Methods: A comprehensive analysis was undertaken on the most common, existing classification for root canal morphology. The advantages and potential applications of a new system for classifying roots and canal systems in research and clinical practice are discussed.
Results: The analysis demonstrates deficiencies of the existing classification including lack of information on the number of roots, pulp chamber outline, lack of clarity in multi-rooted teeth, inability to define complex root canal configurations. The new coding system addresses the root and canal morphology in an accurate and systematic manner to provide detailed information of the tooth, root and canal anatomical features.
Conclusion: With current advances in endodontic research and practice and the increasing body of knowledge on root and canal morphology, the deficiencies of the existing system used for classifying root canal morphology have become more apparent. The new system for classifying root, main and accessory canal morphology as well as teeth with anomalies has the potential to be used in research, clinical practice and education to accurately reflect the real anatomy of a tooth.
METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a customized search strategy in major Endodontic journals through Scopus until November 2019. Studies investigating root and canal anatomy were included. The selected publications were divided into 7 categories according to the study design: micro-computed tomography (microCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) experimental studies (extracted teeth), CBCT and 2D clinical studies, CBCT and 2D case reports in addition to others (i.e. staining and clearing method and root sectioning). The selected studies were evaluated according to three domains: 1) Criteria for study sample selection; 2) Criteria for methodological procedures and 3) Criteria for detection and evaluation.
RESULTS: After the removal of duplicated and irrelevant papers, 137 articles were included. Results showed that microCT studies reported accurately the tooth type, number of teeth, classifications used, qualitative and/or quantitative analysis (if required) and the evaluation process. However, sample size calculation, calibration, and reproducibility were not reported in the majority of microCT studies. CBCT clinical studies presented information for the type of study, inclusion/exclusion criteria, number of patients, tooth type, and number of teeth. However, the majority did not report sample size calculation and calibration of examiners. Radiographic exposure descriptions and classifications used were not reported adequately in CBCT and 2D case reports. Sample size calculation, calibration and reproducibility were not reported in staining and clearing method.
CONCLUSION: Despite accurate presentation of certain items, there is considerable inconsistent reporting of root and canal morphology regardless of the type of study and experimental procedure used. The PROUD checklist protocol presented in this systematic review aims to provide an accurate description of root canal anatomy in experimental, clinical, and case report publications.
METHODOLOGY: A total of 700 maxillary premolars were examined using CBCT in an Egyptian subpopulation. The number of roots was identified, and root canal configurations were classified according to Vertucci's classification and a new system for classifying root and canal morphology. In addition, the position where roots bifurcated and the levels where canals merged or diverged were identified. Fisher's exact test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis, and the level of significance was set at 0.05 (P = 0.05).
RESULTS: More than half of maxillary first premolars were double-rooted, and the majority of maxillary second premolars were single-rooted (P
METHODS: This study enrolled patients (N = 36) who required root canal retreatment (RCR) on mandibular molar teeth, presented with periapical lesions with periapical index scores of 2 or 3, and had a pain visual analog scale (VAS) <50 and a percussion pain VAS <50. The participants were divided into 2 groups: (1) patients scheduled for RCR followed by LLLT (n = 18) and (2) patients scheduled for RCR followed by a mock LLLT (placebo) (n = 18). Postoperative pain was assessed using the VAS. Data were collected and statistically analyzed with the chi-square test, the independent sample t test, and the Mann-Whitney U test (P = .05).
RESULTS: On the first 4 days, postoperative pain significantly reduced in the LLLT group compared with the placebo group (P .05). The number of patients who needed analgesics was lower in the LLLT group than in the placebo group (P
METHODS: Root canal preparation was performed using stainless steel K-files™ and F4 size protaper with irrigation protocols of 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX; 3.5% QIS; 2% QIS and sterile saline. Biofilms were prepared using E. faecalis adjusted and allowed to grow for 3 days, treated with irrigants, and allowed to grow for 7 days. AFM was performed and surface free energy calculated. MC3T3 cells were infected with endo irrigant treated E. faecalis biofilms. Raman spectroscopy of biofilms were performed after bacterial re-growth on root dentine and exposed to different irrigation protocols and collagen fibers analysed collagen fibers using TEM. Antimicrobial potency against E. faecalis biofilms and cytoxicity against 3T3 NIH cells were also. Resin penetration and MitoTracker green were also evaluated for sealer penetration and mitochondrial viability. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis and post-hoc Fisher's least-significant difference.
RESULTS: Elastic moduli were maintained amongst control (5.5 ± 0.9) and 3.5% QIS (4.4 ± 1.1) specimens with surface free energy higher in QIS specimens. MC3T3 cells showed reduced viability in 6%NaOCl+2%CHX specimens compared to QIS specimens. DNA/purine were expressed in increased intensities in control and 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX specimens with bands around 480-490 cm-1 reduced in QIS specimens. 3.5% QIS specimens showed intact collagen fibrillar network and predominantly dead bacterial cells in confocal microscopy. 3.5% QIS irrigant formed a thin crust-type surface layer with cytoplasmic extensions of 3T3NIH spread over root dentine. Experiments confirmed MitoTracker accumulation in 3.5% treated cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: Novel QIS root canal irrigant achieved optimum antimicrobial protection inside the root canals facilitating a toxic effect against the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Root dentine substrates exhibited optimum mechanical properties and there was viability of fibroblastic mitochondria.