many cases of organic mental disorders do not exhibit deviant sexual
A term, Malay male neonate, delivered by spontaneous vertex delivery, was found to have a huge carvenous hemangioma on the anterior chest wall. He developed respiratory failure on the second day of life. Having considered the various options possible, an emergency surgical excision was carried outat the age of 57 hours. The patient recovered after a stormy post-operative period.
A 30 year old Malay male developed bilateral choroiditis followed by vitiligo, poliosis and canities. CT scan showed nodular thickening of the optic nerves. Characteristic abnormalities were seen in visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials and fluorescein angiography. These findings were in keeping with the diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete recovery of vision and partial improvement in skin and hair lesions.