Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the most important members of Klebsiella genus in Enterobacteriacae family, which is responsible for pneumonia (the destructive lung inflammation disease). Vegetables are known as source of contamination with K. pneumonia. Raw vegetables are usually consumed in salads and other dishes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of K. pneumoniae in raw vegetables marketed in Malaysia. Two hundred commonly used salad vegetables (lettuces, parsley, cucumber, tomato and carrot) from hypermarkets and wet markets were investigated for presence of K. pneumoniae using Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR). K. pneumoniae was found to be significantly more frequent (100%) and (82.5%) in lettuce and cucumbers, respectively. K. pneumoniae contamination was lowest in carrot samples (30%). All samples were contaminated with K. pneumoniae ranging from
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is an important foodborne pathogen which can cause foodborne listeriosis with high mortality rates especially in susceptible population groups such as pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The biosafety level of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal has becomes a great concern as chicken offal is a cheap source of protein and it is often served as side dishes in South East Asian countries. In Malaysia, the consumption of chicken offal has almost doubled from 5 g per capita per day in the early 1980s to 9 g per capita per day in 2009. In this study, risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk of acquiring listeriosis from consumption of chicken offal in Malaysia. A microbial survey on the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal were carried out in Selangor, Malaysia over a one-year period (November 2010 to October 2011). It was assumed that there were no seasonal changes in the prevalence and consumption pattern all year round. Assuming that 5.6 million people in Selangor, Malaysia consume a single serving (125 g) of chicken offal per week, it is estimated that in a year there could be 0.61 cases and 1.98 × 10-4 cases of listeriosis per 100,000 population of pregnant woman and immunocompromised individual, respectively. However, the potential for getting listeriosis among the healthy population was very low, only 1.39 × 10-8 cases per 100,000 population. This study demonstrated risk assessment model not only used as a tool to estimate the risk of acquiring illness but it can influence public health surveillance and providing data in setting appropriate level of protection.
Salmonella has been reported to be presence both in raw and processed foods worldwide. In this study, the prevalence, quantification and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from raw vegetables or locally known as ulam such as asiatic pennywort (Centella asiatica (L) Urb), water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC), long bean (Vigna sinensis EndL), and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC) obtained from retail markets in Selangor, Malaysia were carried out. From 96 samples tested, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 97.9%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 54.2% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 82.3% respectively. Samples were contaminated with Salmonella ranging from < 3 to 2400 MPN/g. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from the raw vegetables (ulam) were found to exhibit high resistance against ampicillin (100%), erythromycin (100%), amoxicillin/clavunic acid (81.3%), cephalothin (75%), streptomycin (50%) and ciprofloxacin (50%). All Salmonella isolates showed multi drug resistant (MDR) profile with each isolate being resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of Salmonella isolates ranged from 0.27 to 0.55 for Salmonella Enteritidis and 0.27 to 0.82 for Salmonella Typhimurium. The presence of Salmonella on raw vegetables (ulam) and high antibiotic resistance isolates indicated that raw vegetables could be contaminated and thus imposes possible health risk to local consumers.
Irrespective of its health effects, street foods are very popular with the consumers. The main
purpose of this research was to study the biosafety of Escherichia coli in popiah, a Malaysian
street food sold at a roadside food stall and a restaurant in Sri Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia,
using the combination of the most probable number (MPN)-Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR) assay-plating on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar methods. Using these biomolecular
methods, E. coli was detected in 12/15 (80%) and 11/15 (73%) of the collected samples from
the roadside food stall and the restaurant respectively. The incidence of stx virulence-associated
genes was detected in 1/15 (7%) among the E. coli isolated from samples taken from the
roadside food stall while the E. coli isolated from the restaurant was 3/15 (20%). The density
of E. coli ranged from 1100 MPN/g and the density of E. coli positive with stx genes
Food safety in Malaysia is not considered an issue yet. From the previous year (2005-
2015) records, the incidence rate of food poisoning had been fluctuating and despite that,
cases continue to occur especially among school students. As a developing nation, it is
high-time that Malaysia begins to emphasize on food safety to reduce the burden of
foodborne illness in the socio-economic development of the country, and at the same time,
gain benefits in terms of economic returns and trade through food safety enforcement.
Most importantly, public health is achieved through food safety implementation and
accentuation. The current standing point of the Malaysia’s food safety is discussed in this
review. In addition, the review will also discuss the role of academicians as intervention
contributions in tackling food safety issues. The review is hoped to provide valuable and
concentrated information and knowledge to readers in the light to drive Malaysia into
ensuring safer food for the public.
This study aims to determine the presence of extended-spectrum (ESBL) in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from raw vegetables by genotypic and phenotypic method. Fifty-three K. pneumoniae isolates that were obtained by plating method were confirmed by PCR. Isolates obtained were screened for their resistance to selected antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for ESBL detection is basically to confirm production of ESBL, in this study two types of antibiotics used which were amoxycillin/clavulanic Acid (AMC, 30 µg) and ceftazidime (CAZ, 30 µg), The resistance were 5/53 (9.4%) and 1/53 (1.9%), respectively. However, it was interesting to observe that none of the K. pneumoniae isolates demonstrated the presence of any of the bla genes by using genotypic method except blaTEM gene has been detected in two isolates out of 53 isolates of K. pneumoniae in this research.
E. coli O157:H7 is associated with life threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Raw milk is considered a high risk food as it is highly nutritious and serves as an ideal medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk samples. MPN-PCR method targeting the major virulence rfbE gene and fliCH7gene of E. coli O157:H7 was used. Total of 177 raw milk samples were collected from local dairy farms in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was found in raw cow milk (18.75%). E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 7.32% and 3.57% of raw goat and buffalo milk, respectively. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk ranged from
The organic foods’ market is becoming one of the rapidly growing sections in agricultural economies in the world. During the last two decades, food-borne outbreaks associated with fresh produce have rapidly increased. E. coli O57:H7, the caustic agent of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps, is mainly associated with meat and poultry product outbreaks but frequent outbreaks linked to the consumption of vegetables have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in some organic foods. A total of 230 organic food samples including four-winged bean, tomato, white radish, red cabbage, chinese cabbage, lettuce, cucumber and chicken form retailed groceries and supermarkets in Malaysia were investigated. Low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was detected in organic vegetables and chickens. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in all samples ranged from 2400 MPN/g. The overall MPN/g estimate of E. coli O157:H7 in the samples from organic groceries was higher than supermarket with the maximum of >2400 MPN/g. Most of the samples from supermarket showed a minimum of
Listeriosis and salmonellosis are the major foodborne illnesses worldwide. Over the last decade,
increasing reports about the antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella from diverse sources have prompted public health concerns, especially in developing countries with over reliance or misuse of antibiotic drugs in the treatment of humans and animals. In this study, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 58 L. monocytogenes and 12 Salmonella Enteritidis strains from vegetable farms and retail markets in Malaysia were testedby the standard disk diffusion method. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were found to exhibit 100% resistance to penicillin G. Also, high resistance patterns were observed for meropenem (70.7%) and rifampicin (41.4%). The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of L. monocytogenes isolates ranged from 0.11 to 0.56. Besides, the antibiogram results revealed that multidrugresistant (MDR) S. Enteritidis were detected and all the S. Enteritidis isolates demonstrated resistance to at least four antibiotics. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim failed to inhibit all the S. Enteritidis strains. Salmonella Enteritidis isolates also displayed high resistance to nalidixic acid (75.0%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (75.0%), and chloramphenicol (66.7%). Findings in this study indicated that vegetables could be potential sources of multidrug resistance of L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis, which can be a serious issue and a major concern for public health. Thus, there is a great need for surveillance programs in Malaysia to continuously monitor the antibiotic resistance profiles of important pathogens.
Bacteriophages are the viruses of bacteria and are widely distributed in the biosphere, exhibiting
dramatic manifestations both in liquid cultures and on solid media. In this study, bacteriophages
were isolated from different types of food (beef, chicken meats, cucumber, lettuce, clam,
cockles and shrimp) and sewage samples using 6 reference pathogen strains (Salmonella
Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria
monocytogenes and Escherichia coli). A total of 29 bacteriophage isolates were obtained and
further examined for titer via agar overlay assay. The titers were determined within the range
to 1011 PFU/mL. Our results showed that diverse of bacteriophages are naturally present
in a variety of foods.