The recurrent environmental and economic issues associated with the diminution of fossil fuels are the main impetus towards the conversion of agriculture, aquaculture and shellfish biomass and the wastes into alternative commodities in a sustainable approach. In this review, the recent progress on recovering and processing these biomass and waste feedstocks to produce a variety of value-added products via various valorisation technologies, including hydrolysis, extraction, pyrolysis, and chemical modifications are presented, analysed, and discussed. These technologies have gained widespread attention among researchers, industrialists and decision makers alike to provide markets with bio-based chemicals and materials at viable prices, leading to less emissions of CO2 and sustainable management of these resources. In order to echo the thriving research, development and innovation, bioresources and biomass from various origins were reviewed including agro-industrial, herbaceous, aquaculture, shellfish bioresources and microorganisms that possess a high content of starch, cellulose, lignin, lipid and chitin. Additionally, a variety of technologies and processes enabling the conversion of such highly available bioresources is thoroughly analysed, with a special focus on recent studies on designing, optimising and even innovating new processes to produce biochemicals and biomaterials. Despite all these efforts, there is still a need to determine the more cost-effective and efficient technologies to produce bio-based commodities.