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  1. Al-Raad AA, Hanafiah MM
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Dec 15;300:113696.
    PMID: 34509809 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113696
    Electrocoagulation (ECoag) technique has shown considerable potential as an effective method in separating different types of pollutants (including inorganic pollutants) from various sources of water at a lower cost, and that is environmentally friendly. The EC method's performance depends on several significant parameters, including current density, reactor geometry, pH, operation time, the gap between electrodes, and agitation speed. There are some challenges related to the ECoag technique, for example, energy consumption, and electrode passivation as well as its implementation at a larger scale. This review highlights the recent studies published about ECoag capacity to remove inorganic pollutants (including salts), the emerging reactors, and the effect of reactor geometry designs. In addition, this paper highlights the integration of the ECoag technique with other advanced technologies such as microwave and ultrasonic to achieve higher removal efficiencies. This paper also presents a critical discussion of the major and minor reactions of the electrocoagulation technique with several significant operational parameters, emerging designs of the ECoag cell, operating conditions, and techno-economic analysis. Our review concluded that optimizing the operating parameters significantly enhanced the efficiency of the ECoag technique and reduced overall operating costs. Electrodes geometry has been recommended to minimize the passivation phenomenon, promote the conductivity of the cell, and reduce energy consumption. In this review, several challenges and gaps were identified, and insights for future development were discussed. We recommend that future studies investigate the effect of other emerging parameters like perforated and ball electrodes on the ECoag technique.
  2. Al-Raad AA, Hanafiah MM, Naje AS, Ajeel MA
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Oct;265(Pt B):115049.
    PMID: 32599327 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115049
    In this study, a novel rotating anode-based reactor (RAR) was designed to investigate its effectiveness in removing dissolved salts (i.e., Br-, Cl-, TDS, and SO42-) from saline water samples. Two configurations of an impeller's rotating anode with various operation factors, such as operating time (min), rotating speed (rpm), current density (mA/cm2), temperature (°C), pH, and inter-electrode space (cm), were used in the desalination process. The total cost consumed was calculated on the basis of the energy consumption and aluminum (Al) used in the desalination. In this respect, operating costs were calculated using optimal operating conditions. Salinity was removed electrochemically from saline water through electrocoagulation (EC). Results showed that the optimal adjustments for treating saline water were carried out at the following conditions: 150 and 75 rpm rotating speeds for the impeller's rod anode and plate anode designs, respectively; 2 mA/cm2 current density (I), 1 cm2 inter-electrode space, 25 °C temperature, 10 min operation time, and pH 8. The results indicated that EC technology with impeller plates of rotating anode can be considered a very cost-effective technique for treating saline water.
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