Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 996 in total

  1. Wang L, Long X, Wu KJ, Tseng ML, Cao Y
    PMID: 36967430 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-26554-9
    China's construction industry confronts with the dilemma of carbon emissions in adjusting the environmental regulations. Many studies are neglected on discovering the potential nexus amongst environmental regulations (ERs), technological innovation (TI) and CEI (CEI) and ignores the relationships amongst TI for reducing CEI. To mitigate this gap, this study bridges institutional theory to integrate the practices in the construction industry. This study applies a panel dataset on the construction industry from 30 provinces during 2004-2018 and uses it with a two-step system-generalised method of moments for analysis. The proposed method enables the prevention of the interference of the heteroscedasticity problem and improves certain analytical efficiency. The results are as a guideline for policymakers in rechecking the policies and regulations adequacy. The findings indicate that (1) the forced emission reduction effect is proven by command-and-control and market-based ERs, which can inhibit CEI; (2) voluntary ERs have an inverted U-shaped nexus with CEI; in other words, the green paradox effect shifts to the forced emission reduction effect once the intensity of voluntary ERs increases; and (3) market-based and voluntary ERs reduce CEI effectively by using TI as the mediator in construction industry.
  2. Khudzari J, Fukuda SY, Shiraiwa Y, Iwamoto K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Mar;30(12):34460-34467.
    PMID: 36509956 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-24573-6
    Cesium-137 (137Cs) is one of the radioactive substances that was released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Radiocesium exposure is of great concern due to its potential environmental implications. However, research on 137Cs removal using algae is still limited. This is the first report to describe the kinetic properties of 137Cs uptake by Vacuoliviride crystalliferum in the presence and absence of potassium. In this work, we studied the kinetic properties of 137Cs uptake using a freshwater microalga, V. crystalliferum (NIES 2860). We also analyzed the effects of temperature, light, and potassium (K) on the 137Cs uptake. Results showed that V. crystalliferum can remove up to 90% of 157 nM 137Cs within an hour. At 20 °C, the removal increased by up to 96%, compared to less than 10% at 5 °C. However, the removal was inhibited by nearly 90% in the dark compared to the removal in the light, implying that V. crystalliferum cells require energy to accumulate 137Cs. In the inhibition assay, K concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 µM and the inhibitory constant (Ki) for K was determined to be 16.7 µM. While in the uptake assay without potassium (- K), the Michaelis constant (Km) for Cs was 45 nM and increased to 283 nM by the addition of 20 µM potassium (+ K), indicating that V. crystalliferum had a high affinity for 137Cs. In addition, the maximum uptake velocity (Vmax) also increased from 6.75 to 21.10 nmol (mg Chl h)-1, implying the existence of Cs active transport system. In conclusion, V. crystalliferum is capable of removing radioactive 137Cs from the environment and the removal was favorable at both normal temperature and in the light.
  3. Thor SH, Ho LN, Ong SA, Abidin CZA, Heah CY, Yap KL
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Mar;30(12):34363-34377.
    PMID: 36512276 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-24647-5
    Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) was employed to provide renewable power sources to photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process to fabricate a double-chambered hybrid system for the treatment of azo dye, Amaranth. The PFC-PEF hybrid system was interconnected by a circuit attached to the electrodes in PFC and PEF. Circuit connection is the principal channel for the electron transfer and mobility between PFC and PEF. Thus, different circuit connections were evaluated in the hybrid system for their influences on the Amaranth dye degradation. The PFC-PEF system under the complete circuit connection condition attained the highest decolourization efficiency of Amaranth (PFC: 98.85%; PEF: 95.69%), which indicated that the complete circuit connection was crucial for in-situ formation of reactive species in dye degradation. Besides, the pivotal role of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation in the PFC-PEF system for both dye degradation and electricity generation was revealed through various UV light-illuminating conditions applied for PFC and PEF. A remarkable influence of UV light irradiation on the production of hydrogen peroxide and generation and regeneration of Fe2+ in PEF was demonstrated. This study provided a comprehensive mechanistic insight into the dye degradation and electricity generation by the PFC-PEF system.
  4. Zainuddin SA, Abdullah B, Nasir NAM, Abdullah T, Nawi NC, Patwary AK, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Mar;30(12):33756-33766.
    PMID: 36495430 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-24385-8
    Global risk concerns spurred a debate regarding empowering an organization's risk management system. Risk assessment, management, and planning are vital for running a firm, but they are not universal. This research investigates how operational risk management is institutionalized in an organization and reveals best practices from a Malaysian government-linked enterprise (GLC). This phenomenological study interviewed 39 risk management officers, executives, and employees. Data are thematically analyzed. Burawoy's Social Theory uses a case study to integrate micro- and macro-organizational elements. The case company's risk management officers, executives, and employees are involved in seven processual factors, according to the analysis. Strong leadership and external consultants, setting up the apparatus and assigning the task to the person in charge, risk framework, risk diagnostic, monitor and measure, developing and nurturing risk management culture, and consistent risk management enforcement and monitoring could explain the institutionalization process of risk management in the organization. Global and local entities have institutionalized risk management. This phenomenological study helps comprehend the role of risk management institutionalization in corporate risk management. This study contributes to a practical implication such as to the GLC. It suggests that top management support and a standard risk framework are necessary for risk management homogeneity. Leaders and frameworks must address organizational processes and capabilities to ensure risk management consistency. This study contributes to the literature on risk management practices in developing nations. The paper concludes with limitations and research recommendations.
  5. Wang W, Hafeez M, Jiang H, Ashraf MU, Asif M, Akram MW
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Mar;30(12):32751-32761.
    PMID: 36469267 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-24218-8
    The presented work analyzes the energy prices, climate shock, and health deprivation nexus in the BRICS economies for the period 1995-2020. Panel ARDL-PMG technique is used to reveal the underexplored linkages. The long-run estimates of energy prices are observed to be negatively significant to the health expenditure and life expectancy model, whereas, positively significant to the climate change model. These findings suggest that energy prices significantly reduce health expenditures and life expectancy and, thus, increase the death rate in the BRICS economies. The long-run country-wise estimate of energy prices is found negatively significant in case of Brazil, India, China, and South Africa. Alongside, the group-wise significance of CO2 emissions is discovered to be negatively, positively, and insignificant in the cases of life expectancy, death rate, and health expenditure models, respectively. Besides, country-wise long-run estimate of CO2 emissions witnesses negative significance for Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  6. Afshan S, Yaqoob T, Meo MS, Hamid B
    PMID: 36934184 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-26346-1
    Environmental sustainability is an umbrella approach depending on various climatic and economic policies. In doing so, the current study empirically evaluates the role of green finance, eco-innovation, and environmental policy stringency on the ecological footprint in China. To meet the objectives, the novel quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) approach was employed from 2000 to 2017. The outcomes reveal heterogeneous associations between the proposed variables. Manifestly, the QARDL estimation results demonstrate a positive impact between eco-innovation, green finance, and environmental policy stringency with the ecological footprints of China; however, the extent of the relationship is quantile dependent. The outcomes are further validated through the Wald test of parameter constancy. The bi-direction causality is observed among all variables at several quantiles. The current study offers policymakers helpful suggestions on enhancing the positive effects of environmentally supported innovation, green finance, and stringent environmental policies on the ecosystem.
  7. Bello MO, Gil-Alana LA, Ch'ng KS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Mar;30(12):35384-35397.
    PMID: 36534250 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-24678-y
    This paper deals with the analysis of mean reversion and convergence of the ecological footprint (EF) in the MENA region. Using a long memory model based on fractional integration, we find that the results are very heterogeneous across countries depending on the assumptions made on the error term and the use of original versus logged data. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be obtained. Thus, mean reversion is decisively found in the case of Tunisia, and other countries showing some degree of reversion to the mean include Israel, Syria, Yemen, and Iran. Dealing with the issue of convergence within the MENA countries, similar conclusions hold and only Tunisia reports statistical evidence of convergence for the two types of errors. Additional evidence is found in the case of Syria, Yemen, and Jordan with uncorrelated errors and for Iran with autocorrelation. It is recommended that environmental policies targeted at stabilizing the trends in EF in the MENA region should not be indiscriminately applied in consideration of the heterogeneous nature of the series in the region.
  8. Aruldass CA, Masalamany SRL, Venil CK, Ahmad WA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Feb;25(6):5164-5180.
    PMID: 28361404 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8855-2
    Violacein, violet pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, has attracted much attention recently due to its pharmacological properties including antibacterial activity. The present study investigated possible antibacterial mode of action of violacein from C. violaceum UTM5 against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Violet fraction was obtained by cultivating C. violaceum UTM5 in liquid pineapple waste medium, extracted, and fractionated using ethyl acetate and vacuum liquid chromatography technique. Violacein was quantified as major compound in violet fraction using HPLC analysis. Violet fraction displayed bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.9 μg/mL. Fluorescence dyes for membrane damage and scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect by disruption on membrane integrity, morphological alternations, and rupture of the cell membranes of both strains. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed membrane damage, mesosome formation, and leakage of intracellular constituents of both bacterial strains. Mode of action of violet fraction on the cell membrane integrity of both strains was shown by release of protein, K+, and extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) with 110.5 μg/mL, 2.34 μg/mL, and 87.24 ng/μL, respectively, at 48 h of incubation. Violet fraction was toxic to human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and human fetal lung fibroblast (IMR90) cell lines with LC50 value of 0.998 ± 0.058 and 0.387 ± 0.002 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, violet fraction showed a strong antibacterial property by disrupting the membrane integrity of S. aureus and MRSA strains. This is the first report on the possible mode of antibacterial action of violet fraction from C. violaceum UTM5 on S. aureus and MRSA strains.
  9. Zwain HM, Aziz HA, Ng WJ, Dahlan I
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):13012-13024.
    PMID: 28378314 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8804-0
    Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high levels of organic and solid compounds, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. In this study, a unique modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) has been developed to treat RPME at various initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (1000-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (3 and 1 day). The COD removal efficiency was decreased from 96 to 83% when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.33 to 4 g/L day. Throughout the study, a maximum methane yield of 0.25 L CH4/g COD was obtained, while the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.8 to 7.8. The reactor performance was influenced by the development and distribution of the microbial communities. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, the microbial community represented a variety of bacterial phyla with significant homology to Euryarchaeota (43.06%), Planctomycetes (24.68%), Proteobacteria (21.58%), Acidobacteria (4.12%), Chloroflexi (3.14%), Firmicutes (1.12%), Bacteroidetes (1.02%), and others (1.28%). The NGS analysis showed that the microbial community was dominated by Methanosaeta concilii and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. This can be supported by the presence of filamentous and spherical microbes of different sizes. Additionally, methanogenic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) microorganisms coexisted in all compartments, and these contributed to the overall degradation of substances in the RPME. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
  10. Ali W, Abdullah A, Azam M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):12723-12739.
    PMID: 28378312 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8888-6
    The current study investigates the dynamic relationship between structural changes, real GDP per capita, energy consumption, trade openness, population density, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions within the EKC framework over a period 1971-2013. The study used the autoregressive distributed lagged (ARDL) approach to investigate the long-run relationship between the selected variables. The study also employed the dynamic ordinary least squared (DOLS) technique to obtain the robust long-run estimates. Moreover, the causal relationship between the variables is explored using the VECM Granger causality test. Empirical results reveal a negative relationship between structural change and CO2 emissions in the long run. The results indicate a positive relationship between energy consumption, trade openness, and CO2 emissions. The study applied the turning point formula of Itkonen (2012) rather than the conventional formula of the turning point. The empirical estimates of the study do not support the presence of the EKC relationship between income and CO2 emissions. The Granger causality test indicates the presence of long-run bidirectional causality between energy consumption, structural change, and CO2 emissions in the long run. Economic growth, openness to trade, and population density unidirectionally cause CO2 emissions. These results suggest that the government should focus more on information-based services rather than energy-intensive manufacturing activities. The feedback relationship between energy consumption and CO2 emissions suggests that there is an ominous need to refurbish the energy-related policy reforms to ensure the installations of some energy-efficient modern technologies.
  11. Kadhum SA, Ishak MY, Zulkifli SZ, Hashim RB
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):12991-13003.
    PMID: 28378310 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8833-8
    The present study applied the use of sequential extraction technique and simple bioaccessibility extraction test to investigate the bioavailable fractions and the human bioaccessible concentration of metals collected from nine stations in surface sediment of the Bernam River. The concentrations of total and bioaccessible metals from different stations were in the range of 0.30-1.43 μg g(-1) and 0.04-0.14 μg g(-1) for total cadmium and bioaccessibility of cadmium, respectively, 6.20-288 μg kg(-1) and 2.06-8.53 μg kg(-1) for total mercury and bioaccessibility of mercury, respectively, and 9.2-106.59 μg g(-1) and 0.4-2.75 μg kg(-1) for total tin and bioaccessibility of tin, respectively. The chemical speciation of Cd in most sampling stations was in the order of oxidisable-organic > acid-reducible > residual > exchangeable, while the chemical speciation of Hg was in the order of exchangeable > residual > oxidisable-organic > acid-reducible and the chemical speciation of Hg was in the order of residual > oxidisable-organic > acid-reducible > exchangeable. The principal component analysis showed that the main factors influencing the bioaccessibility of mercury in surface sediments were the sediment total organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and easily, freely, or leachable and exchangeable fraction, and the factors influencing the bioaccessibility of tin were the total tin and cation exchange capacity, while the bioaccessibility of Cd in surface sediments was influenced by the only factor which is the easily, freely, or leachable and exchangeable fraction.
  12. Rupani PF, Embrandiri A, Ibrahim MH, Shahadat M, Hansen SB, Ismail SA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(14):12982-12990.
    PMID: 28378309 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8938-0
    The present paper reports management of palm oil mill effluent (POME) mixed with palm-pressed fibre (PPF) POME-PPF mixture using eco-friendly, cost-effective vermicomposting technology. Vermicomposting of POME-PPF was performed to examine the optimal POME-PPF ratio with respect to the criteria of earthworm biomass and to evaluate the decomposition of carbon and nitrogen in different percentages of POME-PPF mixtures. Chemical parameters such as TOC, N, P and K contents were determined to achieve optimal decomposition of POME-PPF. On this basis, the obtained data of 50% POME-PPF mixture demonstrated more significant results throughout the experiment after addition of the earthworms. However, 60 and 70% mixtures found significant only in the last stages of the vermicomposting process. The decomposition rate in terms of -ln (CNt/CNo) showed that the 50% mixture has higher decomposition rate as compared to the 60 and 70% (k50% = 0.0498 day(-1)). The vermicomposting extracts (50, 60 and 70%) of POME-PPF mixtures were also tested to examine the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). It was found that among different extract dilutions, 50% POME-PPF vermicompost extract provided longer root and shoot length of mung bean. The present study concluded that the 50% mixture of POME-PPF could be chosen as the optimal mixture for vermicomposting in terms of both decomposition rate and fertilizer value of the final compost. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
  13. Xing S, Wang J, Liang JB, Jahromi MF, Zhu C, Shokryazdan P, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(15):13528-13535.
    PMID: 28390025 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8896-6
    This study investigated the effects and the possible mechanisms of intestinal content (IC) from laying hens on in vitro lead (Pb(2+)) biosorption of four probiotic bacterial strains (Bifidobacterium longum BB79, Lactobacillus paracasei Kgl6, Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23, and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44). The total Pb(2+) removal capacity of the four probiotic strains, with and without capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), increased in the presence of IC compared to the control (without IC). SEM imaging revealed certain unidentified particles from the IC adhered on the surface of bacterial cells sorted out using flow cytometry. Follow-up experiment showed an overall trend of increase in the Pb(2+) removal capacity of the sorted bacteria, but statistically significant for L. pentosus ITA23 and B. longum BB79 after incubation with IC, particularly with the suspended solid portion of the IC. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer data showed that functional groups such as C-H, O-H, C=O, and C-O-C which possibly associated with Pb(2+) binding were mainly presented in the suspended solid portion of IC. Putting the above together, we postulated that the enhanced Pb(2+) binding capacity the probiotic bacteria incubated in IC is due to the adherence of the yet to be identified particles which could much exist in suspended solid portion of IC containing negatively charged functional groups which bind with the positive Pb(2+) ions.
  14. García JR, Sedran U, Zaini MAA, Zakaria ZA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Feb;25(6):5076-5085.
    PMID: 28391459 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8975-8
    Palm oil mill wastes (palm kernel shell (PKS)) were used to prepare activated carbons, which were tested in the removal of colorants from water. The adsorbents were prepared by 1-h impregnation of PKS with ZnCl2 as the activating agent (PKS:ZnCl2 mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), followed by carbonization in autogenous atmosphere at 500 and 550 °C during 1 h. The characterization of the activated carbons included textural properties (porosity), surface chemistry (functional groups), and surface morphology. The dye removal performance of the different activated carbons was investigated by means of the uptake of methylene blue (MB) in solutions with various initial concentrations (25-400 mg/L of MB) at 30 °C, using a 0.05-g carbon/50-mL solution relationship. The sample prepared with 1:1 PKS:ZnCl2 and carbonized at 550 °C showed the highest MB adsorption capacity (maximum uptake at the equilibrium, q max = 225.3 mg MB / g adsorbent), resulting from its elevated specific surface area (BET, 1058 m2/g) and microporosity (micropore surface area, 721 m2/g). The kinetic experiments showed that removals over 90% of the equilibrium adsorptions were achieved after 4-h contact time in all the cases. The study showed that palm oil mill waste biomass could be used in the preparation of adsorbents efficient in the removal of colorants in wastewaters.
  15. Rashedul HK, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Teoh YH, How HG, Monirul IM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Apr;24(10):9305-9313.
    PMID: 28233198 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8573-9
    The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.
  16. Budiman PM, Wu TY, Ramanan RN, Md Jahim J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15870-15881.
    PMID: 28409433 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8807-x
    One-time ultrasonication pre-treatment of Rhodobacter sphaeroides was evaluated for improving biohydrogen production via photofermentation. Batch experiments were performed by varying ultrasonication amplitude (15, 30, and 45%) and duration (5, 10, and 15 min) using combined effluents from palm oil as well as pulp and paper mill as a single substrate. Experimental data showed that ultrasonication at amplitude 30% for 10 min (256.33 J/mL) achieved the highest biohydrogen yield of 9.982 mL H2/mLmedium with 5.125% of light efficiency. A maximum CODtotal removal of 44.7% was also obtained. However, when higher ultrasonication energy inputs (>256.33 J/mL) were transmitted to the cells, biohydrogen production did not improve further. In fact, 20.6% decrease of biohydrogen yield (as compared to the highest biohydrogen yield) was observed using the most intense ultrasonicated inoculum (472.59 J/mL). Field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed the occurrence of cell damages and biomass losses if ultrasonication at 472.59 J/mL was used. The present results suggested that moderate ultrasonication pre-treatment was an effective technique to improve biohydrogen production performances of R. sphaeroides.
  17. Dieng H, Ellias SB, Satho T, Ahmad AH, Abang F, Ghani IA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jun;24(17):14782-14794.
    PMID: 28470499 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8711-4
    In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process. We examined whether exposure to coffee during embryonic development could alter larval eclosion and lifespan of dengue vectors. A series of bioassays with different coffee forms and their residues indicated that larval eclosion responses of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were appreciably lower when embryonic maturation occurred in environments containing coffee, especially roasted coffee crude extract (RCC). In addition, the lifespan of adults derived from eggs that hatched successfully in a coffee milieu was reduced, but this effect was less pronounced with roasted and green coffee extracts (RCU and GCU, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggested that coffee and its residues have embryocidal activities with impacts that are carried over onto the adult lifespan of dengue vectors. These effects may significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of these insects. Reutilizing coffee waste in vector control may also represent a realistic solution to the issues associated with its pollution.
  18. Nadzir MSM, Lin CY, Khan MF, Latif MT, Dominick D, Hamid HHA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jun;24(18):15278-15290.
    PMID: 28500553 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9131-1
    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (
  19. Khokhar MF, Nisar M, Noreen A, Khan WR, Hakeem KR
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jan;24(3):2827-2839.
    PMID: 27838904 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7907-3
    This study emphasizes on near surface observation of chemically active trace gases such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Islamabad on a regular basis. Absorption spectroscopy using backscattered extraterrestrial light source technique was used to retrieve NO2 differential slant column densities (dSCDs). Mini multi-axis-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument was used to perform ground-based measurements at Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad, Pakistan. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 were derived from measured dSCDs by using geometric air mass factor approach. A case study was conducted to identify the impact of different materials (glass, tinted glass, and acrylic sheet of various thicknesses used to cover the instrument) on the retrieval of dSCDs. Acrylic sheet of thickness 5 mm was found most viable option for casing material as it exhibited negligible impact in the visible wavelength range. Tropospheric NO2 VCD derived from ground-based mini MAX-DOAS measurements exceeded two times the Pak-NEQS levels and showed a reasonable comparison (r (2) = 0.65, r = 0.81) with satellite observations (root mean square bias of 39 %) over Islamabad, Pakistan.
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