METHODS: Ninety five first-time male attendees of the Genito-urinary Medicine Clinic in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this cross-sectional study. The detection of C. trachomatis was achieved through direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) staining of urethral swabs and real-time polymerase chain reaction testing (Xpert® CT/NG assay) on urine specimens. N. gonorrhoeae was detected through Gram staining and culture of urethral swabs and Xpert® CT/ NG assay on urine specimens.
RESULTS: From the Xpert® CT/NG results, 11 (11.6%) attendees had chlamydia, 23 (24.2%) had gonorrhoea and 8 (8.4%) had both STIs. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in detecting chlamydia compared to Xpert® CT/NG were 5.3% (95% CI: 0-28) and 94.7% (95% CI: 86-98), respectively. For gonorrhoea, the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining were 90.3% (95% CI: 73-98) and 95.3% (86-99), respectively, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of culture compared to Xpert® CT/NG were 32.2% (95% CI: 17-51) and 100% (95% CI: 93-100), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Although Gram-stained urethral swab smears are sensitive enough to be retained as a screening tool for gonorrhoea, culture as well as DFA lack sensitivity and are poorly suited to screen for gonorrhoea and chlamydia, respectively. However, owing to their high specificity, conventional detection methods are still suitable as confirmatory tests for gonorrhoea and chlamydia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty units of FFP kept at -20°C were thawed using a 37°C water bath and immediately sampled for baseline Factor II (FII), Factor VIII (FVIII) and fibrinogen activity levels and sterility testing. Each unit was then divided into two smaller bags (i.e. Bag I and Bag II) and kept at 4°C. At 6 hours and Day 3, representative samples were taken from Bag I for coagulation factor activity assays, while at Day 5 representative samples were taken from Bag II for coagulation factor activity assays and sterility testing.
RESULTS: FII activities at the four time points were 73.43%, 73.73%, 71% and 69.8%, respectively, while FVIII activities were 177.63%, 144.37%, 80.8% and 70.97%, respectively. Fibrinogen levels at the four time points were 3.24 g/L, 3.24 g/L, 3.21 g/L and 3.20 g/L, respectively. All samples were free from microbial contamination even at Day 5.
CONCLUSION: The mean reduction in FII and fibrinogen activities on Day 5 was 5% and 1%, respectively. However, FVIII activity declined significantly by approximately 60% at Day 5. Despite these reductions, thawed plasma stored for up to 5 days at 4°C is still suitable for use as the coagulation factor activity levels still exceed the minimum release criteria recommended in quality assurance regulations.
MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2016 to December 2017. A total of 303 isolates were included in this study which was obtained from 238 patients. The patients' microbiological worksheets and medical notes were reviewed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, demographic data, classification of infection, and outcome (survival versus death).
RESULTS: Most of the patients were in the age group of one to less than five years old (41%) with 58% male and 85% Malay patients. Common causes of BSI were Staphylococcus aureus (17%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%), Acinetobacter baumanii (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%), and Escherichia coli (6%). Sixty percent of BSI episodes were caused by gram-negative bacteria, 34% by gram-positive bacteria, and 6% by fungi. Most of the infections were classified as hospital-acquired infections (72%), followed by healthcareassociated (20%) and community-acquired infections (8%). There were 33% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 53% of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 33% ESBL producing Escherichia coli. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 27% with the highest CFR caused by Serratia marcescens (53.3%).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of paediatric bloodstream infections are hospital-acquired. Improvement in prevention strategies and revisions in antibiotic policies are important to overcome it.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving 352 students, comprising 109 (31.0%) males and 243 (69.0%) females. Blood specimens were tested for anti-HBs, where levels of ≥10 mIU/mL was considered reactive and protective. Students with non-reactive levels were given a 20 μg HBV vaccine booster. Anti-HBs levels were tested six weeks after the first booster dose. Those with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL were then given another two booster doses, at least one month apart. Anti-HBs levels were tested six weeks after the third dose.
RESULTS: Ninety-seven students (27.6%) had anti-HBs ranging from 10 to >1000 mIU/mL while 255 (72.4%) had anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL. After one booster dose, 208 (59.1%) mounted anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL. Among the remaining 47 (13.3%), all except two students (0.6%) responded following completion of three vaccination doses. They were negative for HBsAg and anti-HBcore antibody, thus regarded as non-responders.
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HBs levels waned after 20 years post-vaccination, where more than 70% were within non-reactive levels. For healthcare workers, a booster dose followed by documenting anti-HBs levels of ≥10 mIU/mL may be recommended, to guide the management of post-exposure prophylaxis. Pre-booster anti-HBs testing may not be indicated. Serological surveillance is important in long-term assessment of HBV vaccination programs. No HBV carrier was detected.