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  1. Arief EM, Mohamed Z, Idris FM
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2005 May;42(3):277-9.
    PMID: 15865462
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of surgery on types and colony count of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients.

    DESIGN: Saliva samples were collected after the morning meal by placing a sterile cotton swab in the vestibule of the oral cavity from cleft lip and palate patients immediately preoperative and 12 weeks postoperative. Normal children were examined as a control group. Samples were cultured; Staphylococcus and Streptococcus isolates were identified and quantified.

    PATIENTS: Fifteen cleft lip and palate patients and 22 normal children, aged 3 to 39 months were examined.

    RESULTS: Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis of the viridans group of streptococci were the most commonly found in normal children, as well as in cleft lip and palate children. In the cleft lip and palate group, mean streptococcal count was 32.41 (29.80) and 46.46 (42.80) in the pre- and postoperative periods, respectively; in the normal group, the count was 20.93 (27.93) and 49.92 (34.72) at 0 week and 12 weeks, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common Staphylococcus species found in CLP patients, representing 47.4% postoperatively. In the cleft lip and palate children, mean staphylococcal count was 5.34 (8.13) and 0.56 (0.92) in the pre- and postoperative periods, respectively; in normal children, the count was 0.82 (1.98) and 0.60 (2.55) at 0 and 12 weeks, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only for the staphylococcal count between pre- and postoperative periods in children with cleft lip and palate as tested by analysis of variance (p < .05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Cleft lip and palate patients had more colonization by S. aureus compared with normal children, and the colony count decreased significantly following surgical repair of the cleft lip and palate.

  2. Genisa M, Shuib S, Rajion ZA, Arief EM, Hermana M
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2018 Oct 11.
    PMID: 30309283 DOI: 10.1177/0954411918806333
    The aim of this study is to investigate the estimation of density from the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography data in dental imaging, especially for dental implant application. A jaw phantom with various known densities of anatomical parts (e.g. soft tissue, cortical bone, trabecular bone, tooth enamel, tooth dentin, sinus cavity, spinal cord and spinal disc) has been used to test the accuracy of the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography in estimating the mechanical density (true density). The Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography data was evaluated via the MIMICS software using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods, and the results showed correlation with the true density of the object. In addition, the results revealed that the Hounsfield unit of cone beam computed tomography and bone density had a logarithmic relation, rather than a linear one. To this end, the correlation coefficient of logarithmic correlation (R2 = 0.95) is higher than the linear one (R2 = 0.77).
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