Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are extensively used as flame retardants in many consumer products, and leachates from landfills have been identified as one of the possible sources of PBDEs in the environment. Meanwhile, the unprecedented economic and population growths of some Asian countries over the last decade have led to significant increases in the amount of waste containing PBDEs in that region. This study investigates the status of PBDEs in leachates from municipal solid waste dumping sites (MSWDS) in tropical Asian countries. A total of 46 PBDE congeners were measured, both in the adsorbed (n=24) and dissolved (n=16) phases, in leachate samples collected, from 2002 to 2010, from ten MSWDS distributed among the eight countries of Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Malaysia. PBDEs were predominantly found in the adsorbed phase. Partitioning of PBDEs in the dissolved phase was associated with the presence of dissolved organic matter; the apparent organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K'oc) of the BDE congeners were lower by two to four orders of magnitude than the K oc predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficients (K ow). The total PBDE concentrations from mono- to deca-BDEs ranged from 3.7 to 133,000 ng/L, and showed a trend toward higher concentrations in the more populous and industrialized Asian countries. The congener profiles in the leachates basically reflected the composition of PBDE technical mixtures. The occurrence of congeners not contained, or in trace concentrations, in technical products (e.g., BDEs 208, 207, 206, 202, 188, 179, 49, 17/25, 8, 1) was observed in most of the leachate samples, suggesting the debromination of technical mixtures, including BDE-209, in the MSWDS of tropical Asian countries. Moreover, the temporal trend indicated the reduction of BDE-209 over time, with a corresponding increase in and/or emergence of lower brominated PBDE congeners. The results indicated that MSWDS of tropical Asian countries are potential sources of environmental PBDEs, which may be transported to the aquatic environment via dissolution with dissolved organic matter. MSWDS could be amplifiers of PBDE toxicity in the environment, possibly through debromination.
This study investigated the degradation pathway of metoprolol, a widely used β-blocker, in the ozonation via the identification of generated ozonation by-products (OPs). Structure elucidation of OPs was performed using HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. Seven OPs were identified, and four of these have not been reported elsewhere. Identified OPs of metoprolol included aromatic ring breakdown by-products; aliphatic chain degraded by-products and aromatic ring mono-, di-, and tetrahydroxylated derivatives. Based on the detected OPs, metoprolol could be degraded through aromatic ring opening reaction via reaction with ozone (O3) and degradation of aliphatic chain and aromatic ring via reaction with hydroxyl radical (•OH).
The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes.
Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) used as alternatives for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are also persistent in the environment as PBDEs. Limited information on these non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is available; in particular, there are only few publications on environmental pollution by these contaminants in the coastal waters of Asia. In this regard, we investigated the contamination status of HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE in the coastal waters of Asia using mussels as a bioindicator. Concentrations of HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE were determined in green (Perna viridis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the coastal areas in Cambodia, China (mainland), SAR China (Hong Kong), India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam on 2003-2008. BTBPE and DBDPE were analyzed using GC-MS, whereas HBCDs were determined by LC-MS/MS. HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE were found in mussels at levels ranging from <0.01 to 1,400, <0.1 to 13, and <0.3 to 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Among the three HBCD diastereoisomers, α-HBCD was the dominant isomer followed by γ- and β-HBCDs. Concentrations of HBCDs and DBDPE in mussels from Japan and Korea were higher compared to those from the other Asian countries, indicating extensive usage of these non-PBDE BFRs in Japan and Korea. Higher levels of HBCDs and DBDPE than PBDEs were detected in some mussel samples from Japan. The results suggest that environmental pollution by non-PBDE BFRs, especially HBCDs in Japan, is ubiquitous. This study provides baseline information on the contamination status of these non-PBDE BFRs in the coastal waters of Asia.
This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.
Reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. In this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by the Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. Decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. In this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize these operational factors and also to study the combined interaction between them. Analysis of AO7 decolorization was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum condition via RSM for the color removal of AO7 was found to be as follows: yeast extract, 0.1% w/v, glycerol concentration of 0.1% v/v, and inoculum density of 2.5% v/v at initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L at 37 °C. Decolorization efficiency of 98% was achieved in only 5 h. The kinetic of AO7 decolorization was found to be first order with respect to dye concentration with a k value of 0.87/h. FTIR, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, FESEM, and HPLC findings indicated that the decolorization of AO7 was mainly due to the biosorption as well as biodegradation of the bacterial cells. In addition, HPLC analyses also showed the formation of sulfanilic acid as a possible degradation product of AO7 under facultative anaerobic condition. This study explored the ability of E. faecalis strain ZL in decolorizing AO7 by biosorption as well as biodegradation process.
Field and laboratory studies were conducted to estimate concentration of potential contaminants from landfill in the underlying groundwater, leachate, and surface water. Samples collected in the vicinity of the landfill were analyzed for physiochemical parameters, organic contaminants, and toxic heavy metals. Water quality results obtained were compared from published data and reports. The results indicate serious groundwater and surface water contamination in and around the waste disposal site. Analysis of the organic samples revealed that the site contains polychlorinated biphenyls and other organo-chlorine chemicals, principally chloro-benzenes. Although the amount of PCB concentration discovered was not extreme, their presence indicates a potentially serious environmental threat. Elevated concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, manganese, cadmium, and cobalt at the downgradient indicate that the contamination plume migrated further from the site, and the distribution of metals and metals containing wastes in the site is nonhomogeneous. These results clearly indicate that materials are poorly contained and are at risk of entering the environment. Therefore, full characterization of the dump contents and the integrity of the site are necessary to evaluate the scope of the problem and to identify suitable remediation options.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of adsorbability and number of sulfonate group on solar photocatalytic degradation of mono azo methyl orange (MO) and diazo Reactive Green 19 (RG19) in single and binary dye solutions. The adsorption capacity of MO and RG19 onto the TiO₂ was 16.9 and 26.8 mg/g, respectively, in single dye solution, and reduced to 5.0 and 23.1 mg/g, respectively, in the binary dye solution. The data obtained for photocatalytic degradation of MO and RG19 in single and binary dye solution were well fitted with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of diazo RG19 were significant higher than the mono azo MO either in single or binary dye solutions. The higher number of sulfonate group in RG19 contributed to better adsorption capacity onto the surface of TiO₂ than MO indicating greater photocatalytic degradation rate.
Biochar is the bio-solid material produced by pyrolysis. The biochar properties are controlled by feedstock and pyrolysis variables. In this study, the impacts of these production variables on biochar yield and physicochemical properties including pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, surface area, and pore volume and size were investigated. Rice husk (RH) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were used as biomass. The biochars were produced at temperature range of 300 to 700 °C, heating rate of 3 to 10 °C/min and retention time of 1 to 3 h. The pyrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) technique to maximize the values of the responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results demonstrated that the data fitted well to the linear and quadratic equations. Temperature was found to be the most effective parameter on the responses followed by retention time and heating rate, sequentially. CEC, TOC, surface area, and pore characteristics were evaluated as biochar properties determining their sorption potential. The optimum conditions for the maximum values of the properties were temperatures of 700 and 493.44 °C and time of 3 and 1 h for RH and EFB biochars, respectively. Heating rate at 3 °C/min was found to be the best rate for both biochars. The structure of EFB biomass was more sensitive to heating than rice husk. The biomass type and the production variables were demonstrated as the direct effective factors on biochar yield and physicochemical properties.
A study was carried out to determine the pathogenicity (hemolytic activity) on corals (Turbinaria sp.) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer) of Aeromonas hydrophila from water, sediment, and coral. Samples were collected from coastal water and coral reef areas. One hundred and sixty-two isolates were successfully isolated. Out of 162, 95 were from seawater, 49 from sediment, and 18 from coral. Sixteen isolates were picked and identified. Isolates were identified using a conventional biochemical test, the API 20NE kit, and 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences. Hemolytic activity was determined. Out of 16 isolates, 14 isolates were β-hemolytic and two isolates were non-hemolytic. Corals infected with A. hydrophila suffered bleaching. Similar effect was observed for both hemolytic and non-hemolytic isolates. Intramuscular injection of A. hydrophila into sea bass resulted in muscular bleeding and death. Higher infection rates were obtained from hemolytic compared to non-hemolytic strains of A. hydrophila isolates.
In the present work, the efficiency of the sonication, electrocoagulation, and sono-electrocoagulation process for removal of pollutants from the industrial effluent of the pulp and paper industry was compared. The experimental results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process yielded higher pollutant removal percentage compared to the sonication and electrocoagulation process alone. The effect of the operating parameters in the sono-electrocoagulation process such as electrolyte concentration (1-5 g/L), current density (1-5 A/dm(2)), effluent pH (3-11), COD concentration (1500-6000 mg/L), inter-electrode distance (1-3 cm), and electrode combination (Fe and Al) on the color removal, COD removal, and power consumption were studied. The maximum color and COD removal percentages of 100 and 95 %, respectively, were obtained at the current density of 4 A/dm(2), electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, effluent pH of 7, COD concentration of 3000 mg/L, electrode combination of Fe/Fe, inter-electrode distance of 1 cm, and reaction time of 4 h, respectively. The color and COD removal percentages were analyzed by using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer and closed reflux method. The results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process could be used as an efficient and environmental friendly technique for complete pollutant removal.
This study investigated the effect of different supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl) in degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and generation of electricity. Zinc oxide (ZnO) was immobilized onto carbon felt acted as photoanode, while Pt-coated carbon paper as photocathode was placed in a single chamber photocatalytic fuel cell, which then irradiated by UV lamp for 24 h. The degradation and mineralization of RB5 with 0.1 M NaCl rapidly decreased after 24-h irradiation time, followed by MgSO4, Na2SO4 and without electrolyte. The voltage outputs for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 908, 628 and 523 mV, respectively, after 24-h irradiation time; meanwhile, their short-circuit current density, J SC, was 1.3, 1.2 and 1.05 mA cm(-2), respectively. The power densities for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 0.335, 0.256 and 0.245 mW cm(-2), respectively. On the other hand, for without supporting electrolyte, the voltage output and short-circuit current density was 271.6 mV and 0.055 mA cm(-2), respectively. The supporting electrolyte NaCl showed greater performance in degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity due to the formation of superoxide radical anions which enhance the degradation of dye. The mineralization of RB5 with different supporting electrolyte was measured through spectrum analysis and reduction in COD concentration.
This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for an interactive environmental model that facilitates the process of sustainable development across the globe.
Cyanotoxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, are potent toxins produced by cyanobacteria in potable water supplies. This study investigated the removal of cyanotoxins from aqueous media by magnetophoretic nanoparticle of polypyrrole adsorbent. The adsorption process was pH dependent with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7 for microcystin-LA, LR, and YR and at pH 9 for microcystin-RR and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Kinetic studies and adsorption isotherms reflected better fit for pseudo-second-order rate and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the cyanotoxin adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The regenerated adsorbent can be successfully reused without appreciable loss of its original capacity.
One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P
Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).
The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental indicators and health expenditures in the panel of five selected Asian countries, over the period of 2000-2013. The study used panel cointegration technique for evaluating the nexus between environment and health in the region. The results show that energy demand, forest area, and GDP per unit use of energy have a significant and positive impact on increasing health expenditures in the region. These results have been confirmed by single equation panel cointegration estimators, i.e., fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimators. In addition, the study used robust least squares regression to confirm the generalizability of the results in Asian context. All these estimators indicate that environmental indicators escalate the health expenditures per capita in a region; therefore, Asian countries should have to upsurge health expenditures for safeguard from environmental evils in a region.
In the present study, the feasibility of soil used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The kinetics for adsorption of the heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by soil was examined under batch mode. The influence of the contact time and initial concentration for the adsorption process at pH of 4.5, under a constant room temperature of 25 ± 1 °C were studied. The adsorption capacity of the three heavy metal ions from aqueous solution was decreased in order of Pb(2+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+). The soil was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. From the FTIR analysis, the experimental data was corresponded to the peak changes of the spectra obtained before and after adsorption process. Studies on SEM-EDX showed distinct adsorption of the heavy metal ions and the mineral composition in the study areas were determined to be silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and iron(III) oxide (FeO3). A distinct decrease of the specific surface area and total pore volumes of the soil after adsorption was found from the BET analysis. The experimental results obtained were analyzed using four adsorption kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion. Evaluating the linear correlation coefficients, the kinetic studies showed that pseudo-second-order equation described the data appropriable than others. It was concluded that soil can be used as an effective adsorbent for removing Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution.
This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.
Three short sediment cores from inner continental shelf of the southern South China Sea (5-50 km) off Terengganu were analyzed for lipid contents (i.e., homologous aliphatic compounds and sterols) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAHs) ranged from 0.152 to 6.91 μg/g dry weight. The n-alkane distribution was from nC₁₃ to nC₃₆, with a carbon preference index (CPI₁₃₋₃₅) from 1.08 to 4.28 and a carbon number maximum (Cmax), depending on a sample, at 31 or 18. In addition, a strong odd-to-even carbon number predominance was observed in nC₂₅-nC₃₅ range. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols in all samples exhibited an even-to-odd carbon number predominance and ranged from C₁₀ to C₂₆ and from C₁₂ to C₃₄, respectively. The n-alkanols were dominated by the long-chain homologs with Cmax at 22; on the other hand, the n-alkanoic acid distributions showed a predominance of short-chain homologs with a Cmax at 16. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 3.57 μg/g dry weight. Cholesterol was most abundant at the offshore stations, whereas sitosterol was dominant at near-shore station. Pentacyclic triterpenoids such as friedelin and taraxerol α- and β-amyrins, which are known biomarkers for higher plants, were detected at all stations with a dilution trend offshore. In conclusion, the marine sediments off southern Terengganu can still be considered uncontaminated, where the compound sources are biogenic from terrestrial plants superimposed with a marine productivity input.