Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 154 in total

  1. Sakthiswary R, Rajalingam S, Norazman MR, Hussein H
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):e98-101.
    PMID: 25945451 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1827
    OBJECTIVE: The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is unknown in a significant proportion of patients. Autoimmune processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The role of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in this context is largely undetermined. In an attempt to address the lack of evidence in this area, we explored the clinical significance of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in unexplained RPL.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 68 patients with RPL and 60 healthy controls from September 2005 to May 2012. All subjects were tested for ANA by immunofluorescence testing, and a titer of 1: 80 and above was considered positive. We compared the pregnancy outcome between the ANA positive and ANA negative RPL cases.
    RESULTS: The incidence of ANA positivity among the cases (35.3%) was significantly higher than the controls (13.3%) (p=0.005). ANA positive cases showed significantly higher number of RPL (p=0.006) and lower number of successful pregnancies (p=0.013) compared to the ANA negative cases . The ANA titre had a significant association with the number of RPL (p<0.05, r=0.724) but not with the number of successful pregnancies (p=0.054).
    CONCLUSIONS: ANA positivity predicts a less favorable pregnancy outcome in RPL. Our findings suggest that the ANA titre is a useful positive predictor of the number of RPL. Hence, ANA test is a potential prognostic tool for this condition which merits further research.
  2. Khor SC, Mohd Yusof YA, Wan Ngah WZ, Makpol S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):e81-90.
    PMID: 25945449 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1825
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin E has been suggested as nutritional intervention for the prevention of degenerative and age-related diseases. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in delaying cellular aging by targeting the proliferation signaling pathways in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction was used to treat different stages of cellular aging of primary human diploid fibroblasts viz. young (passage 6), pre-senescent (passage 15) and senescent (passage 30). Several selected targets involved in the downstream of PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways were compared in total RNA and protein.

    RESULTS: Different transcriptional profiles were observed in young, pre-senescent and senescent HDFs, in which cellular aging increased AKT, FOXO3, CDKN1A and RSK1 mRNA expression level, but decreased ELK1, FOS and SIRT1 mRNA expression level. With tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment, gene expression of AKT, FOXO3, ERK and RSK1 mRNA was decreased in senescent cells, but not in young cells. The three down-regulated mRNA in cellular aging, ELK1, FOS and SIRT1, were increased with tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment. Expression of FOXO3 and P21Cip1 proteins showed up-regulation in senescent cells but tocotrienol-rich fraction only decreased P21Cip1 protein expression in senescent cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction exerts gene modulating properties that might be responsible in promoting cell cycle progression during cellular aging.

  3. Yugasaravanan K, Affirul CA, Zamri Z, Azlanudin A, Bong JJ
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):e102-4.
    PMID: 25945439 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1828
    BACKGROUND: Post-hepatectomy bile leak may lead to undesired morbidity. Multiple methods have been employed to identify this leak but can be inconclusive and taxing. This novel white gauze test is a simple and reliable method.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study performed from January 2010 until March 2011. All open hepatic resection were included. Dry white gauze is compressed onto the transected surface and observed for bile staining. The leaking duct is repaired immediately upon detection. The process is repeated until negative. Drain was removed on postoperative day-5. Post-operative bile leak is defined as: 1. Bilirubin concentration of the drain fluid is 3 times or higher than serum; 2. Presence of intra-abdominal bile collection on imaging and upon drainage; 3. Bile leak demonstrated on postoperative cholangiography.

    RESULTS: 42 patients were recruited. Seven (16.7%) patients were cirrhotic with Child-Pugh A. White gauze test were positive for intra-operative bile leaks in 29 patients (70%), which were primarily repaired. As a result, there was no postoperative bile leak in this series. One mortality was detected in this series due to postoperative pancreatic fistula and multi organ failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: The White Gauze Test is a useful method for the prevention of bile leakage after hepatic resection. It is safe, quick and cheap.

  4. Maung K, Ohnmar H, Than W, Ramli M, Najwa Hanim MR, Ali Sabri R, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):87-90.
    PMID: 25945438 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1823
    OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the documentation of the DSM-IV-TR- Criteria A in diagnoses of schizophrenia and to identify the symptoms associated with over diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    METHOD: This study involved a retrospective review and analysis of data from case notes.

    RESULTS: Data of 107 newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia were keyed in and analyzed using SPSS v 19. The cases were then evaluated for the use of the DSM-IV-TR- Criteria A. Over diagnosis was noted in 37.39% of the patients. Disorganised behaviour (12.5%), affective flattening (12.5%), hallucination (16%) and non-bizarre delusion (18.3%) significantly contributed to the over-diagnosis of schizophrenia. Symptoms such as non-bizarre delusion and hallucination were the most commonly used in over-diagnosing schizophrenia and were statistically significant with p ≤0.05.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant lack of DSM-IV-TR Criteria A among the data documented to diagnose schizophrenia and non-bizarre delusion and hallucination were the most commonly used in over-diagnosing schizophrenia. This key problem needs to be addressed. The reliability of a diagnosis is indispensable and achievable with the proper clinical application of DSM-IV-TR Criteria A. The DSM-IV-TR Criteria have been perceived to be useful and reliable and is most widely used throughout the world.
  5. Tee CK, Suzaily W
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):72-3.
    PMID: 25945434 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1819
    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a person's fear of exuding an offensive body odour which is not perceived by others. The objective of this case report is to highlight the challenges in diagnosing olfactory reference syndrome due to the lack of diagnostic criteria as well as its similarities to other psychiatric illnesses. We report a case of a young Chinese gentleman who was preoccupied with the belief that he had an offensive body odour which was not noticeable by others since the age of 10. As a result of this, he developed compulsive behaviour, social anxiety and avoidance, as well as depression. The patient had an array of psychiatric symptoms. He had symptoms which fulfilled criteria for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), delusional disorder somatic type, and social anxiety disorder. ORS remains a diagnostic challenge. Further studies are needed in this area for a better understanding of the disorder.
  6. Hansdak R, Arora J, Sharma M, Mehta V, Suri RK, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):65-7.
    PMID: 25945432 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1817
    Variations in the arterial pattern of upper limb are of colossal importance to the surgeons as they are liable to iatrogenic injuries. During routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, an anomaly of brachial artery was discovered. The brachial artery terminated at higher level into ulnar and radial artery. The common interosseus artery took origin arising from radial artery. The ulnar artery did not give any branches in the forearm. Both radial and ulnar artery displayed a superficial course in the forearm. The anatomical knowledge of these variations may be of great help for the clinicians in planning and conducting flap harvesting during reconstructive surgeries and in arteriography.
  7. Hanizah N, Affirul CA, Fadzlon MY
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(5):e336-41.
    PMID: 25366949 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1759
    BACKGROUND: Cricoid pressure (CP) is a step during rapid sequence induction. Previous studies showed a poor clinical application of CP despite a reasonable theoretical knowledge of CP. This study aims to evaluate the proficiency and knowledge retention on CP among the emergency staff in the Emergency Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is questionnaire-based observational comparative study. Once the questionnaire is filled, the application of CP is tested on an airway model and competency level is documented. An education hand out is passed to all participants after the procedure. The improvement and knowledge retention were assess after 2 month.

    RESULTS: A total of 81 completed surveys were returned comprises of of 34 medical officers, 23 staff nurses and 24 assistant medical officers. 75.3% subjects have work experience more than a year but only 59.3% of them were trained in CP application. A total of 69.1% participants passed the pre educational handout test and 100% passed the post educational handout test. However, for pre educational handout phase, 81.5% participants passed the theory part while only 42% passed the practical component. In post educational handout phase, the number of respondents who passed both components was 97.5% and 63% respectively. There are positive correlation between designation and working experience with overall passes in this study.

    CONCLUSIONS: The theoretical knowledge of CP is satisfactory but clinical application is poor especially in the pre educational handout phase. The educational handout is proved to improve the knowledge transfer and retention with regards to CP.

  8. Lee CY, Nurul Zaidah AS, Nur Amalina G, Muhammad Azree E, Das S, Zar CT
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(5):269-77.
    PMID: 25366948 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1758
    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research.
  9. Rosdinom R, Ng IT, Teh EE, Norhayati A, Ng CG, Yeoh SH, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(6):287-93.
    PMID: 25524183 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1770
    OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of local instruments to assess behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This 2-stage cross-sectional study was aimed at validating a Malay translated version of the Neuropsychiaric Inventory (MvNPI).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was conducted on a selected group of 138 elderly outpatients with dementia and their caregivers in Hospital Pulau Pinang. Severity of dementia was assessed using the Malay-translated version of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The original NPI was translated and then back-translated before it was pilot-tested. The MvNPI was administered twice, a week apart on the same caregiver by the same investigator.

    RESULTS: The individual items and total scale score of MvNPI had high internal consistency, with Corrected Item-Total Correlation ranging from satisfactory to good (0.41 to 0.77). The Cronbach's alpha for all the NPI domains showed high internal consistency (0.83), and subtotal for severity and distress scores were perfect (0.998 to 1.00). There was no significant difference between test-retest mean scores (p>0.05) and their correlations were perfect (0.996 to 1.00). Content validity indicated mild and inverse relationship between MMSE scores and severity, and distress score (-0.281 and -0.268, respectively, with p<0.001). Discriminant validity calculated using Mann-Whitney U test was found to be significant (p<0.001) in differentiating severity of cognitive impairment. Factor analysis revealed four possible components existed in MvNPI.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MvNPI is a valid and reliable tool for assessing BPSD among Malay speaking populations of Malaysia and its neighbouring South East Asian countries.

    Study site: Hospital Pulau Pinang
  10. Ng CG, Wong SK, Loh HS, Yee A
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(6):e384-90.
    PMID: 25524191 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1778
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Escitalopram has widely been recognized as one of the most frequently used antidepressants, with superior tolerability and great efficacy in preventing major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse and recurrence. However, anhedonia, which is a core symptom of MDD, remains difficult to treat. This study investigates the hedonic levels of MDD patients treated with Escitalopram.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 participants, 26 of whom with MDD on Escitalopram, were recruited in this cross sectional study. They were evaluated using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and level of depression.

    RESULTS: Our study shows that most items in the SHAPS scores are significantly different between MDD patients on Escitalopram and the controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: The hedonic capacity remains different between the two groups despite patients with MDD are put on Escitalopram treatment. Escitalopram fails to alleviate the hedonic state of MDD patients. Antidepressants that improve both depressive symptoms and hedonic states should be considered when treating MDD patients in clinical settings.
  11. Jailani RF, Kosai NR, Yaacob NY, Jarmin R, Sutton P, Harunarrashid H, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(6):294-8.
    PMID: 25524184 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1771
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of transarterial angioembolization (TAE) and surgery with endoscopically unmanageable non-variceal hemorrhage of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case note review of all patients treated for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from January 2006 till January 2012 was performed.

    RESULTS: Fifty-four of 667 patients with non-variceal bleeding did not respond to endoscopic treatment. Nine of the 54 patients had incomplete data, leaving 45 patients in the study; 24 had angiography and another 21 had surgery. The two groups were broadly similar in terms of relevant clinical variables. Nineteen of 24 having angiography had embolisation. Re-bleeding recurred in 8 patients (33%) in the TAE group and 6 patients (28.6%) in the surgery group (p = 0.28). There was no statistically significant difference in post procedural complications (81% vs 62.5%, p = 0.17), 30-day mortality (33% vs 29.1%, p = 0.17 ) units of blood transfused (12.24 vs 8.92, p = 0.177) and mean hospital stay (30.7 vs 22.9 days, p = 0.281) observed in patients undergoing surgery as compared to TAE.

    CONCLUSIONS: TAE and surgery have similar outcomes in patients with endoscopically unmanageable non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
  12. Hamidah NH, Shahrom S, Siti Aishah MA, Das S, Gendeh BS, Fadilah SA
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(3):139-42.
    PMID: 24999566 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1711
    Primary nasal lymphomas are rare. One of the most common cellular subtypes in the Asian population is natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) with a high association of EBV. We report a case of a 42-year-old female, who presented with a worsening sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia to solid food due to oropharyngeal ulcers and bilateral nasal blockage and recurrent fever for the past two weeks prior to admission. Physical examination revealed ulcers over the soft palate with nasopharyngeal slough. Computerized Tomography (CT) scan of the neck showed nasopharyngeal abscess with bilateral maxillary ethnoidal sinusitis. The diagnostic and management challenge is discussed.
  13. Ayiesah R, Leonard JH, Chong CY
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(3):123-8.
    PMID: 24999563 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1708
    OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence is a serious issue among the participants in pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP). Till date, no clinical tool is available to screen participants who will show poor adherence towards PRP. This study aimed to develop and validate a tool called "Adherence to Pulmonary Rehabilitation Questionnaire (APRQ)", a self-administered questionnaire to screen the risk of non-adherence to PRP among the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. APRQ comprises of 6 main constructs such as disease management behaviour, perceived treatment benefits, emotional factors, perceived severity of disease, barriers towards treatment and coping attitude.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a preliminary validity study carried out in the physiotherapy department and respiratory clinic in an university teaching hospital. A total of 109 patients with average age of 58.8 ± 1 year participated in the study. The inclusion criteria for subjects were: patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) (Stage II and III). Exclusion criteria include those COPD patients with mental problems and disabled patients. The tool was developed based on thematic analysis and in-depth interview with focus group and literature search on the factors that lead to non-adherence among the PRP's participants. Principal component analysis was carried out to examine the construct validity and content validity of APRQ.
    RESULTS: A total of 20 items were created under 6 constructs. However, 2 items (smoking and hospital admission) were eliminated due to poor correlations. Thus, the final version of APRQ was developed and validated with 18 items. Reliability was measured using internal consistency and achieved Cronbach's Alpha of 0.762.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this preliminary study supports that APRQ may be a valid and reliable tool to screen adherence towards PRP among chronic lung disease patients.
    Study site: Respiratory clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  14. Dashti S, Esfehani AJ, Leonard Joseph HJ
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(3):155-61.
    PMID: 24999570 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1715
    Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data.
  15. Suria AA, Nurasyikin Y, Adibah AG, Cheah FC, Leong CF
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(3):151-4.
    PMID: 24999569 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1714
    ABO incompatibility and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency G6PD are common haematological problems affecting the newborn. The resulting haemolytic disease of foetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by either of these pathologies generally follows a benign course. It is typically characterized by mild jaundice without significant anaemia. ABO incompatibility alone as a cause of foetal hydrops is extremely rare. We report a case of a newborn baby girl with an anti-B isoimmunisation and G6PD deficiency manifesting with hydrops foetalis, anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia, born to a mother with blood group O.
  16. Abas AA, Rahman RA, Yahya N, Kamaruzaman E, Zainuddin K, Manap NA
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(4):e253-7.
    PMID: 25203339 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1739
    The role of anesthetists during orthopedic fluoroscopic procedures exposes them to radiation. We conducted a prospective, descriptive study to estimate the radiation exposure to anesthetists during procedures over a six-month period in the orthopedic trauma operating theatres which had the most fluoroscopic usage.
  17. Hidayah MN, Liu CY, Joanna OS
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(4):193-8.
    PMID: 25203332 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1732
    INTRODUCTION: Anaesthesia and surgery promote significant thermal disorder in the human body. Spinal anaesthesia causes lower limb vasodilation and redistribution of body heat from central to the peripheral compartments.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind clinical study to compare the effectiveness of IV ketamine and tramadol in the prevention of shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia. We prospectively studied 150 ASA classification I and II patients between 18 and 70 years old scheduled for any elective surgery performed under spinal anaesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either prophylactic IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K), IV tramadol 0.5 mg/kg (Group T) or normal saline as control (Group P) after intrathecal injection of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 12.5 mg (2.5 ml) and 25 mcg fentanyl. The frequency and degree of shivering, haemodynamic parameters, core body temperature and side effects of the studied drugs were recorded for the first 30 minutes.
    RESULTS: The incidence of shivering was 8% in Group K, 16% in Group T and 24% in Group P. This result was statistically significant between Groups K and P. Patients from Group K also exhibited significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate at 5 and 15 minutes post intrathecal injection while their mean core temperature was also significantly higher. Side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hallucination, agitation and sweating were comparable between all three groups. Patients from Group K however, had significant higher incidence of behavioural changes (blunted affect or catatonic state) and nystagmus.
    CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg significantly reduced the frequency and the intensity of perioperative shivering associated with spinal anaesthesia but also exhibited some side effects of the drug. Lower doses of prophylactic ketamine should be studied.
    KEYWORDS: ketamine; shivering; spinal anaesthesia; tramadol
  18. Muthupalaniappen L, Tan HC, Puah JW, Apipi M, Sohaimi AE, Mahat NF, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(4):187-92.
    PMID: 25203331 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1731
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acne is a common skin disorder which can cause physical scaring and impact the quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, severity and the risk factors for developing acne among medical students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study among UKM medical students from academic year 1 to 5 was conducted from July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 361 students were selected by stratified cluster sampling method. Baseline data of the students, risk factors, height and weight were recorded. Acne severity was graded using the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS).
    RESULTS: The prevalence of acne among medical students is 68.1% (n=246). Males and females were almost equally affected (1:1.1). Majority students with acne were graded as almost clear (55.7%, n=137), mild (35.0%, n=86), moderate (7.7%, n=19), and severe (1.6%, n=4). More than half of them had developed acne scars (59.0%, n= 213). Males were found to be at higher risk of developing acne compared to females (p<0.05, OR=4.734; 95%CL=2.726-8.222). They are also at higher risk of developing moderate and severe grades of acne compared to females (p=0.001). The odds for developing acne was higher when mother (p=0.029; OR=1.752; 95%CL=1.058-2.902) or father (p=0.027; OR=1.852; 95%CL=1.072-3.201) had acne. When both parents were affected by acne the odds of developing acne was 3 times. (p=0.025; OR=3.056; 95%CL=1.153-8.094).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the prevalence of acne among medical students is high. Hence, it is important to identify those at risk and provide optimal treatment to prevent scarring and possible low self esteem among these future doctors.
    KEYWORDS: acne vulgaris; medical; prevalence; risk factors; severity; students
  19. Thent ZC, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(4):223-30.
    PMID: 25203338 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1738
    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease.
  20. Ku SK, Muhamad Ruhaifi MS, Fatin SS, Saffana M, Taty Anna K, Das S, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(4):217-21.
    PMID: 25203337 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1737
    It has been a regular practice to repeatedly heat the cooking oil and consume it without knowing the harmful effects of such. The procedure to use repeatedly heated cooking oil is aimed to curb the cost of expenses. Heating results is the formation of free reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is responsible for the oxidative stress and damage to various organs in the body. The present review article discusses the harmful events occurring due to consumption of repeated heating of edible oil. A strong message is aimed to generate public awareness of the deleterious effects of consumption of heated edible oil which may help in curbing hypertension and atherosclerosis.
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