METHODS: In total, 205 adult patients with CHD from the National Heart Institute, Malaysia, were recruited. Patients were first screened by cardiology consultants to ensure they fit the inclusion criteria before filling in questionnaires, which were medical outcome studies - social support survey and AQoL-8D. Results/conclusions All social supports and their subscales were found to have mild-to-moderate significant relationships with physical dimension, psychological dimension, and overall HRQoL; however, only positive interaction, marital status, and types of diagnosis were reported as predictors of HRQoL. Surprisingly, with regard to the physical dimension of quality of life, social supports were not significant predictors, but educational level, marital status, and types of diagnosis were significant predictors. Positive interaction, affectionate support, marital status, and types of diagnosis were again found to be predictors in the aspects of the psychological dimension of quality of life. In conclusion, positive interaction and affectionate support, which include elements of fun, relaxation, love, and care, should be included in the care of adult patients with CHD.
METHODS: Parental-proxy scores of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 core scales were obtained for 179 children with CHD and 172 siblings. Intra-class coefficients were derived to determine the levels of proxy-child agreement in 66 children aged 8-18 years. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors that impacted Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores.
RESULTS: Proxy scores were lower in children with CHD than siblings for all scales except physical health. Maximum differences were noted in children aged 5-7 years, whereas there were no significant differences in the 2-4 and 13-18 years age groups. Good levels of proxy-child agreement were found in children aged 8-12 years for total, psychosocial health, social, and school functioning scales (correlation coefficients 0.7-0.8). In children aged 13-18 years, the level of agreement was poor to fair for emotional and social functioning. The need for future surgery and severity of symptoms were associated with lower scores.
CONCLUSION: Differences in proxy perception of quality of life appear to be age related. The level of proxy-child agreement was higher compared with other reported studies, with lower levels of agreement in teenagers. Facilitating access to surgery and optimising control of symptoms may improve quality of life in this group of children.
METHODS: All patients with defects within the oval fossa deemed potentially suitable for transcatheter closure were investigated by transesophageal echocardiography with the aim of gaining extra information that might alter the decision to use the device to close the defect. Views were obtained in transverse and longitudinal planes, permitting measurements of the diameter of the defect, and its distance from the atrioventricular valves, coronary sinus, and pulmonary veins. Additionally, we sought to identify multiple defects, and to exclude sinus venosus defects.
RESULTS: Of 56 patients with left-to-right shunts, 41 (73.2%) were deemed suitable for closure with the Amplatzer Septal Occluder. All underwent the procedure successfully, with no complications. This includes 5 patients with multiple small defects that were sufficiently close to the main defect to be closed with a single device. Only two of these had been detected on the transthoracic study. In the remaining 15 of 56 patients, transcatheter closure was deemed unsuitable. In 9 patients, this was due to the limitation of the size of the device available during the period of study, this representing a relative contraindication. In the remaining 6 (10.7%), transcatheter closure was not performed because multiple defects were too far apart to be closed with a single device in 3 patients, two patients were noted to have a sinus venosus defect, and another was noted to have anomalous connection of the right upper pulmonary vein to the right atrium. Excluding patients contraindicated due to the size of the defect alone, transesophageal echocardiography provided extra information in one-tenth of our patients, which altered the decision regarding management.
CONCLUSION: Transesophageal echocardiography is indispensable in the evaluation of patients undergoing transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect.