This paper investigated the class characteristics in English handwriting of the Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore, many of whom learned their native language as a second language. One hundred and fifty-four handwriting exemplars were collected and features such as letter designs, pen-lifts, letter spacing and embellishments were studied. A number of characteristic features peculiar to the individual racial group were identified, which confirmed the impact of their native language writing systems on English handwriting.
The ascaridoid nematode of cats from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, previously identified morphologically as Toxocara canis, was characterized using a molecular approach. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region spanning the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1), the 5.8S gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced. The sequences for the parasite from Malaysian cats were compared with those for T. canis and T. cati. The sequence data showed that this taxon was genetically more similar to T. cati than to T. canis in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2. Differences in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences between the taxa (9.4-26.1%) were markedly higher than variation between samples within T. canis and T. cati (0-2.9%). The sequence data demonstrate that the parasite from Malaysian cats is neither T. canis nor T. cati and indicate that it is a distinct species. Based on these data, PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods were employed for the unequivocal differentiation of the Toxocara variant from T. canis and T. cati. These methods should provide valuable tools for studying the life-cycle, transmission pattern(s) and zoonotic potential of this parasite.
Introduction: Medication error is a global issue. Despite, the various impacts on health and non-health, continuous monitoring, assessment and intervention are required to reduce the number of medication error. Precise information on the root cause of medication error in Hospital Queen Elizabeth II, Kota Kinabalu will aid in the preventative measures to reduce medication error among nurses. Thus, this study aims to describe the incident of medication errors among nurses.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to review medication error incidents Reports between 2015 to 2018. Data were analysed according to the type of error, day and shift of medication error occurred, causes and month of services. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics in SPSS 22.
Results: A total of 54 reports was reviewed. The mean (SD) month of services among nurses involved in the medication error is 41.3 (24.9) months. The most common type of medication error is the wrong frequency with 23 (42.6%) cases. Majority cases of medication error occurred in weekdays with 41 (75.9%) cases and 24 (44.4%) cases happen during the night shift. Poor communication among healthcare workers was the most commonly reported human error with 42 (77.8%) reports, followed by36 (66.7%) reports of failure to comply standard of procedure in medication administration.
Conclusion: Though this study found team factor is the recurrent causes, poorly designed work systems and individual factor should be imperious as well. A qualitative study is required to understand more on nurse behaviour practice towards medication administration. The high authority plays an important role to monitor this matter to improve medication safety practice.