Introduction: Maternal death is a sensitive health indicator being monitored closely by the Ministry of Health. Obstetric emergency (OE) protocol is introduced to manage OE and to improve maternal outcome. However, there is no national OE guideline available and the OE protocol varies among different institutions. The current audit aims to evaluate the service quality during OE in Duchess of Kent Hospital (DOKH) in accordance with OE protocol DOKH revision-2017.
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a worrying public health issue worldwide. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) brings revolution to HCV treatment. Pharmacistsâ€™ role in Malaysia is significant since the implementation of Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (MTAC). This study aims to determine the sustained virological response (SVR12) for HCV patients treated with Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir and/or Ribavirin. Besides, it evaluates adherence rate, types of pharmaceutical intervention and physiciansâ€™ acceptance rate.
Introduction: Myopia has been regarded as an important cause of blindness and visual impairment by WHO. Due to higher incidence of myopia in a preterm baby with ROP, early detection and visual rehabilitation need to commence as soon as possible to give the children better quality of life and prevent blindness in this population. To determine the prevalence of ROP and refractive status in premature infants in Sabah Women and Children Hospital, Kota Kinabalu in 2018. To establish the relationship between low BW and GA with the presentation of ROP.
Ambulance response time (ART) has an inseparable relationship with mortality rates and therefore is important to be reduced. However, an unprecedented increase in road traffic congestion has led to longer ART, especially during peak hours. To reduce ART despite congested traffic, a pre-dispatched ambulance is deployed at hotspot locations during peak hours. This study aims to determine if the hotspot strategy is able to reduce ART in an Urban Emergency Medical Services system.
“If you hear of an outbreak of plague in a land, do not enter it; if the plague breaks out in a place while you are in it, do not leave that place”, reported by Sahih Al-Bukhari. This was the phrase quoted by Prophet Muhammad 14 centuries ago concerning both in disease spread and prevention. The relevancy of this statement is now widely seen and surge by the social media in a hashtag of “stay home” on an international level due to pandemic of COVID-19 disease.
Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is widely used in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism. CTPA is not without adverse effects as it involves intravenous contrast injection and radiation exposure. The annual incidence of pulmonary embolism is 60 – 70 per 100,000 populations and CTPA remains the commonest imaging modality1. This study aims to audit all CTPA performed at Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail, Batu Pahat, Johor for the entire year of 2018 to illustrate the demographic data, symptoms, risk factors, clinical scoring system applied and patients’ outcome. A retrospective study was conducted to audit all CTPA performed between 1st January to 31st December 2018 via the radiology department electronic records and patients’ records. There were a total of 60 CTPA performed in the entire year of 2018 with 16 positive and 44 negative scans. Among the 16 positive scans, 7 (44%) had a Wells score above 6, 6 (38%) had a Wells score between 2 – 6 and 3 (18%) had a Wells score less than 2. Out of the 16 positive scans, 4 (25%) were known malignancy and 1 was a known case of anti-phospholipid syndrome. All 60 patients had electrographs and arterial blood gases performed prior to CTPA. D dimer was performed in 15 cases (5%). Among the 16 positive scan patients, 4 (25%) passed away during the same admission directly or indirectly related to pulmonary embolism. This annual computed tomography audit report will assist clinicians in making better diagnostic decision when dealing with patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
Introduction: Oral cancer screening programmes have been promoted to be an integral part of national-control strategies. However, such programmes are often not endorsed due to lack of evidence of its cost-effectiveness. This study aims to systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of oral cancer screening programmes.
Alcohol consumption has consequences for the health and quality of life of individuals and communities. It is a problem among some of the Indigenous groups of Sabah and Sarawak with some of the highest prevalence of risky drinking in Malaysia. Alcohol is considered to be part of the culture of some of these Indigenous groups and a way to maintain the connection to their culture and traditions. However, drinking too much on a single occasion and drinking regularly over time is not a part of the culture. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the positive and negative effects of alcohol on quality of life (QoL) of an Indigenous community of Sabah. A total of 56 villagers from the West Coast Division of Sabah were interviewed in focus group discussions using the diamond dialogue tool. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and revealed that alcohol consumption has both beneficial and adverse effects on health, behavioural, social, economic and psychological factors, depending on the drinking patterns. These harmful results suggest that awareness and harm-reduction programmes may help to empower the Indigenous groups of Sabah to reduce alcohol-related harm
Phasic ECG voltage changes or electrical alternans is a well-described ECG changes seen in the pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Popular as once believed, this ECG features are no longer considered pathognomonic for pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Electric alternans is observed in pneumothorax especially left-sided pneumothorax. This is a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and breathlessness to the emergency department. Assessment in the emergency unit revealed an obvious distress man with a respiratory rate of 60 breaths/min with cyanosis There were generalised rhonchi and prolonged expiratory breath sound appreciated. Chest X-ray (CXR) was done and diagnosed to have left tension pneumothorax. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed electrical alternans in all leads. He was intubated for respiratory distress followed by chest tube insertion. His initial ECG findings resolved after treatment of the tension pneumothorax. Doctors need to evaluate the cardiac findings along with respiratory findings.
High anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) is a hallmark of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). Occasionally, a Normal Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis (NAGMA) can be seen, especially during the treatment phase. In this case report, a 55-year-old lady with diabetes mellitus who presented with a 2-day history of fever, lethargy and multiple episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea. Initial laboratory investigations revealed: capillary blood glucose as 27 mmol/L, urine ketone as 3+, blood ketone as 3.5 mmol/L, serum bicarbonate as 14 mmol/L, and serum chloride as 95 mmol/L. She was treated with intravenous normal saline fluid resuscitation and constant rate insulin infusion which was fortunately accompanied by stabilization of blood glucose and normalization of blood ketone to 0.2 mmol/L. However, despite normalization of her anion gap (25 to 14), she remained unwell with acidotic breathing due to refractory hyperchloraemic NAGMA with bicarbonate at 11 mol/L and chloride of 112 mmol/L. It was then decided to administer 100 mL of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate solution. The next day, she was no longer tachypneic as her bicarbonate and carbon dioxide improved to 21 mmol/L and 32 mmHg respectively. The presence of NAGMA in DKA should prompt clinicians to conduct a thorough search for possible underlying causes, such as gastrointestinal fluid loss, sepsis and chloride load from aggressive fluid resuscitation with normal saline. Sodium bicarbonate should only be considered in intractable cases to correct a NAGMA and not routinely used in the treatment of DKA.
Dear editor, We read with great interest the article by Go ZL et al., which was published in your esteemed journal1. The authors had reported an unusual and yet important case of cutaneous manifestations of malignancy. Being the only and initial presentation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, prurigo nodularis can manifest as a benign dermatological appearance in the underlying sinister condition. We want to again highlight the importance of this bizarre cutaneous presentation which can counterfeit the actual and occult villain.
Contralateral hyperhidrosis from the cardiovascular accident has been infrequently described in the stroke literature. The clinical significance and pathogenesis are yet well understood. This is a case of a 60-year-old man who developed excessive sweating of the paralyzed side with a pure division along the midline of the body secondary to a subcortical stroke, which region is supplied by branches of middle cerebral artery territory known as deep perforating lenticulostriate. To the best of our knowledge, a precise clinicoanatomic correlation between hyperhidrosis and subcortical stroke has not been widely reported. In this review, we summarize the existing literature of post-stroke hyperhidrosis to evaluate the correlation between clinical manifestation and its neuroanatomical location. According to the location of the infarction and clinical features, it can be concluded that both tracks en route through the ipsilateral internal capsule, after originating in the opercular cortex before crossing the brain stem and terminal connections with the contralateral thoracic spinal cord. Therefore, the phenomenon of hyperhidrosis in anterior circulation stroke might be postulated as due to the disruption of the sympathoinhibitory pathway that controls sweat glands, similarly like posterior circulation stroke.
Milk discharge from neonatal breast commonly occurs bilaterally. Majority of them are benign in nature. Those cases usually require conservative management and will resolve with time. It typically occurs within one month of age in which late-onset of galactorrhoea in toddlers is indeed a rare occasion. Thus, an abnormal cause needs to be ruled out. An 18-months-old child had persistent milky discharge from the left nipple for several days without underlying specific identified causes. This case highlights the occurrence of physiological milk discharge can still possibly occur at the age beyond one-year-old despite its absence in the initial months of life. The principle observation at primary care is still adequate in managing such cases unless high suspicion of alarming disease arises. This case proved a late onset of physiological galactorrhoea can still occur in the early toddler age group.
Getting appropriate healthcare is a challenge to the citizens in Malaysia due to the limited facilities, healthcare providers, and cost of healthcare. Uberization of healthcare will help fill this gap. Uberization helps modify the market or economic model with the introduction of a cheaper and more effective alternative service by introducing a different way of buying or using it, with the use of mobile technology. With powerful artificial intelligence engines operating on cloud servers, mobile apps can provide a better healthcare experience for patients. With uberization application, the patient need not come to the hospital to see a doctor before a treatment can be planned. Once a request is made by the patient, the healthcare providers can come to see the patient at an agreed place. This article aims to explore the possible uberization of healthcare in Malaysia.
Frontonasal dysplasia (FND) is an uncommon congenital anomaly affecting the eyes, nose and forehead. In this case report, a baby of a 22-year-old mother was diagnosed with a midline facial cleft, bifid nose and hypertelorism during an ultrasound scan at 29th week of gestation. Besides a history of miscarriage on first pregnancy, no other abnormalities findings were found in laboratory or radiological examination of the newborn. Counselling about abnormality and psychological support were given by both obstetrician and neonatologist during the antenatal period. The patient delivered vaginally at 36th week with spontaneous labour and no complication was observed. Further interventions including corrective treatment have been planned as they often interfere with important functions such as breathing and feeding. Thus, the paediatric surgical team decided to do the operation when the baby reaches one year old as then tissues have been developed to 90% of their eventual form to give optimal treatment results. Further life expectancy depends on the severity of the malformation and whether or not surgical intervention can improve the associated health problems. This case report raises the importance of awareness on the nutritional value of pregnant mothers especially carotene and folic acid intake which may be associated with the organ maldevelopment. Overall, this report outlined the management of this rare condition experienced by the patient, particularly in a resource-limited setting like Yangon in Myanmar and also reviewed the literature about the presentation and classification of this condition.
The CECT scan of the abdomen at axial and coronal views show gas bubbles tracking along the inner wall of the ascending colon and hepatic flexure, which is separated from the intraluminal gas within the bowel. These intramural gas bubbles appear to be outlining the bowel wall circumferentially. The bowel wall appears to be thickened however the inner mucosa is not enhanced. There are no ascites in the images provided. The colon of the hepatic flexure and transverse colon appears dilated. No significant atherosclerotic plaque in the visualised arteries. Based on the clinical presentations and CECT features in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the best diagnosis for him is benign pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) secondary to obstructed low rectal cancer. He was subjected for a trephine transverse colostomy to relieve the obstruction with simultaneous transanal rectal mass biopsy. Once the histology is available, he subsequently will be referred for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy as neoadjuvant treatment and later for a low anterior resection, provided that it is a localized disease.
Obesity has become a global health issue, not to mention Malaysia, which topped over the list of countries in Asia. On World Health Day in 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that 64% of the male population and 65% of the female population in Malaysia are either obese or overweight1. The ringing of alarm is tremendously loud in the silence. Depending on each of us, this can be an issue that we laugh over or a kind but severe urge for us to take a step backwards, observe, and self-reflect.
Telomeres are specialized DNA complexes found at the end of all chromosomes. Human, as a member of eukaryotic cells, requires telomeres to maintain the length and the stability of chromosomes. Telomeres lose their non-coding DNA sequence to protect the genetic information on the chromosomes. Shortening of telomeres occurs in most somatic cells after sufficient cell division in a human lifetime. Normal haemopoietic cells or stem cells possess telomerase enzyme to restore telomeres and allow further replication. Telomere dysfunction is the origin of several degenerative disorders and also predispose to cancer. Roles of telomere in carcinogenesis and ageing related disorders are reviewed.