Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 93 in total

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  1. Wong LP, Alias H
    J Behav Med, 2021 02;44(1):18-28.
    PMID: 32757088 DOI: 10.1007/s10865-020-00172-z
    Monitoring public psychological and behavioural responses during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is important for the management and control of infection. This study aims to investigate the temporal trend in (1) avoidance and protective behaviors, (2) fear, (3) socio-economic impact, and (4) anxiety levels during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a high level of anxiety may have a detrimental impact during an infectious disease outbreak, factors associated with anxiety were also explored. The survey was carried out for 10 weeks and the responses were divided into three periods of around 3 weeks: 25 January-21 February, 22 February-17 March and 18 March-3 April (the period the Malaysian Government issued Movement Control Order). Findings revealed that most of the pyschobehavioural variables showed small increases during first (25 January-21 February) and second (22 February-17 March) periods, and high psychobehavioral responses were reported during the third period. A total of 72.1% (95%CI = 69.2-75.0) reported moderate to severe anxiety as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Factor influencing moderate to severe anxiety is a high perception of severity (OR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.48-2.94), high perceived susceptibility (OR = 1.71; 95%CI = 1.17-2.50), high impact score (OR = 1.63; 95%CI = 1.17-2.26) and high fear score (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.01-2.14). In conclusion, the psychological and behavioural responses were found to increase with the progression of the outbreak. High anxiety levels found in this study warrant provision of mental health intervention during the early phase of COVID-19 outbreak.
  2. Chow YP, Alias H, Jamal R
    BMC Cancer, 2017 02 10;17(1):120.
    PMID: 28183295 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-017-3103-1
    BACKGROUND: Relapsed pediatric B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) remains as the leading cause of cancer death among children. Other than stem cell transplantation and intensified chemotherapy, no other improved treatment strategies have been approved clinically. Gene expression profiling represents a powerful approach to identify potential biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for various diseases including leukemias. However, inadequate sample size in many individual experiments has failed to provide adequate study power to yield translatable findings. With the hope of getting new insights into the biological mechanisms underpinning relapsed ALL and identifying more promising biomarkers or therapeutic targets, we conducted a meta-analysis of gene expression studies involving ALL from 3 separate studies.

    METHOD: By using the keywords "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", and "microarray", a total of 280 and 275 microarray datasets were found listed in Gene Expression Omnibus database GEO and ArrayExpress database respectively. Further manual inspection found that only three studies (GSE18497, GSE28460, GSE3910) were focused on gene expression profiling of paired diagnosis-relapsed pediatric B-ALL. These three datasets which comprised of a total of 108 matched diagnosis-relapsed pediatric B-ALL samples were then included for this meta-analysis using RankProd approach.

    RESULTS: Our analysis identified a total of 1795 upregulated probes which corresponded to 1527 genes (pfp  1), and 1493 downregulated probes which corresponded to 1214 genes (pfp 

  3. Lau SCD, Loh CK, Alias H
    Front Pediatr, 2021;9:660627.
    PMID: 33968859 DOI: 10.3389/fped.2021.660627
    Asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia can have a spectrum of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to having life-threatening thrombosis or hyperviscosity syndrome. At present, there is no recommendation on routine lipid monitoring during asparaginase-containing treatment phase, nor a standardized guideline on its management. Two cases are presented here to illustrate the effects of concurrent infection on asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia in patients with high-risk ALL and the use of SMOFlipid infusion as a treatment option in an acute situation.
  4. Abdul Rahman HI, Shah SA, Alias H, Ibrahim HM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008 Oct-Dec;9(4):649-52.
    PMID: 19256754
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, acute leukemia is the most common cancer among children below the age of 15. A case-control study was here conducted for cases from the Klang Valley, Malaysia, who received treatment at the National University of Malaysia Hospital (HUKM) and Kuala Lumpur General Hospital (GHKL). The main objective was to determine any association with environmental factors.

    METHODS: Case subjects were children aged below 15 years and diagnosed with acute leukemia in HUKM and GHKL between January 1, 2001 and May 30, 2007. Control subjects were children aged below 15 years who were diagnosed with any non-cancerous acute illnesses in these hospitals. A total of 128 case subjects and 128 control subjects were enrolled in this study. The information was collected using a structured questionnaire and a global positioning system (GPS) device. All factors were analyzed using unmatched logistic regression.

    RESULTS: The analysis showed that the occurrence of acute leukemia among children was strongly determined by the following factors: family income (odds ratio (OR) 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.42), father with higher social contact (OR 7.61, 95% CI: 3.78-15.4), number of elder siblings (OR 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.77), father who smokes (OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.49-5.16), and the distance of the house from a power line (OR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.18-4.49).

    CONCLUSIONS: Some socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental factors are strong predictors of the occurrence of acute leukemia among children in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In terms of environmental factors, it is recommended that future housing areas should be developed at least 200 m away from power lines.
  5. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Sam IC, AbuBakar S
    J Community Health, 2017 Oct;42(5):854-864.
    PMID: 28238029 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-017-0326-7
    The aims of this study were to explore the differences in (1) the perception of severity towards ZIKV infection and dengue fever, and (2) mosquito control practices before and after the ZIKV outbreak were declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Data were collected between Feb to May 2016 using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. The median scale score for perceived severity of ZIKV was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-5) versus 4 (IQR 3-5) for dengue (P 
  6. Alias H, Lau SCD, Schuitema I, de Sonneville LMJ
    Front Psychol, 2018;9:703.
    PMID: 29896137 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00703
    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological consequences in survivors of childhood brain tumor. Method: A case-control study was conducted over a period of 4 months in a tertiary referral center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Fourteen survivors of childhood brain tumor aged 7-18 years, who were off-treatment for at least 1 year and were in remission, and 31 unrelated healthy controls were recruited. The median age at diagnosis was 8.20 years (range: 0.92-12.96 years). The diagnoses of brain tumors were medulloblastoma, germ cell tumor, pineocytoma, pilocystic astrocytoma, suprasellar germinoma, and ependymoma. Eleven survivors received central nervous system irradiation. Seven tasks were selected from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program to evaluate alertness (processing speed), and major aspects of executive functioning, such as working memory capacity, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention. Speed, stability and accuracy of responses were the main outcome measures. Results: Survivors of childhood brain tumor showed statistically significant poorer performance on all tasks compared to healthy controls. Both processing speed and accuracy were impaired in the survivors, in particular under more complex task conditions. The survivors demonstrated deficits in alertness, sustained attention, working memory capacity, executive visuomotor control, and cognitive flexibility. Longer duration off treatment appeared to be correlated with poorer alertness, memory capacity, and inhibition. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumor in our center showed impaired neuropsychological functioning. Development of less toxic treatment protocols is important to prevent late effects of cognitive deficits in survivors of childhood brain tumor.
  7. Wong LP, Alias H, Sam IC, Zimet GD
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 2019 Apr;32(2):158-164.
    PMID: 30395984 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpag.2018.10.010
    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and beliefs regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among girls before and after vaccination in the Malaysian HPV Immunisation Programme.

    DESIGN: A nationwide longitudinal survey.

    SETTING: Thirty-two randomly selected schools from 13 states and 3 federal territories in Malaysia from February to March 2013, and October to November 2013.

    PARTICIPANTS: Form One female students (13 years old).

    INTERVENTIONS: None.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean knowledge score of HPV infection.

    RESULTS: A total of 2644 students responded to the prevaccination survey, of whom 2005 (70%) completed the postvaccination survey. The mean knowledge score was 2.72 (SD ± 2.20) of a maximum score of 10 in the prevaccination survey, which increased significantly to 3.33 (SD ± 1.73) after the 3 doses of HPV vaccine (P = .001). Many answered incorrectly that, "Only girls can get HPV infection" (91.5%, n = 1841 prevaccination vs 96.1%, n = 1927 postvaccination), and only a few were aware that, "Vaccinating boys helps to protect girls against HPV infection" (11.4%, n = 229 for prevaccination vs 10.2%, n = 206 for postvaccination). The mean knowledge score was significantly higher postvaccination among higher-income families and those with parents of a higher occupational status. Regarding beliefs about the HPV vaccine, 89.4% in the prevaccination survey held the view that they would not get a HPV infection, and the percentage remained similar in the postvaccination survey. Perceived severity of HPV infection also remained low in the pre- and postintervention groups. Only 21.5% reported receiving health information about HPV along with the provision of the HPV vaccine; those who received health information showed higher levels of knowledge.

    CONCLUSION: Findings revealed a general lack of knowledge and erroneous beliefs about HPV and the HPV vaccine even after receiving vaccination. This suggests that imparting accurate knowledge about HPV along with vaccine administration is essential. Specifically, girls from lower socioeconomic groups should be a target of educational intervention.

  8. Wong LP, Alias H, Hassan J, AbuBakar S
    Vaccine, 2017 10 13;35(43):5912-5917.
    PMID: 28886944 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.08.074
    The aim of this study was to examine the willingness of pregnant women to have prenatal screening for the Zika virus (ZIKV). Secondly, the study also assessed the acceptability of a hypothetical Zika vaccination and its association with the health belief model (HBM) constructs. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 4th October to 11th November 2016, among pregnant women who attended antenatal care at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The majority (81.8%) was willing to be tested for ZIKV and 78% felt that their spouse would be willing to be tested for ZIKV. A total of 94% expressed a willingness to receive a Zika vaccination if available. The participants expressed high perceived benefits of a ZIKV vaccination. Although many have a high perception of the severity of ZIKV, the proportion with a strong perception of their susceptibility to ZIKV was low. In the multivariate analysis of all the HBM constructs, cue-to-action, namely physician recommendation (odds ratio [OR]=2.288; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.093-4.793) and recommendation from friends or relatives (OR=4.030; 95% CI 1.694-9.587), were significantly associated with a willingness to be vaccinated against ZIKV. The favourable response to a Zika vaccination implies that more research attention has to be given to develop a vaccine against ZIKV. Should the vaccine be available in the future, publicity and healthcare providers would play a vital role in ensuring vaccine uptake among pregnant women.
  9. Wong LP, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Sam IC, AbuBakar S
    PMID: 27929451
    Perceptions about illnesses may influence self-care and preventive health behaviours. Illness perceptions of the Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were investigated under the framework of the Self-Regulation Model of Illness. Illness perception differences between ZIKV and dengue fever were also examined. Lastly, associations between illness perceptions of ZIKV with mosquito prevention practices were studied. Samples were drawn from landline telephone numbers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing in Malaysia. A total of 567 respondents completed the survey between February 2015 and May 2016. The median and interquartile range (IQR) for the total six dimensions of illness perceptions score was higher for dengue (23.0 (IQR 17.0-28.0)) than ZIKV (20.0 (IRQ 11.0-28.0)), p < 0.001. Respondents who planned to have children (OR 1.670, 95% CI 1.035-2.694 vs. no intention to have children) and had friends or acquaintances who died of dengue (OR 2.372, 95% CI 1.300-4.327 vs. no friends who died of dengue) were more likely to have a higher total score for six illness perceptions for ZIKV compared to dengue. Multivariate analysis indicated that the best predictors for mosquito control practices after the ZIKV outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, in descending order, were causes, control, timeline, and consequences dimensions of illness perception. Understanding the context in which a person perceives ZIKV may contribute to developing interventions that influence prevention behaviours.
  10. Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:236.
    PMID: 32574305 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00236
    Objectives: Sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes are crucial to the prevention of COVID-19. However, little is known about public awareness and attitudes regarding COVID-19 in China. The impact of COVID-19 on the societal well-being and anxiety levels of the public has never been documented. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge, attitudes, impact, and anxiety levels of the people of China in relation to the COVID-19 outbreak. Method: A cross-sectional population survey using an online questionnaire was undertaken between Jan 24 and Feb 24, 2020. The study participants were residents of mainland China over the age of 18 years. The attitude items in this study measured the perceived threat of COVID-19 based on the Health Belief Model. Anxiety was measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a self-reported questionnaire that measure both state (STAI-S), and trait anxiety (STAI-T) Results: A total of 2,446 completed responses were received. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for the total knowledge score was 20.3 (SD ± 2.9) out of a possible score of 23. The social disruption and household economic impact were notable, particularly in provinces with higher cumulative confirmed cases. The majority of responses indicated a low perceived susceptibility of being infected (86.7% [95%CI 85.4-88.1]), with a fair proportion of respondents perceiving a higher severity (62.9% [95% CI 61.0-64.8]). The mean total impact score was 9.9 (SD ± 3.8) out of a possible score of 15. The mean score for STAI-S was 48.7 (SD ± 10.8), whereas the mean STAI-T score was 45.7 (SD ± 8.5). By demographics, women reported significantly higher odds for higher levels of both STAI-S (OR = 1.67) and STAI-T (OR = 1.30) compared to men. People of a younger age were also more likely to experience higher STAI-S and STAI-T. Higher perceived susceptibility and severity and impact were strong predictors of higher levels of STAI-S and STAI-T. Conclusion: Our findings can assist in tailoring public communication to change people's knowledge and attitudes. The present study also underlined the importance of the promotion of mental health during infectious disease outbreaks to help in moderating the perceived threat, social and household economic impact, targeting the vulnerable segment of the population.
  11. Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP
    J Psychosom Res, 2021 05;144:110420.
    PMID: 33770568 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110420
    OBJECTIVE: Wuhan, the epicentre of the coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) outbreak, has been locked down on January 23, 2020. We conducted a study among the lay public in Wuhan to access their support, understanding of, compliance with, and the psychological impacts of the quarantine.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, online-based survey study between January 28, 2020, and February 2, 2020 among the adult lay public in Wuhan to access their support, understanding of, compliance with, and the psychological impacts of the quarantine. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to identify factors associated with psychological impacts.

    RESULTS: Among the 4100 participants investigated, a total of 15.9% were compliant with all the five household prevention measures, whereas 74.4% were compliant with all the three community prevention measures investigated. By demographics, participants of younger age, higher income, residing in an urban area, knowing neighbors infected with COVID-19 reported significantly higher psychological impact score. Participants with a lower level of support for quarantine were more likely to have a higher psychological impact score (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96). Participants with a lower level of compliance with preventive measures (score of 0-19) reported higher psychological impact (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.22-1.60 vs. score 20-24). Participants who had been out of house socializing and attended public events expressed higher psychological impact.

    CONCLUSIONS: Support, understanding of the rationale for quarantine are essential in ensuring appropriate psychological well-being during the quarantine. Improvements in compliance with preventive measures are highly warranted and may bring about a reduction in psychological distress.

  12. Alias H, Mohd Nazi NA, Lau Sie Chong D
    Front Pediatr, 2019;7:73.
    PMID: 30937299 DOI: 10.3389/fped.2019.00073
    Background: Low physical activity (PA) level has been reported among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The present study was performed to determine the level of participation in general PA and physical education in school (PES) among children with ALL who completed intensive chemotherapy and identify possible barriers that influence adherence to PA and PES. Methods: A cross-sectional, single-center study was conducted over 1 year in a tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology referral center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 47 children with ALL aged 7-18 years old who were off-treatment and attended school on a regular basis were recruited. A modified structured questionnaire adapted from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Division of Adolescent and School Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was used to assess the children's level of PA and PES participation. Results: Among the 47 children will ALL included herein, 11 (23.4%) were physically active for at least 60 min a day for 5 days or more, following CDC recommendations. The median duration from completion of intensive chemotherapy was 4.95 years (25th, 3.29; 75th, 7.95). Younger age at study entry (median, 8.7 years old vs. 12.2 years old) and younger age at diagnosis (median, 2.9 years old vs. 4.3 years old) were significantly associated with higher PA level. Almost all children (45/47, 95.7%) participated in PES. Barriers to non-participation in PES mainly included exhaustion or fear of injury. Conclusions: Majority of the children with ALL included herein had low levels of daily PA after intensive chemotherapy. Nonetheless, their participation in PES was encouraging. PA should thus be promoted during and after cessation of ALL treatment to prevent long-term health risks and improve overall quality of life.
  13. Wong LP, Hung CC, Alias H, Lee TS
    BMC Psychiatry, 2020 07 16;20(1):376.
    PMID: 32677926 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-02786-8
    BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that anxiety and behavioral responses are intense at the beginning of an epidemic. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and use of preventive measures against COVID-19. The study also compared the association between preventive measures and anxiety symptoms during the week immediately preceding the study and those symptoms and measures at the beginning of the outbreak.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey using an online questionnaire commenced on 14 February 2020. The study participants were residents of Taiwan ages 20 to 70 years. The 6-item state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-6) was used to assess anxiety symptoms. The questions about preventive measures asked participants about their personal protection, cough etiquette, contact precautions, voluntary quarantine, and prompt reporting. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors influencing an increase in the preventive measures scores.

    RESULTS: Of a total of 3555 completed responses, a total of 52.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50.4-53.7) of the respondents reported moderate to severe levels of anxiety symptoms in the past week, whereas 48.8% (95%CI 47.2-50.5) reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. With a higher score indicating greater anxiety, the median scores for anxiety symptoms in the past week and at the beginning of the outbreak were 46.7 (IQR [interquartile range] 36.7-53.3) and 43.3 (IQR 36.7-53.3), respectively. The median scores for the preventive measures taken in the past week and at the beginning of the outbreak were 26.0 (IQR 21.0-30.0) and 24.0 (IQR 19.0-28.0), respectively, out of a maximum score of 36. In the multivariable analysis, an increased anxiety symptom score from the beginning of the outbreak to the past week (adjusted OR = 7.38, 95%CI 6.28-8.66) was a strongly significant determinant of an increased preventive measures score in the past week compared with the score at the beginning of the outbreak.

    CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and preventive measures scores were high and increased with the epidemic rate. Higher anxiety was associated with an increased use of preventive measures against COVID-19.

  14. Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP
    J Med Internet Res, 2020 07 20;22(7):e19982.
    PMID: 32584779 DOI: 10.2196/19982
    BACKGROUND: An extensive amount of information related to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic was disseminated by mass and social media in China. To date, there is limited evidence on how this infodemic may influence psychobehavioral responses to the crisis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the psychobehavioral responses to the COVID-19 outbreak and examine their associations with mass and social media exposure.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study among medical and health sciences students from the Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China, was conducted between April 6-22, 2020.

    RESULTS: A total of 2086 completed responses were received. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM)-higher perception of susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.94), severity (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.10-1.59), self-efficacy (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.15), and perceived control or intention to carry out prevention measures (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.09-1.59)-were significantly associated with a higher mass media exposure score, whereas only three constructs-higher perception of severity (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.19-1.72), self-efficacy (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.38-2.48), and perceived control or intention to carry out prevention measures (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08-1.58)-were significantly associated with a higher social media exposure score. Lower emotional consequences and barriers to carry out prevention measures were also significantly associated with greater mass and social media exposure. Our findings on anxiety levels revealed that 38.1% (n=795; 95% CI 36.0-40.2) of respondents reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. A lower anxiety level was significantly associated with higher mass and social media exposure in the univariable analyses; however, the associations were not significant in the multivariable analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS: In essence, both mass and social media are useful means of disseminating health messages and contribute to the betterment of psychobehavioral responses to COVID-19. Our findings stress the importance of the credibility of information shared through mass and social media outlets and viable strategies to counter misinformation during a pandemic.

  15. Lin X, Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP
    Risk Manag Healthc Policy, 2021;14:3383-3393.
    PMID: 34429670 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S320448
    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of 'new normal' lifestyles, economic and social distribution, and individuals' well-being of people in China after the country ease the lockdown restriction.

    Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered online survey was carried out between 3 September and 15 October 2020.

    Results: A total of 8393 complete responses were received from a nationwide sample. Poor sustainability in the practice of "new norm" was reported. Noteworthy disparities were observed in willingness to carry out "new normal" practices by gender, urban-rural locality, non-Han and Han Chinese and educational attainment. There was evidence of economic and social disruption associated with COVID-19 or "new normal" practices. The current mean (±standard deviation [SD]) happiness score (110.45 ± 17.55) was slightly lower than the mean happiness score before (111.12 ± 17.83) the COVID-19 pandemic (t= -9.01, p<0.001). Lower socioeconomic status and greater economic and social disruptions were associated with lower current happiness scores. Moreover, greater willingness to adapt to "new normal" practices was associated with higher levels of happiness.

    Conclusion: There is a need to encourage sustainable practice of new norm post-pandemic. Segments of the public continue to experience significant economic and social effects and the post-pandemic 'new norms' remain at risk of leading to psychological consequences.

  16. Cai CZ, Lin Y, Alias H, Hu Z, Wong LP
    PMID: 34064814 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18105071
    Our aim was to examine perceived occupational turnover intentions among medical students and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study using a Web-based survey was conducted. A total of 2922 completed responses were received (response rate 55.7%). A total of 58.4% (95% CI 56.6-60.2) reported high turnover intention (score of 7-15). The odds of higher total turnover score among the fifth-year students was nearly four times that of first-year students (OR = 3.88, 95% CI 2.62-5.73). Perception of the medical profession as not being of high social status and reputation significantly influenced high turnover intention scores (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.90-2.68). All three dimensions of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) significantly predict turnover intention. Lower scores in the support from Significant Other (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84), Family (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.83) and Friend (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77) subscales were associated with higher turnover intention. Low score in the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was also associated with higher turnover intention (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.17-1.77). The findings shed light on the importance of changing public attitudes towards respecting the medical profession and improving the implementation of policies to protect the well-being of people in the medical profession.
  17. Wong LP, Alias H, Wong PF, Lee HY, AbuBakar S
    Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2020 09 01;16(9):2204-2214.
    PMID: 32730103 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2020.1790279
    BACKGROUND: The development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection is on the way. To prepare for public availability, the acceptability of a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) were assessed to provide insights into future demand forecasts and pricing considerations.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 3 to 12 April 2020. The health belief model (HBM) was used to assess predictors of the intent to receive the vaccine and the WTP.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,159 complete responses was received. The majority reported a definite intent to receive the vaccine (48.2%), followed by a probable intent (29.8%) and a possible intent (16.3%). Both items under the perceived benefits construct in the HBM, namely believe the vaccination decreases the chance of infection (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.19-5.26) and the vaccination makes them feel less worry (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.03-4.65), were found to have the highest significant odds of a definite intention to take the vaccine. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the amount that participants were willing to pay for a dose of COVID-19 vaccine was MYR$134.0 (SD±79.2) [US$30.66 ± 18.12]. Most of the participants were willing to pay an amount of MYR$100 [US$23] (28.9%) and MYR$50 [US$11.5] (27.2%) for the vaccine. The higher marginal WTP for the vaccine was influenced by no affordability barriers as well as by socio-economic factors, such as higher education levels, professional and managerial occupations and higher incomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the utility of HBM constructs in understanding COVID-19 vaccination intention and WTP.

  18. Lin Y, Alias H, Luo X, Hu Z, Wong LP
    J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry, 2020 09 22;62(2):201-210.
    PMID: 33183846 DOI: 10.1016/j.psym.2020.09.005
    BACKGROUND: Wuhan, the epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, was locked down on January 23, 2020. We aimed to investigate the barriers to the physical prevention, negative attitudes, and anxiety levels.

    METHODS: A online cross-sectional survey was conducted with the people living in Wuhan between March 12th and 23rd, 2020.

    RESULTS: Of a total of 2411 complete responses, the mean and standard deviation for the total physical prevention barriers score was 19.73 (standard deviation ± 5.3; range 12-45) out of a possible score of 48. Using a cut-off score of 44 for the State-Trait Inventory score, 79.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.2-81.5) of the participants reported moderate to severe anxiety during the early phase of the outbreak, and 51.3% (95% CI 49.2-53.3) reported moderate to severe anxiety after the peak of coronavirus disease 2019 was over (during the study period). Comparing anxiety levels in the early phase of the outbreak and after the peak of the outbreak, 58.5% (95% CI 56.5-60.5) recorded a decreased anxiety. Females reported a higher likelihood of having decreased levels of anxiety than males (odds ratio = 1.78, 95% CI 1.48-2.14). Low negative attitudes score were associated with a higher decrease in anxiety (odds ratio = 1.59, 95% CI 1.33-1.89).

    CONCLUSIONS: The attitudinal barriers to prevention of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 are more prominent than physical prevention barriers after the peak of coronavirus disease 2019. High anxiety levels even after the peak warrant serious attention.

  19. Lin Y, Hu Z, Danaee M, Alias H, Wong LP
    Risk Manag Healthc Policy, 2021;14:3605-3615.
    PMID: 34475792 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S322764
    Introduction: A shortage of nurses has been a major global concern, particularly during pandemics. Nursing students turning away from the nursing profession upon graduation may exacerbate nursing workforce shortfalls. The main objective of this study was to assess perceived occupational turnover intention among nursing students and associated factors (fear of COVID-19 and life satisfaction). Students were also asked to provide suggestions that could enhance their intention to join the nursing profession.

    Methods: An online survey was sent to all registered undergraduate nursing students at Fujian Medical University, China. The partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) was used to investigate key factors influencing turnover intention.

    Results: A total of 1020 complete responses were received (response rate: 86.2%). Nearly half (49.1%) reported that they would choose not to be on a nursing course if given a choice, 45.4% often think of not going into the nursing profession in the future, and 23.7% would consider entering a healthcare industry that has zero contact with patients. The total turnover intention score range was 3 to 15, and the mean ± standard deviation (SD) was 9.2 (SD ± 2.5). PLS-SEM path analysis revealed that fear of COVID-19 (β = 0.226, p < 0.001) had a positive effect on turnover intention. Satisfaction with life (β = -0.212, p < 0.001) had a negative effect on turnover intention. Analysis of open-ended survey data on students' perspectives on how to encourage nursing students to enter the nursing workforce revealed five central themes: 1) professional role, respect, and recognition; 2) higher wages; 3) reduce workload; 4) enhance occupational health and safety; and 5) career advancement opportunities.

    Conclusion: Factors influencing turnover intention and suggestions to reduce students' apprehension towards joining the nursing profession found in this study should be seriously taken into consideration in initiatives to address the nurse shortages.

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