Landfill leachate contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, which exceed the permissible limits. Thus, such landfill leachate must be treated before it is released into natural water courses. This article reports on investigations about the removal efficiency of POPs such as BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from leachate using locust bean gum (LBG) in comparison with alum. The vital experimental variables (pH, coagulant dosage and stirring speed) were optimised by applying response surface methodology equipped with the Box-Behnken design to reduce the POPs from leachate. An empirical quadratic polynomial model could accurately model the surface response with R2 values of 0.928 and 0.954 to reduce BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on treated flocs for further understanding. FTIR analysis revealed that the bridging of pollutant particles could be due to the explicit adsorption and bridging via hydrogen bonding of a coagulation mechanism. SEM micrographs indicated that the flocs produced by LBG have a rough cloudy surface and numerous micro-pores compared with alum, which enabled the capture and removal of POPs from leachate. Results showed that the reduction efficiencies for BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol at pH 7.5 were 76% and 84% at LBG dosage of 500 mg·L-1 and 400 mg·L-1, respectively. Coagulant dosage and pH variation have a significant effect on POPs reduction in leachate. Coagulation/flocculation using LBG could be applied for POPs reduction in leachate as a pre-treatment prior to advanced treatments.
In this work, nano-bimetallic Co/Fe oxides with different stoichiometric Co/Fe ratios were prepared using a novel one-step solution combustion method. The nano-bimetallic Co/Fe oxides were used for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation via peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. The stoichiometric efficiencies of the as-prepared nano-bimetallic catalysts were calculated and compared for the first time. The radical generation was identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as well as chemical quenching experiments, in which different scavengers were used and compared. The catalytic PMS activation mechanism in the presence of catalyst was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that besides SO4•- and •OH, •OOH was also detected in the PMS/CoFeO2.5 system. Meanwhile, in addition to the previously proposed radical oxidation pathway, the results showed that SMX degradation also involved a non-radical oxidation, which could be verified by the degradation experiment without catalyst as well as the detection of 1O2. In the PMS activation process, cobalt functioned as the active site on CoFeO2.5 while Fe oxide functioned as the adsorption site. The electron transfer mechanism was proposed based on the XPS and metal leaching results. Additionally, via the detection of transformation products, different SMX transformation pathways involving nitration, hydroxylation and hydrolysis in the PMS/CoFeO2.5 system were proposed.
Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria.
Landfills are one of the main point sources of groundwater pollution. This research mainly aims to assess the risk of nitrate [Formula: see text] transport from the unlined landfill to subsurface layers and groundwater using experimental results and the SESOIL model. Samples from 12 groundwater wells downstream of the landfill were collected and analyzed in 2008, 21 years after the landfill construction. The average [Formula: see text] concentration in the wells was 54 mg/L, slightly higher than the World Health Organization ([Formula: see text] 50 mg/L) standards. SESOIL model was used to predict the [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone. Results indicated that the current mean [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone is 75 mg/L. the model predicted that the level of NO3 will increased up to 325 mg/L within 30 years. Accordingly, the [Formula: see text] concentration in groundwater wells near the landfill area is expected to gradually increase with time. Although the current risk associated with the [Formula: see text] level might not be harm to adults, however, it might pose severe risks to both adults and infants in the near future due to [Formula: see text] leaching. Urgent mitigation measures such as ﬁnal cell cover (cap), lining system and vertical expansion should be considered at the landfill to protect the public health in the area.
The widespread distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in landfill leachate is problematic due to their acute toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity effects, which could be detrimental to public health and ecological systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effective removal of POPs - namely, p-tert-Butylphenol and Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S)- - from landfill leachate using locust bean gum (LBG), and in comparison with commonly used alum. The response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the operating factors for optimal POPs removal. A quadratic polynomial model was fitted into the data with the R2 values of 0.97 and 0.96 for the removal of p-tert-Butylphenol and Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl), (S)-, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the flocs produced by LBG and alum were evaluated with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The infrared spectra of LBG-treated floc were identical with LBG powder, but there was some variation in the peaks of the functional groups, signifying the chemical interactions between flocculants and pollutant particles resulting from POPs removal. The results showed that p-tert-Butylphenol and Pyridine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-, (S)- obtained 96% and 100% removal using 500 mg/L of LBG at pH 4. pH have a significant effect on POPs removal in leachate. It is estimated that treating one million gallons of leachate using alum (at 1 g/L dosage) would cost US$39, and using LBG (at 500 mg/L dosage) would cost US$2. LBG is eco-friendly, biodegradable and non-toxic and, hence, strongly recommended as an alternative to inorganic coagulants for the treatment of POPs in landfill leachate.
The potential of selected materials in treating metal-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a series of batch experiment. The efficiencies of both single and mixed substrates under two conditions i.e. low- and high-concentration solutions containing heavy metals were evaluated. Synthetic metal-containing AMD was used in the experiments treated using spent mushroom compost (SMC), ochre, steel slag (SS), and limestone. Different ratios of treatment materials were incorporated in the substrate mix and were tested in an anoxic condition. In the batch test, physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, total dissolved solids, conductivity, and Ca concentration) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Al) were analysed. The mixed substrates have shown satisfactory performance in increasing pH with increasing Ca concentration and removing metals. It has been found that SS and ochre played an important role in the treatment of AMD. The results showed that the mixed substrates SM1 (i.e. 10% SMC mixed with 20% ochre, 30% steel slag, and 40% limestone) and SM2 (i.e. 20% SMC mixed with 30% ochre, 40% steel slag, and 10% limestone) were effective in increasing the pH from as low as 3.5-8.09, and removing heavy metals with more than 90% removal efficiencies.
The widespread occurrence of microplastic has invaded the environment to an extent that it appears to be present throughout the globe. This review investigated the global abundance and distribution of microplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Furthermore, the issues and challenges have been addressed for better findings in microplastics studies. Findings revealed that the accumulation of microplastics varies geographically, with locations, hydrodynamic conditions, environmental pressure, and time. From this review, it is crucial that proper regulations are proposed and implemented in order to reduce the occurrence of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Without appropriate law and regulations, microplastic pollution will eventually threaten human livelihood.
Today, a major issue about water pollution is the residual dyes from different sources (e.g., textile industries, paper and pulp industries, dye and dye intermediates industries, pharmaceutical industries, tannery and craft bleaching industries, etc.), and a wide variety of persistent organic pollutants have been introduced into our natural water resources or wastewater treatment systems. In fact, it is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these organic contaminants prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade those organic contaminants and advanced heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalyst appears to be one of the most promising technology. In recent years, ZnO photocatalyst have attracted much attention due to their extraordinary characteristics. The high efficiency of ZnO photocatalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction requires a suitable architecture that minimizes electron loss during excitation state and maximizes photon absorption. In order to further improve the immigration of photo-induced charge carriers during excitation state, considerable effort has to be exerted to further improve the heterogeneous photocatalysis under UV/visible/solar illumination. Lately, interesting and unique features of metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system have gained much attention and became favourite research matter among various groups of scientists. It was noted that the properties of this metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system primarily depend on the nature of the preparation method and the role of optimum dopants content incorporated into the ZnO photocatalyst. Therefore, this paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of ZnO photocatalyst for organic contaminants degradation.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/radiation effects*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
Cr(VI) biosorption and bioreduction ability of locally isolated Cr-resistant bacteria was investigated using the shake-flask technique. A mixture of S. epidermidis and B. cereus showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) level at 750 mg/L Cr(VI) followed by S. aureus and Bacillus sp. of 250 mg/L, and A. haemolyticus of 70 mg/L. From the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the treatment of cells with heat-acid resulted in the highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorped (78.25 mg/g dry wt. for S. epidermidis) compared to heat-acetone (67.93 mg/g dry wt. Bacillus sp.), heat only (36.05 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis) or untreated cells (45.40 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis and B. cereus). FTIR analysis showed the involvement of amine groups in Cr(VI) adsorption. In the bioreduction study, A. haemolyticus was able to completely reduce Cr(VI) up to 50 mg/L.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
Application of ozonation in water treatment involves complex oxidation pathways that could lead to the formation of various by-products, some of which may be harmful to living organisms. In this work, ozonation by-products of ofloxacin (OFX), a frequently detected pharmaceutical pollutant in the environment, were identified and their ecotoxicity was estimated using the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) computer program. In order to examine the role of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (∙OH) in the degradation of ofloxacin, ozonation was performed at pH2, 7 and 12. In this study, 12 new structures have been proposed for the ozonation by-products detected during the ozonation of ofloxacin. According to the identified ozonation by-products, O3 and ∙OH were found to react with ofloxacin during ozonation. The reaction between ofloxacin and O3 proceeded via hydroxylation and breakdown of heterocyclic ring with unsaturated double-bond. The reaction between ofloxacin and ·OH generated various by-products derived from the breakdown of heterocyclic ring. Ecotoxicity assessment indicated that ozonation of OFX could yield by-products of greater toxicity compared with parent compounds.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings. Moreover, several considerations including quantification of chemicals on/in the MP particles, choice of test organisms, approaches for renewing the test solution, aggregation prevention, stock solution preparation, and units used to report MP concentration in the test solution should be taken into account. This critical review suggests some important strategies to help conduct environmentally-relevant MP bioassays.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
Inadequately treated or untreated wastewater greatly contribute to the release of unwanted toxic contaminants into water bodies. Some of these contaminants are persistent and bioaccumulative, becoming a great concern as they are released into the environment. Despite the abundance of wastewater treatment technologies, the adsorption method overall has proven to be an excellent way to treat wastewater from multiple industry sources. Because of its significant benefits, i.e., easy availability, handling, and higher efficiency with a low cost relative to other treatments, adsorption is opted as the best method to be used. However, biosorption using naturally found seaweeds has been proven to have promising results in removing pollutants, such as dyes from textile, paper, and the printing industry, nitrogen, and phosphorous and phenolic compounds, as well as heavy metals from various sources. Due to its ecofriendly nature together with the availability and inexpensiveness of raw materials, biosorption via seaweed has become an alternative to the existing technologies in removing these pollutants from wastewater effectively. In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbent (seaweed) for the removal of pollutants from wastewater has been reviewed. An extensive table summarises the applicability of seaweed in treating wastewater. Literature reported that the majority of research used simulated wastewater and minor attention has been given to biosorption using seaweed in the treatment of real wastewater.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism*
Efforts to improve water quality have led to the development of green and sustainable water treatment approaches. Herein, nitrogen-doped magnetized hydrochar (mSBHC-N) was synthesized, characterized, and used for the removal of post-transition and transition heavy metals, viz. Pb2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous environment. mSBHC-N was found to be mesoporous (BET surface area - 62.5 m2/g) and paramagnetic (saturation magnetization - 44 emu/g). Both, FT-IR (with peaks at 577, 1065, 1609 and 3440 cm-1 corresponding to Fe - O stretching vibrations, C - N stretching, N - H in-plane deformation and stretching) and XPS analyses (with peaks at 284.4, 400, 530, 710 eV due to C 1s, N 1s, O 1s, and Fe 2p) confirmed the presence of oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups on mSBHC-N. The adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ was governed by oxygen and nitrogen functionalities through electrostatic and co-ordination forces. 75-80% of Pb2+ and Cd2+ adsorption at Co: 25 mg/L, either from deionized water or humic acid solution was accomplished within 15 min. The data was fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities being 323 and 357 mg/g for Cd2+and Pb2+ at 318 K, respectively. Maximum Cd2+ (82.6%) and Pb2+ (78.7%) were eluted with 0.01 M HCl, simultaneously allowing minimum iron leaching (2.73%) from mSBHC-N. In conclusion, the study may provide a novel, economical, and clean route to utilize agro-waste, such as sugarcane bagasse (SB), for aquatic environment remediation.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
This study proposed an oil palm by-product as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] from aqueous solution. Adsorption of Cr (VI) by sulphuric acid and heat-treated oil palm fibre was conducted using batch tests. The influence of pH, contact time, initial chromium concentration and adsorbent dosage on the removal of Cr (VI) from the solutions was investigated. The optimum initial pH for maximum uptake of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution was found to be 1.5. The removal efficiency was found to correlate with the initial Cr (VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage as well as the contact time between Cr (VI) and the adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo first order and pseudo second order models yielded high R(2) values from 0.9254 to 0.9870 and from 0.9936 to 0.9998, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference between the R(2) values of the two models at 99% confidence level. The Freundlich isotherm (R(2)=0.8778) described Cr (VI) adsorption slightly better than the Langmuir isotherm (R(2)=0.8715). Difficulty in desorption of Cr (VI) suggests the suitability of treated oil palm fibre as a single-use adsorbent for Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
The direct determination of toxic metal ions, in environmental samples, is difficult because of the latter's presence in trace concentration in association with complex matrices, thereby leading to insufficient sensitivity and selectivity of the methods used. The simultaneous removal of the matrix and preconcentration of the metal ions, through solid phase extraction, serves as the promising solution. The mechanism involved in solid phase extraction (SPE) depends on the nature of the sorbent and analyte. Thus, SPE is carried out by means of adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, ion pair formation, and so forth. As polymeric supports, the commercially available Amberlite resins have been found very promising for designing chelating matrices due to its good physical and chemical properties such as porosity, high surface area, durability and purity. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the modification of Amberlite XAD resins with the objective of making it an efficient sorbent. The methods of modifications which are generally based on simple impregnation, sorption as chelates and chemical bonding have been discussed. The reported results, including the preconcentration limit, the detection limit, sorption capacity, preconcentration factors etc., have been reproduced.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
Passive bioremediation of metal- and sulfate-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a batch study. Multiple substrates were used in the AMD remediation using spent mushroom compost (SMC), limestone, activated sludge (AS), and woodchips (WC) under anoxic conditions suitable for bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Limestones used were of crushed limestone (CLS) and uncrushed limestone, provided at two different ratios in mixed substrates treatment and varied by the proportion of SMC and limestone. The SMC greatly assisted the removals of sulfate and metals and also acted as an essential carbon source for BSR. The mixed substrate composed of 40% CLS, 30% SMC, 20% AS, and 10% WC was found to be effective for metal removal. Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn were greatly removed (89-100%) in the mixed substrates treatment, while Fe was only removed at 65%. Mn was found to be removed at a greatly higher rate than Fe, suggesting important Mn adsorption onto organic materials, that is, greater sorption affinity to the SMC. Complementary with multiple treatment media was the main mechanism assisting the AMD treatment through microbial metal reduction reactions.
The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6. Then, the pretreated SLL was subjected to the Fenton reaction. Nearly 50% of TOC removal was achieved when the reaction was carried out at pH 3, H2O2:Fe2+ ratio of 20:1, H2O2 dosage of 240 mM and 1 h of reaction time. By coupling the coagulation-flocculation with the Fenton reaction, the removal of TOC, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and turbidity of SLL were 85%, 84% and 100%, respectively. The ecotoxicity study performed using zebrafish revealed that 96 h LC50 for raw SLL was 1.40% (v/v). After coagulation-flocculation, the LC50 of the pretreated SLL was increased to 25.44%. However, after the Fenton reaction, the LC50 of the treated SLL was found to decrease to 10.96% due to the presence of H2O2 residue. In this study, H2O2 residue was removed using powdered activated charcoal. This method increased the LC50 of treated effluent to 34.48% and the removal of TOC and COD was further increased to 90%. This finding demonstrated that the combination of the selected treatment methods can be an efficient treatment method for SLL.