In the present study, natural coral of porites species was used as scaffold combined with in vitro expanded bone marrow stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-DO), to develop a tissue-engineered bone graft in a rat model. Coral was molded into the shape of rat mandible seeded with 5x10(6) /ml BMSC-DO subsequently implanted subcutaneously in the back of 5 week Sprague dawely rats for 3 months. Coral alone was implanted as a control. The implants were harvest and processed for gross inspection and histological observations. The results showed that newly bone grafts were successfully formed coral seeded with cells group showed smooth highly vascularized like bone tissue. Histological sections revealed mature bone formation and lots of blood vessel, the bone formation occurred in the manner resemble intramembraneous bone formation. This study demonstrates that coral can be use as a suitable scaffold material for delivering bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering.
In this study the surface properties of two particulate coral and polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) were studied in order to characterize them prior to use in composite production. Coral powder and PHB particle were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, to measure surface porosity and pores size. The results showed that coral powder has multiple pleomorphic micropores cross each others give appearance of micro-interconnectivity. Some pore reached to 18 microm with an average porosity of 70%. PHB revealed multiple different size pores extended to the depth, with an average some times reach 25 microm and porosity 45%. These findings demonstrate that both coral and PHB have excellent pores size and porosity that facilitate bone in growth, vascular invasion and bone development. We believe that incorporation of coral powder into PHB will make an excellent composite scaffold for tissue engineering.
This study was designed to evaluate the ability of natural coral implant to provide an environment for marrow cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and function suitable for mineralized tissue formation. DNA content, alkaline phosptatase (ALP) activity, calcium (Ca) content and mineralized nodules, were measured at day 3, day 7 and day 14, in rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured with coral discs glass discs, while cells alone and coral disc alone were cultured as control. DNA content, ALP activity, Ca content measurements showed no difference between coral, glass and cells groups at 3 day which were higher than control (coral disc alone), but there were higher measurement at day 7 and 14 in the cell cultured on coral than on glass discs, control cells and control coral discs. Mineralized nodules formation (both in area and number) was more predominant on the coral surface than in control groups. These results showed that natural coral implant provided excellent and favorable situation for marrow cell to differentiate to osteoblasts, lead to large amount of mineralized tissue formation on coral surface. This in vitro result could explain the rapid bone bonding of coral in vivo.
This study was designed to identify surface and subsurface microscopic changes in different carious lesions by using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Image analyzer (light microscopy). Thirty extracted carious posterior teeth were fixed, embedded and polymerized in plastic fixation medium. The final thin sections (80mm) were stained with H&E and Masson Goldner's Tricome while others were left unstained. Under Confocal, marked differences between control sound enamel and dentin, and carious area of the samples were observed which illustrated that a correlation existed between the zone of autofluoresence, demineralization and carious enamel and dentin. Compared to CLSM, Image Analyzer only produce two-dimensional images but the histopathological changes were better appreciated by using various staining methods.
This in vivo study revealed that porous hydroxyapatite (PHA) and dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) are good implant materials that can accelerate bone healing and resorbed in acceptable time. But there were differences in the mechanism of the resorption of DHA and PHA due to variability in the physical properties and osteogenicity.
Defects were created in the mandible of a rabbit model whereby the right side was implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) while the left side was left empty to act as control. Both the implant and control sites were evaluated clinically and histologically at 4,12,20,22 weeks. Decalcified sections were studied under confocal laser scanning microscope. No reactive cells were evident microscopically in all sections. There was bone ingrowth as early as 4 weeks when viewed by the topographic method. Enhancement of osteoconduction was evident by the presence of abundant capillaries, perivascular tissue and osteoprogenitor cells of the host. At 22 weeks, the implanted defect showed mature bone formation filling almost the whole field. This study demonstrated that the dense HA exhibits excellent biocompatibility as noted by the complete absence of reactive cells. It also promotes osteoconduction.
The main objective of the study was to determine the biodegradability, resorption and osteoconductivity potency of coral implant. Coral blocks (CORAGRAF) were prepared from sea coral Porites species. The blocks were implanted in the right mandible of rabbit model. Implants were harvested at 2 and 4 weeks intervals and subjected for light and scanning electron microscopy. Dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) was implanted in the left mandible as a control. The results of this study demonstrated that CORAGRAF is a good implant material that can accelerates bone healing and be resorbed in an acceptable time. The mechanisms of the resorption seemed to be the same (crumbling process), a first step where the edge of the coral become powdery then a second step which could be phagocytosis and dissolution in extracellular fluid.
The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate natural coral (Porites spp.) implanted in sheep femur microscopically. Twelve adult, male sheep were used in this study. The defect area was implanted with coral and monitored for up to 12 weeks. The sheep were euthanased at 2,4,8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. Microscopically, natural coral implanted into bone tissue have shown gradual resorption and progressively replaced by new bone. At 12 weeks post-implantation, the implanted site was almost completely surrounded by mature bone. The results showed that natural coral was found to be a biodegradable and osteo-conductive biomaterial, which acted as a scaffold for a direct osteoblastic apposition.
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder resulting in generalized defects in the enamel. The case reported here is of a seven-year-old male child with yellow color of all his teeth. Two of his primary molars were extracted due to dental abscess with advanced root resorption. Histologically hypoplastic enamel layer, positively birefringent, generalized pitting, roughness with irregular general cracked borders were observed. Scanning electron microscope, revealed extensive irregular, disorganized rough superficial enamel layer. The enamel was irregularly decussate with filamentous prisms accompanied by small rounded formations. The morphological and histological examination of the tooth revealed that this patient has the features of AI. For genetic study blood sample were collected from the patient and PCR analysis revealed that there is no mutation in exons 1-7 of AMELX gene on the X chromosome of the patient. Hence, it is probable that the AI of this patient is not X-linked. It is more likely to be an autosomal mutation.