Victims of domestic violence frequently attend health care facilities. In many cases, their abusive experience is neither disclosed nor discussed during clinical consultations. This study examined the barriers faced by women when discussing abuse with health care providers, specifically in cases involving Malaysian women with a history of domestic violence. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with 10 women with a history of domestic violence residing at a shelter. Purposive sampling was conducted until data saturation. Using the grounded theory approach of analysis, themes that emerged from these interviews were then further analyzed to examine the barriers faced by these women. Women who experienced domestic violence faced multiple barriers while discussing their accounts of abuse with others. Values placed on the privacy of domestic violence; upholding the traditional gender roles; preserving the family unity; minimizing the abuse, the feeling of shame, self-blame; and fearing their abuser generally create internal barriers when discussing their encounters of abuse with health care providers. The perceived unknown role of health care professionals when dealing with patients experiencing domestic violence as well as the previous negative experiences in clinical consultations acted as external barriers for discussing abuse with health care providers. Women with domestic violence experiences faced internal and external barriers to discussing their abuse during clinical consultations. Physicians and health care providers must consider domestic violence in consultations with female patients. A good doctor-patient relationship that encompasses empathy, confidence, trust, support, assurance, confidentiality, and guidance can help patients with abusive backgrounds overcome these barriers, leading to the disclosure and discussion of their abusive encounters. Proper education, guidelines, and support for health care providers are required to help them assist women with histories of domestic violence.
The Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire measures the prevalence, health implications, and risk factors for domestic violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of World Health Organization (WHO) Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire. Construct validity and reliability assessment of the Malay version of the questionnaire was done on 20 specific items that measure four types of intimate partner violence (IPV) act; controlling behaviors (CB), emotional violence (EV), physical violence (PV), and sexual violence (SV), which were considered as the domains of interest. Face-to-face interviewing method was used for data collection. A total of 922 women completed the interviews. The results showed that exploratory factor analysis of four factors with eigenvalues above 1 accounted for 63.83% of the variance. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that all items loaded above 0.40 and the majority of items loaded on factors that were generally consistent with the proposed construct. The internal consistency reliability was good. The Cronbach's α values ranged from 0.767 to 0.858 across domains. The Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of women's health and experiences of IPV in Malaysia.
The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated.
The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs about aggression were significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying. Normative beliefs about aggression were a significant partial mediator in both samples; these beliefs about aggression served as one possible mechanism of action by which narcissistic exploitativeness could exert its influence on cyberbullying. Findings extended previous empirical research by showing that such beliefs can be the mechanism of action not only in offline but also in online contexts and across cultures. Cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts should include modification of norms and beliefs supportive of the legitimacy and acceptability of cyberbullying.
This study aimed to determine contact and privacy risks encountered by Malaysian adolescents with access to the Internet and mobile phones and factors associated with face-to-face meetings with online acquaintances as well as to estimate the prevalence of subsequent victimization. Secondary school students from randomly selected public schools in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur responded to an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (78% response rate). Out of 3,349 Internet or mobile phone users, 51% had been invited to meet offline with an online-meeting acquaintance and 30% complied. Of the 1,005 respondents who went to offline meetings, 55% had meetings with more than six people. Male gender, Malay ethnicity, online access at an Internet café, viewing pornography on the Internet, the absence of parental restrictions on visiting certain website and chat rooms, not being explicitly forbidden to meet strangers encountered online, and disclosure of personal information were significantly associated with increased odds of face-to-face meetings with online acquaintances. Verbal, physical, or sexual assaults were reported by 5.5% of the 1,005 including 13 males and five females who reported forced sexual intercourse. Similarities as well as differences in factors associated with risk-taking behavior compared with adolescents in Western countries have important implications on policy and intervention.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during the first year postpartum is common in Bangladesh, and many infants are exposed to hostile and aggressive environment. The aim of the current study was to investigate how IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) impacts on the mother's perception of her infant's temperament 6 to 8 months postpartum, and whether maternal depressive symptom at 6 to 8 months postpartum is a mediator in this association. A total of 656 rural Bangladeshi women and their children 6 to 8 months postpartum were included in this study. Data were collected by structured interviews. The women were asked about physical, sexual, and emotional IPV; depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Symptoms [EPDS]); and their perception of infant temperament assessed by the Infant Characteristic Questionnaire (ICQ). Descriptive analyses were conducted for prevalence of IPV and maternal depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis was conducted with a series of linear regressions with types of IPV as independent variables, ICQ including its subscales as dependent variables and maternal depressive symptoms as potential mediator. All the analyses were adjusted for the woman's and her husband's ages and number of children of the couple. Nearly 90% of the mothers reported some kind of IPV at 6 to 8 months postpartum. All types of IPV were directly associated with the mother's perception of her infant as unadaptable. Maternal depressive symptom was a mediating factor between physical IPV and the ICQ subscales fussy-difficult and unpredictable. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated between sexual and emotional IPV, and the mother's perception of the infant as unpredictable. The results showed that IPV influenced how mothers perceived their infant's temperament. It is important that health care professionals at maternal and child health services enquire about IPV with possibilities to refer the family or the mother and infant for appropriate support.
Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) goes largely unrecognized and underreported globally by health care professionals. Despite acknowledging their role to intervene elder abuse, health care professionals lacked knowledge and skills in this issue. This is a single-blinded, three-armed, cluster randomized controlled trials aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face Improving Nurses' dEtection and managEment of elDer abuse and neglect (I-NEED) intensive training program and I-NEED educational video in improving primary care nurses' knowledge, attitude, and confidence to intervene EAN; 390 primary care nurses were randomized equally into two intervention groups-ITP group (intensive training program) and ITP+ group (intensive training program and educational video)-and a control group. The knowledge, attitudes, and confidence to intervene EAN were measured using questionnaires at four intervals during 6-month follow-up. A total of 269 primary care nurses participated in this study. There was a significant increase in knowledge, attitude, and confidence to intervene EAN immediately post intervention observed in both intervention groups compared to the control group (p < .001). At the end of sixth month, there was an increase of knowledge favoring ITP group than the ITP+ group (p < .001). There is, however, no significant difference in attitude score between ITP and ITP+ group. There is a significant difference of confidence to intervene among the participants between both intervention groups with ITP+ participants reporting higher scores post intervention (p < .05). An intensive training module improved the knowledge, attitude, and confidence to intervene EAN. Other co-existing barriers for abuse victims getting help, resources, policy, and law of EAN need further highlights.
This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.
Cultural collectivism, a core feature of honor cultures, is associated with the acceptance of aggression if it is used in the name of so-called "honor." Currently overlooked in the research literature, this study explored perceptions of antigay "honor" abuse in collectivist-orientated honor cultures, where homosexuality, in particular, is considered to be dishonorable. To conduct exploratory and comparative analysis, this study recruited 922 students in four Asian countries (India, Iran, Malaysia, and Pakistan), as well as Asian British and White British students in England. All participants read a brief vignette depicting a man whose relatives verbally abuse him and threaten him with life-threatening violence, after suspecting that he is gay and has joined an online dating website to meet men. Participants then completed a short questionnaire that assessed the extent to which they thought the man's actions had damaged his family's honor and their approval of the antigay "honor" abuse depicted in the scenario. Broadly in line with predictions, data analyses revealed attitudes more supportive of antigay "honor" abuse in all five collectivist-orientated populations than the sample of individualistic-orientated counterparts in England. Notably, however, a series of one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) demonstrated that these results varied depending on country of residence, gender, religious denomination, educational status, and age. The findings show that individual and demographic differences influence perceptions toward homophobic "honor" abuse in collectivist cultures. These differences are useful indices of the psychosocial factors that underpin hostile attitudes toward gay males in cultures where homosexuality is denounced.
Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are frequent attendees at health care facilities. Although most literature on this subject focuses on developed or Western countries, there is a dearth of information from Asian countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of IPV among women attending urban primary care services in Malaysia and to identify the risk factors associated with IPV. Six out of 15 available public primary care clinics in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were randomly selected. The sampling size for each clinic was conducted proportionate to the clinic's average daily patient attendance. A total of 882 women participated in this study via a self-administered questionnaire. We administered the women's experience with battering scale (WEB-scale) to estimate the prevalence of psychological violence and included a screening question for physical and sexual assault. The results showed that 22.0% of the women surveyed reported experiencing IPV. Ethnicity appears to be a significant predictor, with Chinese and Indian women reporting IPV at a higher rate than Malay women. Women with IPV are more likely to come from lower income households, have witnessed parental IPV, receive less social support, and have poorer psychological well-being. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of IPV among women attending urban public primary care clinics is high. Health care providers should pay close attention during clinical encounters for any sign of IPV, particularly among those presenting with risk factors.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of men's violence against pregnant women and whether it is influenced by women's attitude. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a hospital in northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 1,200 postnatal women aged 18 years and above who had been admitted to the hospital were recruited in the study. Universal sampling was performed, and participants were interviewed face-to-face by using a validated Malay version of WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire. The main outcome measures in the study were emotional, physical or sexual violence. The study results showed that more than one third of women (35.9%; confidence interval [CI] = [0.33, 0.39]) had experienced any type of violence during pregnancy with the commonest was psychological violence (29.8%; CI = [0.27, 0.32]) followed by physical (12.9%; CI = [0.11, 0.15]) and sexual violence (9.8%; CI = [0.08, 0.12]). Women who were drug users, had an exposure to violence during childhood, had higher parity, and had inadequate antenatal care were at greater risk. Agree that husband is justified to hit his wife in certain conditions and agree that women has a right to refuse sex in certain conditions were among violence-supporting attitudes. It can be concluded that men's violence against pregnant women is extremely prevalent. Sensitive assessment, attitude modification, and intervention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) are of great value in combating men's violence against pregnant women.
Research in stalking perceptions has shown certain relational biases, in which people tend to view ex-partner stalkers to be less dangerous than stranger or acquaintance stalkers. These findings are in direct contrast to those of real-life cases whereby ex-partner stalkers pose a greater threat. In addition, although stalking is recognized as a global social problem, most studies have been based on samples drawn from Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic countries. The current study examined whether the prior relationship between the stalking perpetrator and target influences people's perceptions of stalking and whether cross-national differences exist between participants based in Malaysia (where there is currently no law that criminalizes stalking) and England (where stalking has been outlawed since 1997). In a 3 × 2 between-subjects design, 294 Malaysian participants and 170 English participants were presented with a vignette describing a stalking scenario in which the perpetrator was depicted as a stranger, acquaintance, or ex-partner. Participants judged the extent to which the perpetrator's behavior constitutes stalking; necessitates police intervention; would cause the victim alarm or personal distress; would cause the victim to fear the use of violence; and can be attributed to encouragement on the part of the victim. Results showed that typical relational biases existed in both samples, but Malaysian participants were less likely than their English counterparts to label any harassing scenario as serious. Perceptions of victim responsibility were found to mediate the effect of prior relationship and nationality on participants' perceptions. The findings point to the urgency of better cross-cultural understanding of harassment behavior as well as legislations against stalking.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, narcissism, and measures of proactive and reactive aggression in two large community samples of young adults from two countries (the United Kingdom and Malaysia). Self-esteem and narcissism were measured through the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, whereas aggression was measured by the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in 501 young adults with approximately equal numbers of men and women. In both countries, low levels of self-esteem were associated with reactive aggression while high levels of narcissism were associated with proactive aggression. Although this pattern was similar for both genders, the associations between both types of self-evaluation and proactive aggression were greater for men. The results suggest that people with low self-esteem are prone to greater reactive aggression due to anger and hostility, whereas those with high levels of narcissism can act with deliberate, planned aggression to achieve a goal. These effects appear stable across gender and culture.