Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.
This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.
During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.
Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.
Work related musculoskeletal disorders represent a serious public health problem as it is a leading cause for disability and absenteeism in workers. The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study was to compare the muscle activity of the upper trapezius in subjects with neck pain and compare it to those of normal subjects.
Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
The Students' Resilience and Interpersonal Skills Development Education (STRIDE) is a preventive drug education programme. The rational of this programme is that preventive drug education has to begin early in age, before the development of social attitudes and behaviour of students. A pre and a post intervention surveys were performed to evaluate the impact of this programme. Nine schools from three states were identified to participate in the intervention. These schools were selected based on their locations in high-drug-use areas (where the prevalence of drug use exceeds 0.5% of the student population). The new intervention curriculum was put into practice for three months in the nine schools. The overall scores obtained by each respondent to assess their knowledge on drugs and its implications were analysed. The results showed that the programme made a positive impact from the pre to post intervention programme by using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p < 0.05). A high percentage of the questions showed significant evidence through the McNemar matched pair Chi-Squared test with Bonferonni correction that there were positive shifts in the answers by comparing the pre and post intervention results (p < 0.05). Recommendations have been discussed with the Ministry of Education to integrate this programme into the national primary school curriculum.
Preservation of larvae retrieved from cadavers is important in ensuring the quality and integrity of entomological specimens used for the estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI). The process of killing and preserving larvae could distort the larvae leading to inaccurate estimation of PMI. In this study, the effects of killing Chrysomya megacephala larvae with hot water at different temperatures and subsequent maintenance in various preservatives were determined. Larvae not killed by hot water but preserved directly were used as control. The types of preservative used were 10% formalin, 70% ethanol and Kahle's solution. The morphological features examined were length, turgidity, curvature and coloration of larvae. Larvae killed in 80ºC hot water have shorter mean length (12.47 ± 2.86 mm) compared to those in 60ºC hot water (12.95 ± 2.69 mm). Increasing the duration of preservation in all types of preservative caused elongations of larvae treated or untreated with hot water. There were no significant changes in larval turgidity preserved in Kahle's solution compared to other two preservatives and were unaffected by the duration of storage. Larvae preserved in Kahle's solution experienced the least changes in coloration and shape compared to other preserved larvae in 70% ethanol or 10% formalin. Larvae directly immersed alive in 70% ethanol experienced the most changes in curvature, coloration and turgidity. This study suggested that killing larvae with hot water at 80ºC and preservation in Kahle's solution is the optimum method resulting in least changes in morphological features of Ch. megacephala larvae.
An observational study was conducted in an oil palm plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia on August until September 2007 to note the decomposition process of pigs and their related faunal succession. We collected six species of ants (Formicidae) from 3 subfamilies: Formicinae (Oecophylla smaragdina and Anoplolepis gracilipes), Myrmicinae (Tetramorium sp. and Pheidologeton sp.) and Ponerinae (Odontoponera sp. and Diacamma sp.) that were associated with pig carcasses placed on the ground. Oecophylla smaragdina, Pheidologeton sp. and Tetramorium sp. were found on a partially burnt pig carcass whereas the other species were recovered from unburned pig carcass. These ants predated on fly eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. Ants could be found at all stages of decomposition starting from fresh until dry stage. Predatory ants can reduce fly population and thus may affect the rate of carcass decomposition but this was not seen in our study. Even though O. smaragdina was seen at all stages of decomposition of the burnt pig, this did not alter much the decomposition process by fly larvae.
Sepak Takraw is a sport which actively involves the lower limb. A cross sectional study was performed to investigate the lower limb kinetics (ground reaction force, flight time and contact time) involved during the vertical jumping and landing task between the early pubertal and late pubertal stages in National level Sepak Takraw athletes in Malaysia. Twenty athletes (8 pre pubertal and 12 late pubertal) with no previous history of any physical injuries were taken for the study. The kinetics data of the vertical jump task was calculated using a force platform 3-AMTI Biomechanics Force Platform. The Silicon ProCoach (Chart 5 software) was used to collect the ground reaction force signals, flight time and contact time. The results showed a non-significant decrease in peak ground reaction force in the post pubertal group as compared to the pre pubertal group (t(18)=0.659, p=0.518,CI(95)(-2.54, 4.86). Comparison of flight time between the two age groups showed a significant increase in the post pubertal group with mean and SD (0.7773 + or - 0.03) as compared to the pre pubertal group mean and SD (0.7296 + or - 0.05), which was statistically considered significant (p<0.05) (t(18)=-2.401, p<0.05,CI(95)(-0.089, -0.005). The findings from this study demonstrated that the flight time of the vertical jump task differed between the pre and post pubertal athletes with the post pubertal group having an improved ability in maintaining longer duration of flight phase.
Mesosomes of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 treated with antibiotics were examined morphologically under the electron microscope. The Transmission Electron Microscope Rapid Method was used to eliminate the artifacts due to sample processing. Mesosomes were seen in all the antibiotic treated bacteria and not in the control group. The main factor that contributes to the formation of mesosomes in the bacteria was the mode of action of the antibiotics. The continuous cytoplasmic membrane with infolding (mesosomes) as in the S. aureus ATCC 25923 is therefore confirmed as a definite pattern of membrane organization in gram positive bacteria assaulted by amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and oxacillin antibiotics. Our preliminary results show oxacillin and vancomycin treated bacteria seemed to have deeper and more mesosomes than those treated with amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the deep invagination and the number of mesosomes formed is associated with the types of antibiotic used.
This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.