Aim: This study was conducted to determine the sexual dysfunction and postpartum-related factors in Bandar Abbas women in 2016.
Material and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study used systematic random sampling on 432 postpartum women referred to Bandar Abbas Healthcare Centers. Data were collected by Demographic and Obstetrics Questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire through interview and were analyzed by using SPSS ver.22 method.
Results: The overall rate of sexual dysfunction was reported 85.95%. The most common postpartum sexual dysfunction was pain sexual dysfunction during sexual intercourse. The mean score of all types of sexual dysfunction increased over time after delivery except sexual satisfaction so that the mean score of sexual satisfaction did not show significant differences over time. There was a significant relationship between sexual dysfunction with factors such as duration of marriage (p< 0.001), number of children (p<0.001), familial relationship (p=0.028), episiotomy status (P=0.002) and contraceptive method (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of sexual disorders in this study, healthcare systems need to pay more attention to this area. In order to promote the health status of the family and ultimate of the society, attention to sexual health as well as the early diagnosis and treatment of sexual dysfunction of couples are important, especially during pregnancy and after childbirth.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three databases including MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were from inception to August 2017.
RESULT: Two systematic reviews and 11 RCTs were included in the overview. According to the findings, isoflavones increased the maturation value and attenuated the vaginal atrophy in the post-menopausal women. Topical isoflavones had beneficial effects on the vaginal atrophy. Similar efficacy was found in Pueraria mirifica and conjugated estrogen cream on dryness ( p = 0.277), soreness ( p = 0.124) and irritation ( p = 0.469), as well as discharge ( p = 0.225) and dyspareunia ( p = 0.089). However, the conjugated estrogen cream was more effective compared to Pueraria mirifica ( p > 0.005) regarding maturation index improvement. Comparison of fennel 5% vaginal cream and placebo gel showed significant difference in superficial cells ( p
Methods: This study is a review of relevant publications about the effects of raloxifene on sleep disorder, depression, venous thromboembolism, the plasma concentration of lipoprotein, breast cancer, and cognitive function among menopausal women.
Results: Raloxifene showed no significant effect on depression and sleep disorder. Verbal memory improved with administration of 60 mg/day of raloxifene while a mild cognitive impairment risk reduction by 33% was observed with administration of 120 mg/day of raloxifene. Raloxifene was associated with a 50% decrease in the need for prolapse surgery. The result of a meta-analysis showed a significant decline in the plasma concentration of lipoprotein in the raloxifene group compared to placebo (standardized mean difference, -0.43; 10 trials). A network meta-analysis showed that raloxifene significantly decreased the risk of breast cancer (relative risk, 0.572; 95% confidence interval, 0.327-0.881; P = 0.01). In terms of adverse effects of raloxifene, the odds ratio (OR) was observed to be 1.54 (P = 0.006), indicating 54% increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) while the OR for pulmonary embolism (PE) was 1.05, suggesting a 91% increase in the risk of PE alone (P = 0.03).
Conclusions: Raloxifene had no significant effect on depression and sleep disorder but decreased the concentration of lipoprotein. Raloxifene administration was associated with an increased risk of DVT and PE and a decreased risk of breast cancer and pelvic organ prolapse in postmenopausal women.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All observational studies, including descriptive, descriptive-analytic, case-control, and cohort studies published between 1990 and 2019, will be included in the study. Review articles, case studies, case reports, letter to editors, pilot studies, and editorial will be excluded from the study. The search will be conducted in the Cochrane Central Register, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ProQuest, Scopus, WOS, and CINAHL databases. Eligible studies should assess at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms in pregnant women or in the first year postpartum. Quality assessment of studies will be performed by two authors independently based on the NOS checklist. This checklist is designed to assess the quality of observational studies. Data will be analyzed using Stata software ver. 11. Considering that the index investigated in the present study will be the level of sexual disorder, standard error will be calculated for each study using binomial distribution. The heterogeneity level will be investigated using Cochran's Q statistic and I2 index in a chi-square test at a significance level of 1.1. Predictable limitations of this study included a small number and unacceptable quality of studies.
DISCUSSION: This systematic review addresses the factors associated with sexual dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum. Considering the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women, the treatment of this problem has been highly sought after by the World Health Organization in recent years. The results of this study can help discover new strategies by introducing factors affecting women's sexual dysfunction, thereby eliminating or diminishing these factors, and play an important role in improving the quality of life of women during pregnancy and postpartum periods.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018083554.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 258 community dwelling women from urban and rural settings who participated in health campaigns. In order to reduce the sampling bias, half of the study population performed the self-sampling prior to the physician sampling while the other half performed the self-sampling after the physician sampling, randomly. Acquired samples were assessed for cytological changes as well as HPV DNA detection.
RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 40.4±11.3 years. The prevalence of abnormal cervical changes was 2.7%. High risk and low risk HPV genotypes were found in 4.0% and 2.7% of the subjects, respectively. A substantial agreement was observed between self-sampling and the physician obtained sampling in cytological diagnosis (k=0.62, 95%CI=0.50, 0.74), micro-organism detection (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.66, 0.88) and detection of hormonal status (k=0.75, 95%CI=0.65, 0.85) as well as detection of high risk (k=0.77, 95%CI=0.4, 0.98) and low risk (K=0.77, 95%CI=0.50, 0.92) HPV. Menopausal state was found to be related with 8.39 times more adequate cell specimens for cytology but 0.13 times less adequate cell specimens for virological assessment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that self-sampling has a good agreement with physician sampling in detecting HPV genotypes. Self-sampling can serve as a tool in HPV screening while it may be useful in detecting cytological abnormalities in Malaysia.