A thermal degradation pathway of the decolourisation of Reactive Cibacron Blue F3GA (RCB) in aqueous solution through catalytic thermolysis is established. Catalytic thermolysis is suitable for the removal of dyes from wastewater as it breaks down the complex dye molecules instead of only transferring them into another phase. RCB is a reactive dye that consists of three main groups, namely anthraquinone, benzene and triazine groups. Through catalytic thermolysis, the bonds that hold the three groups together were effectively broken and at the same time, the complex molecules degraded to form simple molecules of lower molecular weight. The degradation pathway and products were characterized and determined through UV-Vis, FT-IR and GCMS analysis. RCB dye molecule was successfully broken down into simpler molecules, namely, benzene derivatives, amines and triazine. The addition of copper sulphate, CuSO4, as a catalyst, hastens the thermal degradation of RCB by aiding in the breakdown of large, complex molecules. At pH 2 and catalyst mass loading of 5 g/L, an optimum colour removal of 66.14% was observed. The degradation rate of RCB is well explained by first order kinetics model.
The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.
The aquatic ecotoxicity of chemicals involved in the manufacturing process of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays was assessed with a battery of four selected acute toxicity bioassays. We focused on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, CAS No. 75-59-2), a widely utilized etchant. The toxicity of TMAH was low when tested in the 72 h-algal growth inhibition test (Pseudokirchneriellia subcapitata, EC50=360 mg L(-1)) and the Microtox® test (Vibrio fischeri, IC50=6.4 g L(-1)). In contrast, the 24h-microcrustacean immobilization and the 96 h-fish mortality tests showed relatively higher toxicity (Daphnia magna, EC50=32 mg L(-1) and Oryzias latipes, LC50=154 mg L(-1)). Isobologram and mixture toxicity index analyses revealed apparent synergism of the mixture of TMAH and potassium iodide when examined with the D. magna immobilization test. The synergistic action was unique to iodide over other halide salts i.e. fluoride, chloride and bromide. Quaternary ammonium ions with longer alkyl chains such as tetraethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium were more toxic than TMAH in the D. magna immobilization test.
Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of CGAs in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating CGAs and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut CGAs removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS CGAs removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5-6. CGAs and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. CGAs were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph.
In this work, the cytotoxicity and toxicity of phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with three hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine, ethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol were investigated. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using brine shrimp (Artemia salina). The toxicity was investigated using the two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity of tested DESs was much higher than that of their individual components, indicating their toxicological behavior was different. It was also found that there was toxic effect on the studied bacteria, indicating their potential application as anti-bacterial agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the cytotoxicity and toxicity of phosphonium-based DESs were studied.
A series of experiments were carried out to determine the best medium for the recovery of cobalt by means of an electrogenerative system. Use of the electrogenerative system with a chloride medium had shown promising performance with the highest free energy of -389.8 kJ mol(-1) compared to that with sulphate and nitrate media. Subsequently, the influence of catholyte concentrations on cobalt recovery using the electrogenerative process was carried out by varying the initial cobalt concentration and sodium chloride concentration. The results showed that almost 100% recovery was attained within 1-4 h of the recovery process. Influence of pH was investigated where the electrogenerative system performed best between pH 5.0 and 7.0. Maximum cell performance of 83% with 99% cobalt removal was obtained at 90 min when 100 mg L(-1) of Co(2+) in 0.5 M NaCl was taken as catholyte solution. The values of ΔH(o) and ΔS(o) of the process were evaluated as 33.41 kJ mol(-1) and 0.13 kJ mol(-1), respectively.
Wetlands are an important source of DOM. However, the quantity and quality of wetlands' DOM from various climatic regions have not been studied comprehensively. The relationship between the concentrations of DOM (DOC), humic substances (HS) and non-humic substances (NHS) in wetland associated sloughs, streams and rivers, in cool temperate (Hokkaido, Japan), sub-tropical (Florida, USA), and tropical (Sarawak, Malaysia) regions was investigated. The DOC ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 mg CL(-1) in Hokkaido, 6.0-24.4 mg CL(-1) in Florida, and 18.9-75.3 mg CL(-1) in Sarawak, respectively. The relationship between DOC and HS concentrations for the whole sample set was regressed to a primary function with y-intercept of zero (P<0.005) and a slope value of 0.841. A similar correlation was observed between DOC and NHS concentrations, with a smaller slope value of 0.159. However, the correlation coefficient of the latter was much larger when the data was regressed to a logarithmic curve. These observations suggest the presence of a general tendency that the increased DOC in the river waters was mainly due to the increased supply of HS from wetland soils, whereas the rate of the increase in the NHS supply has an upper limit which may be controlled by primary productivity.
Eight hydroxylammonium-based room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been synthesized by acid-base neutralization of ethanolamines with organic acids. The ILs were characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and elemental analysis. Their anti-microbial activities were determined using the well-diffusion method. All eight ILs were toxic to Staphylococcus aureus, while 2-hydroxyethylammonium lactate and 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylethanaminium acetate showed high anti-microbial activity against a wide range of human pathogens.
A study to assess the level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in edible marine biota collected from coastal waters of Malaysia was conducted using GC-MS and SPE extraction. An analytical method was developed and validated to measure the level of 15 OCPs and BPA simultaneously from five selected marine species. It was observed that some samples had low levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and p,p'- DDD ranging from 0.50 ng g(-1) to 22.49 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w) but significantly elevated level of endosulfan I was detected in a stingray sample at 2880 ng g(-1) d.w. BPA was detected in 31 out of 57 samples with concentration ranging from below quantification level (LOQ: 3 ng g(-1)) to 729 ng g(-1) d.w. The presence of OCPs is most likely from past use although there is also indication of illegal use in recent times. The study also reveals that BPA is more widely distributed in coastal species caught off the coast of the most developed state. The potential health risk from dietary intakes of OCPs and BPA from the analysed fish species was negligible.
The protozoan parasites such as Cryptosporidiumparvum and Giardialamblia have been recognized as a frequent cause of recent waterborne disease outbreaks because of their strong resistance against chlorine disinfection. In this study, ozone and Fe(VI) (i.e., FeO(4)(2-)) were compared in terms of inactivation efficiency for Bacillus subtilis spores which are commonly utilized as an indicator of protozoan pathogens. Both oxidants highly depended on water pH and temperature in the spore inactivation. Since redox potential of Fe(VI) is almost the same as that of ozone, spore inactivation efficiency of Fe(VI) was expected to be similar with that of ozone. However, it was found that ozone was definitely superior over Fe(VI): at pH 7 and 20°C, ozone with the product of concentration×contact time (C¯T) of 10mgL(-1)min inactivate the spores more than 99.9% within 10min, while Fe(VI) with C¯T of 30mgL(-1) min could inactivate 90% spores. The large difference between ozone and Fe(VI) in spore inactivation was attributed mainly to Fe(III) produced from Fe(VI) decomposition at the spore coat layer which might coagulate spores and make it difficult for free Fe(VI) to attack live spores.
Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed pellets spiked with anthracene were fed to P. monodon. At 20 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon accumulated 0.1% of the anthracene from the feed. P. monodon deputed the PAH two times faster than its accumulation. The shrimp reduced its feed consumption when anthracene content in the feed exceeded 20 mg kg(-1). At 100 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon started to have necrosis tissues on the posterior end of their thorax. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), uptake rate constant (k(1)) and depuration rate constant (k(2)) of anthracene in P. monodon were 1.15×10(-3), 6.80×10(-4) d(-1) and 6.28×10(-1) d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constant is about thousand times higher than the uptake rate constant and this indicated that this crustacean is efficient in depurating hydrocarbons from their tissue.
A new mathematical model has been developed that expresses the toxicities (EC₅₀ values) of a wide variety of ionic liquids (ILs) towards the freshwater flea Daphnia magna by means of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). The data were analyzed using summed contributions from the cations, their alkyl substituents and anions. The model employed multiple linear regression analysis with polynomial model using the MATLAB software. The model predicted IL toxicities with R²=0.974 and standard error of estimate of 0.028. This model affords a practical, cost-effective and convenient alternative to experimental ecotoxicological assessment of many ILs.
This study investigated the reaction kinetics and degradation mechanism of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) during ozonation. Experiments were performed at pH 2, 6 and 12 to determine the rate constants for the reaction of protonated, undissociated and dissociated paraben with ozone. The rate constants for the reaction of ozone with dissociated parabens (3.3 × 10(9)-4.2 × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1)) were found to be 10(4) times higher than the undissociated parabens (2.5 × 10(5)-4.4 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1)) and 10(7) times higher than with the protonated parabens (1.02 × 10(2)-1.38 × 10(2)M(-1)s(-1)). The second-order rate constants for the reaction between parabens with hydroxyl radicals were found to vary from 6.8 × 10(9) to 9.2 × 10(9)M(-1)s(-1). Characterization of degradation by-products (DBPs) formed during the ozonation of each selected parabens has been carried out using GCMS after silylation. Twenty DBPs formed during ozonation of selected parabens have been identified. Hydroxylation has been found to be the major reaction for the formation of the identified DBPs. Through the hydroxylation reaction, a variety of hydroxylated parabens was formed.
A co-culture consisting of Hydrogenophaga sp. PBC and Ralstonia sp. PBA, isolated from textile wastewater treatment plant could tolerate up to 100 mM 4-aminobenzenesulfonate (4-ABS) and utilize it as sole carbon, nitrogen and sulfur source under aerobic condition. The biodegradation of 4-ABS resulted in the release of nitrogen and sulfur in the form of ammonium and sulfate respectively. Ninety-eight percent removal of chemical oxygen demand attributed to 20 mM of 4-ABS in cell-free supernatant could be achieved after 118 h. Effective biodegradation of 4-ABS occurred at pH ranging from 6 to 8. During batch culture with 4-ABS as sole carbon and nitrogen source, the ratio of strain PBA to PBC was dynamic and a critical concentration of strain PBA has to be reached in order to enable effective biodegradation of 4-ABS. Haldane inhibition model was used to fit the degradation rate at different initial concentrations and the parameters μ(max), K(s) and K(i) were determined to be 0.13 h⁻¹, 1.3 mM and 42 mM respectively. HPLC analyses revealed traced accumulation of 4-sulfocatechol and at least four unidentified metabolites during biodegradation. This is the first study to report on the characterization of 4-ABS-degrading bacterial consortium that was isolated from textile wastewater treatment plant.
This paper aims to review the applications of Fenton based treatments specifically for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils. An overview of the background and principles of Fenton treatment catalysed by both homogenous (conventional and modified Fenton) and heterogeneous (Fenton-like) catalysts is firstly presented. Laboratory and field soil remediation studies are then discussed in terms of efficiency, kinetics and associated factors. Four main scopes of integrated Fenton treatments, i.e. physical-Fenton, biological-Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton are also reviewed in this paper. For each of these integrated remediation technologies, the theoretical background and mechanisms are detailed alongside with achievable removal efficiencies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils compared to sole Fenton treatment. Finally, the environmental impacts of Fenton based soil treatments are documented and discussed.
Acephate is poorly sorbed to soil, thus the risk of leaching to the aquatic environment is high if it is not quickly degraded. The effect of soil moisture, temperature, microbial activity and application rate on acephate degradation has been studied in three Malaysian soils to examine and identify critical variables determining its degradation and mineralization kinetics. First-order kinetics could be used to describe degradation in all cases (r(2)>0.91). Acephate degraded faster in air-dry (t((1/2)) 9-11 d) and field capacity (t((1/2)) 10-16d) soils than in the wet soils (t((1/2)) 32-77 d). The activation energy of degradation was in the range 17-28 kJ mol(-1) and significantly higher for the soil with higher pH and lower clay and iron oxide contents. Soil sterilization caused a 3- to 10-fold decrease in degradation rates compared to non-sterile soils (t((1/2)) 53-116 d) demonstrating that acephate degradation is mainly governed by microbial processes. At 5-fold increase in application rates (25 microg g(-1)), half-life increased slightly (t((1/2)) 13-19 d) or was unaffected. Half-life from acephate mineralization was similar to those from degradation but much longer at the 5-fold increase in acephate application rates (t((1/2)) 41-96 d) demonstrating that degradation of metabolites is rate limiting. Thus, application of acephate should be restricted or avoided during wet seasons with heavy rainfall and flooded soil as in paddy cultivation. Sandy soils with low microbial activity are more prone to acephate leaching than clay soils rich in humic matter.
The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
This study was undertaken in order to understand the factors affecting the degradation of an insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by ozonation. Kinetic studies on DEET degradation were carried out under different operating conditions, such as varied ozone doses, pH values of solution, initial concentrations of DEET, and solution temperatures. The degradation of DEET by ozonation follows the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The rate of DEET degradation increased exponentially with temperature in the range studied (20-50 degrees C) and in proportion with the dosage of ozone applied. The ozonation of DEET under different pH conditions in the presence of phosphate buffer occurred in two stages. During the first stage, the rate constant, k(obs), increased with increasing pH, whereas in the second stage, the rate constant, k(obs2), increased from pH 2.3 up to 9.9, however, it decreased when the pH value exceeded 9.9. In the case where buffers were not employed, the k(obs) were found to increase exponentially with pH from 2.5 to 9.2 and the ozonation was observed to occur in one stage. The rate of degradation decreased exponentially with the initial concentration of DEET. GC/MS analysis of the by-products from DEET degradation were identified to be N,N-diethyl-formamide, N,N-diethyl-4-methylpent-2-enamide, 4-methylhex-2-enedioic acid, N-ethyl-m-toluamide, N,N-diethyl-o-toluamide, N-acetyl-N-ethyl-m-toluamide, N-acetyl-N-ethyl-m-toluamide 2-(diethylamino)-1-m-tolylethanone and 2-(diethylcarbamoyl)-4-methylhex-2-enedioic acid. These by-products resulted from ozonation of the aliphatic chain as well as the aromatic ring of DEET during the degradation process.
The bioregeneration efficiencies of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and pyrolyzed rice husk loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol were quantified by oxygen uptake measurements using the respirometry technique in two approaches: (i) simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation and (ii) sequential adsorption and biodegradation. It was found that the applicability of the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation approach was constrained by the requirement of adsorption preceding biodegradation in order to determine the initial adsorbent loading accurately. The sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach provides a good estimate of the upper limit of the bioregeneration efficiency for the loaded adsorbent in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes. The results showed that the mean bioregeneration efficiencies for PAC loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol, respectively, obtained using the two approaches were in good agreement.