Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 394 in total

  1. Uba G, Manogaran M, Gunasekaran B, Halmi MIE, Shukor MYA
    PMID: 33227985 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17228585
    Potentially toxic metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tools with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using response surface methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Toxic metals strongly inhibit this hydrolysis. A central composite design (CCD) was utilized to optimize the detection of toxic metals. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 (mg/L) from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.030-0.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.016-0.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.077-0.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.022-0.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035-0.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.020-0.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near-real time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4 h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis, with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
  2. Vasanthakumari Sivasankara Pillai A, Sabarathinam C, Keesari T, Chandrasekar T, Rajendiran T, Senapathi V, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):20037-20054.
    PMID: 32236808 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08258-6
    Hydrogeochemical understanding of groundwater is essential for the effective management of groundwater. This study has been carried out to have concrete data for the seasonal variations in hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in central Tamilnadu forming a complex geological terrain with a varied lithology. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during four different seasons, viz, southwest monsoon (SWM), summer (SUM), postmonsoon (POM), and northeast monsoon (NEM) from bore wells. The physical parameters such as pH, temperature, TDS, ORP, humidity, and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured insitu, whereas major ions were analyzed in the lab adopting standard procedures. Overall, higher EC and NO3 values were observed and exceeded the WHO permissible limit irrespective of seasons, except for NO3 in SWM. Na and HCO3 are the dominant cation and anion in the groundwater irrespective of seasons. The highest average values of Na (65.06 mg L-1) and HCO3 (350.75 mg L-1) were noted during SWM. Statistical analysis was carried out to elucidate the hydrogeochemistry of the region. Initially, to understand the ionic relationship, correlation matrix was used followed by factor analysis for determination of major geochemical control and later factor scores were derived to understand the regional representations. An attempt has also been made to identify the samples influenced by multiple geochemical processes and to understand their spatial variation in the study period. Correlation of geochemical parameters reveals a excellent positive correlation between Ca and NO3 in SUM, SWM, and NEM due to the dominant of anthropogenic sources and minor influence of weathering process. Strongly loaded factor scores are found to be mostly in the following order POM > NEM > SWM > SUM. Principal component analysis of different seasons indicates the interplay of natural weathering and anthropogenic factors. Overall, the predominant geochemical processes in this region, irrespective of seasons are weathering and, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  3. Tan BL, Mustafa AM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2004;16(1):54-63.
    PMID: 18839869
    Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
  4. Maah MJ, Mat I, Johari A
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1995 Feb;54(2):191-7.
    PMID: 7742626
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  5. Wong YJ, Shimizu Y, He K, Nik Sulaiman NM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2020 Sep 16;192(10):644.
    PMID: 32935203 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-020-08543-4
    The assessment of surface water quality is often laborious, expensive and tedious, as well as impractical, especially for the developing and middle-income countries in the ASEAN region. The application of the water quality index (WQI), which depends on several independent key parameters, has great potential and is a useful tool in this region. Therefore, this study aims to find out the spatial variability of various water quality parameters in geographical information system (GIS) environment and perform a comparative study among the ASEAN WQI systems. At present, there are four ASEAN countries which have implemented the WQI system to evaluate their surface water quality, which are (i) Own WQI system-Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam-and (ii) Adopted WQI system: Indonesia. A spatial distribution of 12 water quality parameters in the Selangor river basin, Malaysia, was plotted and then applied into the different ASEAN WQI systems. The WQI values obtained from the different WQI systems have an appreciable difference, even for the same water samples due to the disparity in the parameter selection and the standards among them. WQI systems which consider all biophysicochemical parameters provide a consistent evaluation (Very Poor), but the system which either considers physicochemical or biochemical parameters gives a relatively lenient evaluation (Fair-Poor). The Selangor river basin is stressed and impacted by all physical, biological and chemical parameters caused by both the aridity of the climate and anthropogenic activities. Therefore, it is crucial to include all these aspects into the evaluation and corresponding actions should be taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  6. Yogeshwaran A, Gayathiri K, Muralisankar T, Gayathri V, Monica JI, Rajaram R, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2020 Sep;158:111443.
    PMID: 32753221 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111443
    The present study was performed to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals, biochemical constituents, antioxidants, and metabolic enzymes in the crab Scylla serrata from different regions of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India. The study area consists of Threspuram and Harbour Beach which were polluted environments due to the discharge of industrial effluents and domestic sewage into them. Punnakayal, which is a low-polluted environment where the in-situ culture of S. serrata is carried out by local fish farmers, was selected as well. The results revealed that the level of heavy metals, biochemical constituents, antioxidants, and metabolic enzymes were significantly high in the crabs collected from Threspuram and Harbour Beach compared to the crabs collected from Punnakayal. This study indicates that crabs from polluted environments have significant heavy metals bioaccumulation which leads to elevated antioxidants and metabolic enzyme levels. This implies that the crabs are under oxidative and metabolic stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  7. Alkhadher SAA, Kadir AA, Zakaria MP, Al-Gheethi A, Asghar BHM
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2020 May;154:111115.
    PMID: 32319929 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111115
    The current study aimed to develop a suitable molecular marker [Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs)] approach for pollution determination in mangrove oysters of peninsular Malaysia. C. belcheri species were collected from rivers of Merbok, Perai, Klang, Muar and PulauMerambong (An Island). The LABs were extracted from C. belcheri and determined using GC-MS. The LABs indices which included I/E, L/S and C13/C12 were applied to describe the sources and biodegradation of LABs. The results revealed that the maximum concentrations were detected in oysters from Klang (27.91 ng g-1dw), while the lowest concentrations were detected in oysters from Merbok (8.12 ng g-1dw). Moreover, I/E ratios varied between 2.83 and 6.40, indicating the secondary treatment effluents being discharged to coastal zones. The results of this study suggested that the oysters absorbed LABs mainly in dissolved phase. Therefore, mangrove oysters are a good biosensor for LABs contamination in the aquatic environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  8. Pang SY, Tay JH, Suratman S, Simoneit BRT, Mohd Tahir N
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2020 Jul;156:111269.
    PMID: 32510409 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111269
    Brunei Bay is one of the most important marine environments of East Malaysia (South China Sea), covering many productive ecosystems with activities including fisheries, tourism, and main shipping lanes for petroleum transfers. Evaluation of the sources and distributions of steroids in the surface sedimentary organic matter was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the total identified sterols (TIS) ranged between 0.81 and 12.69 μg g-1 dry weight, and the total sterones were between 0.11 and 5.66 μg g-1 dry weight. The coprostanol level was comparatively low (<0.10 μg g-1), and the multi-biomarker proxies indicated that the region did not exhibit significant contamination from sewage effluents. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the coastal environment of the study area was dominated by allochthonous (mainly terrestrial) organic matter input.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  9. Jani J, Yang YY, Lusk MG, Toor GS
    PLoS One, 2020;15(2):e0229715.
    PMID: 32109256 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229715
    Stormwater runoff is a leading cause of nitrogen (N) transport to water bodies and hence one means of water quality deterioration. Stormwater runoff was monitored in an urban residential catchment (drainage area: 3.89 hectares) in Florida, United States to investigate the concentrations, forms, and sources of N. Runoff samples were collected over 22 storm events (May to September 2016) at the end of a stormwater pipe that delivers runoff from the catchment to the stormwater pond. Various N forms such as ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NOx-N), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) were determined and isotopic characterization tools were used to infer sources of NO3-N and PON in collected runoff samples. The DON was the dominant N form in runoff (47%) followed by PON (22%), NOx-N (17%), and NH4-N (14%). Three N forms (NOx-N, NH4-N, and PON) were positively correlated with total rainfall and antecedent dry period, suggesting longer dry periods and higher rainfall amounts are significant drivers for transport of these N forms. Whereas DON was positively correlated to only rainfall intensity indicating that higher intensity rain may flush out DON from soils and cause leaching of DON from particulates present in the residential catchment. We discovered, using stable isotopes of NO3-, a shifting pattern of NO3- sources from atmospheric deposition to inorganic N fertilizers in events with higher and longer duration of rainfall. The stable isotopes of PON confirmed that plant material (oak detritus, grass clippings) were the primary sources of PON in stormwater runoff. Our results demonstrate that practices targeting both inorganic and organic N are needed to control N transport from residential catchments to receiving waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  10. Le DQ, Takada H, Yamashita R, Mizukawa K, Hosoda J, Tuyet DA
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2016 Aug 15;109(1):320-324.
    PMID: 27262498 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.063
    Plastic resin pellets collected at Minh Chau island and Ba Lat estuary between 2007 and 2014 in Vietnam were analyzed for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The study was carried out as part of the International Pellet Watch program for monitoring the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Higher levels of DDTs compared to PCBs indicated agricultural inputs rather than industrial discharges in the region. Most POP concentrations on both beaches decreased over the period, with the exception of HCH isomers. Though the concentration of DDTs showed a drastic decline on both beaches between 2007/2008 and 2014, DDTs accounted for 60-80% of total DDTs, suggesting that there is still a fresh input of these chemicals in the region. This study strongly recommends further investigations to track temporal and spatial patterns of POP levels in the marine environment using plastic resin pellets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  11. Looi LJ, Aris AZ, Yusoff FM, Hashim Z
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Jan;187(1):4099.
    PMID: 25380712 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-4099-5
    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. This work profiled the magnitude of mercury pollution in the tropical estuaries and coastal sediments of the Strait of Malacca. Mercury was extracted through the ultrasound-assisted mercury extraction method and analyzed using the flow injection mercury system. The mean concentration of mercury in the sediment samples was 61.43 ± 23.25 μg/kg, ranging from 16.55 ± 0.61 to 114.02 ± 1.54 μg/kg. Geoaccumulation index revealed that a total of 13% of sampling sites were moderately enriched with mercury. The northern part of the Strait of Malacca had the highest mean mercury (Hg) concentration (76.36 ± 27.25 μg/kg), followed by the southern (64.59 ± 16.09 μg/kg) and central (39.33 ± 12.91 μg/kg) parts. Sediment mercury concentration in the current study was lower than other regions like Japan, China, Indian, east Mediterranean, and Taiwan. When compared to the Canadian interim marine and freshwater sediment, China's soil interim environmental guidelines, mercury contamination in the Strait of Malacca was found to be below these permissible limits. Sediment organic matter content was found to have significant correlation with sediment mercury concentration. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in tropical estuaries and coastal sediments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  12. Basri DF, Abu Bakar NF, Fudholi A, Ruslan MH, Saroeun I
    J Environ Public Health, 2015;2015:470968.
    PMID: 25688274 DOI: 10.1155/2015/470968
    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  13. Watanabe A, Tsutsuki K, Inoue Y, Maie N, Melling L, Jaffé R
    Sci Total Environ, 2014 Sep 15;493:220-8.
    PMID: 24946034 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.095
    As basic information for assessing reactivity and functionality of wetland-associated dissolved organic matter (DOM) based on their composition and structural properties, chemical characteristics of N in ultrafiltered DOM (UDON; >1 kD) isolated from wetland-associated rivers in three climates (cool-temperate, Hokkaido, Japan; sub-tropical, Florida, USA; tropical, Sarawak, Malaysia) were investigated. The UDON was isolated during dry and wet seasons, or during spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of UDON present as humic substances, which was estimated as the DAX-8 adsorbed fraction, ranged from 47 to 91%, with larger values in the Sarawak than at the other sites. The yield of hydrolyzable amino acid N ranged 1.24 to 7.01 mg g(-1), which correlated positively to the total N content of UDOM and tended to be larger in the order of Florida>Hokkaido>Sarawak samples. X-ray photoelectron N1s spectra of UDON showed a strong negative correlation between the relative abundances of amide/peptide N and primary amine N. The relative abundances of amide/peptide N and primary amine N in the Sarawak samples were smaller (70-76%) and larger (20-23%) respectively compared to those (80-88% and 4-9%) in the Florida and Hokkaido samples. Assuming terminal amino groups and amide N of peptides as major constituents of primary amine N and amide/peptide N, respectively, the average molecular weight of peptides was smaller in the Sarawak samples than that in the Florida and Hokkaido samples. Seasonal variations in UDON composition were scarce in the Sarawak and Florida samples, whereas the distribution of humic substance-N and nonhumic substance-N and compositions of amino acids and N functional groups showed a clear seasonality in the Hokkaido samples. While aromatic N increased from spring to autumn, contributions from fresh proteinaceous materials were also enhanced during autumn, resulting in the highest N content of UDOM for this season.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  14. Azmi WN, Latif MT, Wahid NB, Razak IS, Suratman S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2014 Mar;92(3):306-10.
    PMID: 24414132 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-013-1194-1
    A study has been conducted to determine the composition of surfactants in runoff water in the semi-urban area of Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Runoff samples were collected from five different locations with contrasting functional activities and the colorimetric method was used to analyze the concentrations of surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) for anionic surfactants and as disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) for cationic surfactants. The results showed that the highest surfactant concentrations of MBAS and DBAS in runoff water were recorded in the samples collected at the residential area, with the concentrations of 3.192 ± 0.727 and 0.170 ± 0.028 μmol/L, respectively. Anionic surfactants as MBAS were found to dominate the concentration of surfactants in both runoff and rainwater. The concentrations of both anionic and cationic surfactants in runoff water were recorded as being higher than in rainwater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  15. Alsalahi MA, Latif MT, Ali MM, Magam SM, Wahid NB, Khan MF, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2014 Mar 15;80(1-2):344-50.
    PMID: 24373668 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.019
    This study aims to determine the levels of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and ethyl violet active substances (EVAS) as anionic surfactants and of disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as cationic surfactants in the surface microlayer (SML) around an estuarine area using colorimetric methods. The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS and EVAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 and 0.51 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. There were significant between-station differences in surfactant concentrations (p<0.05) with higher concentrations found at the stations near the sea. The concentration of surfactants was higher during the rainy season than the dry season due to the influence of runoff water. Further investigation using total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic nitrogen (TON) shows that there is a significant correlation (p<0.05) between both anionic and cationic surfactants and the TON concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  16. Adiana G, Shazili NA, Marinah MA, Bidai J
    Environ Monit Assess, 2014 Jan;186(1):421-31.
    PMID: 23974537 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3387-9
    Concentrations of trace metals in the South China Sea (SCS) were determined off the coast of Terengganu during the months of May and November 2007. The concentrations of dissolved and particulate metals were in the range of 0.019-0.194 μg/L and 50-365 μg/g, respectively, for cadmium (Cd), 0.05-0.45 μg/L and 38-3,570 μg/g for chromium (Cr), 0.05-3.54 μg/L and 21-1,947 μg/g for manganese (Mn), and 0.03-0.49 μg/L and 2-56,982 μg/g for lead (Pb). The order of mean log K D found was Cd > Cr > Pb > Mn. The study suggests that the primary sources of these metals are discharges from the rivers which drain into the SCS, in particular the Dungun River, which flows in close proximity to agricultural areas and petrochemical industries. During the northeast monsoon, levels of particulate metals in the bottom water samples near the shore were found to be much higher than during the dry season, the probable result of re-suspension of the metals from the bottom sediments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  17. Nagarajan R, Jonathan MP, Roy PD, Wai-Hwa L, Prasanna MV, Sarkar SK, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Aug 15;73(1):369-73.
    PMID: 23790448 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.05.036
    Forty-three sediment samples were collected from the beaches of Miri City, Sarawak, Malaysia to identify the enrichment of partially leached trace metals (PLTMs) from six different tourist beaches. The samples were analyzed for PLTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. The concentration pattern suggest that the southern side of the study area is enriched with Fe (1821-6097 μg g(-1)), Mn (11.57-90.22 μg g(-1)), Cr (51.50-311 μg g(-1)), Ni (18-51 μg g(-1)), Pb (8.81-84.05 μg g(-1)), Sr (25.95-140.49 μg g(-1)) and Zn (12.46-35.04 μg g(-1)). Compared to the eco-toxicological values, Cr>Effects range low (ERL), Lowest effect level (LEL), Severe effect level (SEL); Cu>Unpolluted sediments, ERL, LEL; Pb>Unpolluted sediments and Ni>ERL and LEL. Comparative results with other regions indicate that Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn are higher, indicating an external input rather than natural process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  18. Isa NM, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN
    Sci Total Environ, 2012 Nov 1;438:414-25.
    PMID: 23022725 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.069
    Small islands are susceptible to anthropogenic and natural activities, especially in respect of their freshwater supply. The freshwater supply in small islands may be threatened by the encroachment of seawater into freshwater aquifers, usually caused by over pumping. This study focused on the hydrochemistry of the Kapas Island aquifer, which controls the groundwater composition. Groundwater samples were taken from six constructed boreholes for the analysis and measurement of its in-situ and major ions. The experimental results show a positive and significant correlation between Na-Cl (r=0.907; p<0.01), which can be defined as the effect of salinization. The mechanisms involved in groundwater chemistry changes were ion exchange and mineralization. These processes can be demonstrated using Piper's diagram in which the water type has shifted into a Na-HCO(3) water type from a Ca-HCO(3) water type. Saturation indices have been calculated in order to determine the saturation condition related to dissolution or the precipitation state of the aquifer bedrock. About 76% of collected data (n=108) were found to be in the dissolution process of carbonate minerals. Moreover, the correlation between total CEC and Ca shows a positive and strong relationship (r=0.995; p<0.01). This indicates that the major mineral component in Kapas Island is Ca ion, which contributes to the groundwater chemical composition. The output of this research explains the chemical mechanism attributed to the groundwater condition of the Kapas Island aquifer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
  19. Fulazzaky MA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Jun;185(6):4721-34.
    PMID: 23001555 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2899-z
    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the leachates originally from the different types of landfill sites was studied based on the data measured using the two manometric methods. The measurements of BOD using the dilution method were carried out to assess the typical physicochemical and biological characteristics of the leachates together with some other parameters. The linear regression analysis was used to predict rate constants for biochemical reactions and ultimate BOD values of the different leachates. The rate of a biochemical reaction implicated in microbial biodegradation of pollutants depends on the leachate characteristics, mass of contaminant in the leachate, and nature of the leachate. Character of leachate samples for BOD analysis of using the different methods may differ significantly during the experimental period, resulting in different BOD values. This work intends to verify effect of the different dilutions for the manometric method tests on the BOD concentrations of the leachate samples to contribute to the assessment of reaction rate and microbial consumption of oxygen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*
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