The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of allied health personnel, after attending a training programme, in conducting vision screening for preschool children. A total of 43 allied health personnel (20 assistant medical officers (AMOs) and 23 nurses) attended a two-day training program prior to conducting vision screening for preschool children. Vision screening was conducted among 136 preschool children using four similar HOTV visual acuity chart at 6 m. The cut-off referral criterion for visual acuity (VA) testing was 6/9 or worse in either eye. All children were referred to two qualified optometrists for a comprehensive eye examination. The accuracy was based on the sensitivity and specificity of screening by each group of personnel. The overall prevalence of reduced VA in the studied population was about 10%. The sensitivity and specificity of vision screening performed by AMOs were 100% and 98% respectively while that performed by nurses were 56% and 94% respectively. Thus, there were discrepancies in the sensitivity of visual acuity testing despite them being conducted by healthcare providers with similar background and training. This suggests that their performance might be influenced by factors other than their professional training.
This paper examines the chemical elements used as colour additives in cosmetic coloured contact lenses (Cos-CCL) using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) analysis. The samples comprised two different Cos-CCL brands and colours (sample A1-black iris colour & B1-gray iris colour) with their respective clear contact lens counterparts as controls (sample A2 & B2). The parameters of Cos-CCL were observed carefully so that they resembled their respective controls. All the samples were analysed for chemical element characterisation by using EDX spectroscopy surface mapping analysis on both front and back surfaces. EDX spectroscopy point analysis was done on cross-section surface of Cos-CCL when colour additive pattern could not be detected by FESEM on either surface. FESEM-EDX spectroscopy analysis has revealed iron element in the colour additives of the A1 sample and aluminium elements in the B2 sample. These two elements were not present in the respective control samples. It can be concluded that iron and aluminium elements are exclusively attributed to the colour additive in Cos-CCL samples. It is important for manufacturers of Cos-CCL to disclose information of their products and create greater awareness on the risks facing users.
This article aims to quantify the colour discrimination ability by using Total error scores (TES) to categorise colour discrimination level into superior, average or inferior levels under three different types of light sources, with different spectral power distribution. Colour discrimination was investigated using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hues and compared upon three light sources: compact fluorescent light (CFL), fluorescent light (FL) and light emitting diode (LED). Total error score calculated and pattern of colour caps misplacement plotted used the web-based scoring method (http://www.torok.info/colorvision/fm100. htm). Total error score (TES) for three types of light sources (TES for LED 58.00 ± 18.67, FL 80.00 ± 19.27 and CFL 127.25 ± 28.02) were significantly different [One-way ANOVA (F=9.98, P
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, economical but efficient procedure to collect illuminance data in quantifying interior lighting. This study was carried out in 3.8 m × 2.9 m × 3.0 m controlled experimental room. Three approaches to measure illuminance level were examined: (1) rowto-row; (2) column-to-column; and (3) zig-zag direction. A pre-determined 34 measurement points was used for all the three approaches. The duration required to complete the illuminance data measurement was recorded in minutes. There was a statistically significant difference in the total time measured to complete the illuminance data measurement in three different approaches (F(2, 4) = 23266.81, p