Following the discovery of Stöber silica, the realm of morphology-controlled mesoporous silica nanomaterials like MCM-41, SBA-15, and KCC-1 has been expanded. Due to their high BET surface area, tunable pores, easiness of functionalization, and excellent thermal and chemical stability, these materials take part a vital role in the advancement of techniques and technologies for tackling the world's largest challenges in the area of water and the environment, energy storage, and biotechnology. Synthesizing these materials with excellent physicochemical properties from cost-efficient biomass wastes is a foremost model of sustainability. Particularly, SiO2 with a purity >98% can be obtained from rice husk (RH), one of the most abundant biomass wastes, and can be template engineered into various forms of mesoporous silica materials in an economic and eco-friendly way. Hence, this review initially gives insight into why to valorize RH into value-added silica materials. Then the thermal, chemical, hydrothermal, and biological methods of high-quality silica extraction from RH and the principles of synthesis of mesoporous and fibrous mesoporous silica materials like SBA-15, MCM-41, MSNs, and KCC-1 are comprehensively discussed. The potential applications of rice husk-derived mesoporous silica materials in catalysis, drug delivery, energy, adsorption, and environmental remediation are explored. Finally, the conclusion and the future outlook are briefly highlighted.
Among numerous methods developed in purification and separation industries, the adsorption process has received considerable attention due to its inexpensive, facile, and eco-friendly nature. The importance of the adsorption process causes extraordinary endeavors for modeling the adsorption isotherms during the years; thus, myriads of research have been conducted and many reviews have been published. In this paper, we have attempted to gather the most widely used adsorption isotherms and their related definitions, along with examples of correlated work of the recent decade. In the present review, 37 adsorption isotherms with about 400 references have been collected from the research published in the period of 2010-2020. The adsorption isotherms utilized are alphabetically organized for ease of access. The parameters of each isotherm, as well as the applicable definitions, are presented in the table, in addition to being discussed in the text. Another table is provided for the practical use of researchers, featuring the usage of the related isotherms in peer-reviewed studies.
In this study, a sustainable NH2-MIL-101(Al) is synthesized and subjected to characterization for cryogenic CO2 adsorption, isotherms, and thermodynamic study. The morphology revealed a highly porous surface. The XRD showed that NH2-MIL-101(Al) was crystalline. The NH2-MIL-101(Al) decomposes at a temperature (>500 °C) indicating excellent thermal stability. The BET investigation revealed the specific surface area of 2530 m2/g and the pore volume of 1.32 cm3/g. The CO2 adsorption capacity was found to be 9.55 wt% to 2.31 wt% within the investigated temperature range. The isotherms revealed the availability of adsorption sites with favorable adsorption at lower temperatures indicating the thermodynamically controlled process. The thermodynamics showed that the process is non-spontaneous, endothermic, with fewer disorders, chemisorption. Finally, the breakthrough time of NH2-MIL-101(Al) is 31.25% more than spherical glass beads. The CO2 captured by the particles was 2.29 kg m-3. The CO2 capture using glass packing was 121% less than NH2-MIL-101(Al) under similar conditions of temperature and pressure.
This work investigates the performances of coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in batch studies for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants (as indicated by decreasing COD concentration) from landfill leachate. To valorize unused resources, coconut shell, recovered and recycled from agricultural waste, was converted into activated carbon, which can be used for leachate treatment. The ozonation of the CSWAC was conducted to enhance its removal performance for target pollutants. The adsorption mechanisms of refractory pollutants by the adsorbent are proposed. Perspectives on nutrient recovery technologies from landfill leachate from the view-points of downstream processing are presented. Their removal efficiencies for both recalcitrant compounds and ammoniacal nitrogen were compared to those of other techniques reported in previous work. It is found that the ozonated CSWAC substantially removed COD (i.e. 76%) as well as NH3-N (i.e. 75%), as compared to the CSWAC without pretreatment (i.e. COD: 44%; NH3-N: 51%) with NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2750 and 8500 mg/L, respectively. This reveals the need of ozonation for the adsorbent to improve its performance for the removal of COD and NH3-N at optimized reactions: 30 g/L of CSWAC, pH 8, 200 rpm of shaking speed and 20 min of reaction time. Nevertheless, treatment of the leachate samples using the ozonated CSWAC alone was still unable to result in treated effluents that could meet the COD and NH3-N discharge standards below 200 and 5 mg/L, respectively, set by legislative requirements. This reveals that another treatment is necessary to be undertaken to comply with the requirement of their effluent limit.
π-Acidic triangular silver(i) 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolate (Ag3pz3) can form 1 : 1 adducts with dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (DMDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 2,5-dimethylthiophene (DMT), which are stabilized by weak AgS and AgC contacts and sometimes by π-π stacking and, therefore, may represent a weak interaction model for some adsorptive desulfurization processes.
Aspirin is a prevalent over-the-counter medicine that has been categorized as an emerging contaminant due to its danger to both living things and the environment. This work presents chitosan modified with spent tea waste extract (STWE) via the wet impregnation method as an adsorbent for the enhanced removal of aspirin in a fixed-bed column. The adsorbent (named chitosan-STWE) was successfully synthesized and exhibited a low crystallinity structure, good stability against thermal and acidic conditions, as depicted by HNMR, XRD, TGA, and the dissolution rate of the adsorbent. The adsorption column study reveals that increasing bed height (up to 6 cm) increases the percentage of aspirin removal (up to 40.8 %). Increasing aspirin concentration enhances the amount of aspirin that comes into contact with the chitosan-STWE adsorbent, thereby increasing the adsorption capacity. On the other hand, higher flow rates result in shorter contact times between the adsorbent and adsorbates, which lowers the quantity of aspirin adsorbed. The experimental data are in accordance with the values generated by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 61.7 mg/g. The chitosan-STWE adsorbent was determined to be non-toxic, thus safe to be used in wastewater treatment applications.
The influence of biomass cellulosic content on biochar nanopore structure and adsorption capacity in aqueous phase was scarcely reported. Commercial cellulose (100% cellulose), oil palm frond (39.5% cellulose), and palm kernel shell (20.5% cellulose) were pyrolyzed AT 630 °C, characterized and tested for the adsorption of iodine and organic contaminants. The external surface area and average pore size increased with cellulosic content, where commercial cellulose formed biochar with external surface area of 95.4 m2/g and average pore size of 4.1 nm. The biochar from commercial cellulose had the largest adsorption capacities: 371.40 mg/g for iodine, 86.7 mg/L for tannic acid, 17.89 mg/g for COD and 60.35 mg/g for colour, while biochar from palm kernel shell had the least adsorption capacities. The cellulosic content reflected the differences in biochar nanopore structure and adsorption capacities, signifying the suitability of highly cellulosic biomass for producing biochar to effectively treat wastewater.
A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the suitability of activated carbon SA2 for the removal of cadmium ions and zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. The single component equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Overall, the Langmuir isotherm showed a better fitting for all adsorptions under investigation in terms of correlation coefficient and error analysis (SSE only 18.2 for Cd2+ and 47.95 for Zn2+). As the binary adsorption is competitive, extended Langmuir models could not predict the binary component isotherm well. The modified extended Langmuir models were used to fit the binary system equilibrium data. The binary isotherm data could be described reasonably well by the modified
extended Langmuir model, as indicated in the error analysis.
Microwave-steam activation (MSA), an innovative pyrolysis approach combining the use of microwave heating and steam activation, was investigated for its potential production of high grade activated carbon (AC) from waste palm shell (WPS) for methylene blue removal. MSA was performed via pyrolytic carbonization of WPS to produce biochar as the first step followed by steam activation of the biochar using microwave heating to form AC. Optimum yield and adsorption efficiency of methylene blue were obtained using response surface methodology involving several key process parameters. The resulting AC was characterized for its porous characteristics, surface morphology, proximate analysis and elemental compositions. MSA provided a high activation temperature above 500 °C with short process time of 15 min and rapid heating rate (≤150 °C/min). The results from optimization showed that one gram of AC produced from steam activation under 10 min of microwave heating at 550 °C can remove up to 38.5 mg of methylene blue. The AC showed a high and uniform surface porosity consisting high fixed carbon (73 wt%), micropore and BET surface area of 763.1 and 570.8 m2/g respectively, hence suggesting the great potential of MSA as a promising approach to produce high grade adsorbent for dye removal.
The increasing degradation of fossil fuels has motivated the globe to turn to green energy solutions such as biofuel in order to minimize the entire reliance on fossil fuels. Green renewable resources have grown in popularity in recent years as a result of the advancement of environmental technology solutions. Kapok fiber is a sort of cellulosic fiber derived from kapok tree seeds (Ceiba pentandra). Kapok Fiber, as a bio-template, offers the best alternatives to provide clean and renewable energy sources. The unique structure, good conductivity, and excellent physical properties exhibited by kapok fiber nominate it as a highly favored cocatalyst for deriving solar energy processes. This review will explore the role and recent developments of KF in energy production, including hydrogen and CO2 reduction. Moreover, this work summarized the potential of kapok fiber in environmental applications, including adsorption and degradation. The future contribution and concerns are highlighted in order to provide perspective on the future advancement of kapok fiber.
The emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas from power plants and factories to the atmosphere has been an environmental challenge globally. Thus, there is a great interest to control the SO2 gas emission economically and effectively. This study aims to use and convert abundantly available oil palm fiber (OPF) biomass into an adsorbent to adsorb SO2 gas. The preparation of OPF biochar and activated biochar was optimised using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on selected parameters (i.e., pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, holding time, activation temperature, activation time and CO2 flowrate). The best adsorbent was found to be the OPF activated biochar (OPFAB) compared to OPF biochar. OPFAB prepared at 753 °C for 73 min of activation time with 497 ml/min of CO2 flow yields the best adsorption capacity (33.09 mg/g) of SO2. Meanwhile, OPF pyrolysed at 450 °C of heating temperature, 12 °C/min of heating rate and 98 min of holding time yield adsorption capacity at 18.62 mg/g. Various characterisations were performed to investigate the properties and mechanism of the SO2 adsorption process. Thermal regeneration shows the possibilities for the spent adsorbent to be recycled. The findings imply OPFAB as a promising adsorbent for SO2 adsorption.
The suitability and efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) graphene, including its derivatives, have garnered widespread attention towards the development of novel, sustainable materials with ecological amenability. This is especially relevant towards its utilization as adsorbents of wastewater contaminants, such as heavy metals, dyes, and oil, which could be majorly attributed to its noteworthy physicochemical features, particularly elevated chemical and mechanical robustness, advanced permeability, as well as large specific surface area. In this review, we emphasize on the adsorptive elimination of oil particles from contaminated water. Specifically, we assess and collate recent literature on the conceptualization and designing stages of 3D graphene-based adsorbents (3DGBAs) towards oil adsorption, including their applications in either batch or continuous modes. In addition, we analytically evaluate the adsorption mechanism, including sorption sites, physical properties, surface chemistry of 3DGBA and interactions between the adsorbent and adsorbate involving the adsorptive removal of oil, as well as numerous effects of adsorption conditions on the adsorption performance, i.e. pH, temperature, initial concentration of oil contaminants and adsorbent dosage. Furthermore, we focus on the equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies, in order to comprehend the oil elimination procedures. Lastly, we designate encouraging avenues and recommendations for a perpetual research thrust, and outline the associated future prospects and perspectives.
Over the past decade, there has been a surge of interest in using char (hydrochar or biochar) derived from biomass as persulfate (PS, either peroxymonosulfate or peroxydisulfate) activator for anthropogenic pollutants removal. While extensive investigation showed that char could be used as a PS activator, its sustainability over prolonged application is equivocal. This review provides an assessment of the knowledge gap related to the sustainability of char as a PS activator. The desirable char properties for PS activation are identified, include the high specific surface area and favorable surface chemistry. Various synthesis strategies to obtain the desirable properties during biomass pre-treatment, hydrochar and biochar synthesis, and char post-treatment are discussed. Thereafter, factors related to the sustainability of employing char as a PS activator for anthropogenic pollutants removal are critically evaluated. Among the critical factors include performance uncertainty, competing adsorption process, char stability during PS activation, biomass precursor variation, scalability, and toxic components in char. Finally, some potential research directions are provided. Fulfilling the sustainability factors will provide opportunity to employ char as an economical and efficient catalyst for sustainable environmental remediation.
The presence of metal with microwave irradiation has always invited controversial arguments as the metal will catch on fire easily. But interestingly, researchers found that arc discharge phenomena provide a promising way for molecule cracking to synthesize nanomaterials. This study developed a single-step yet affordable synthesis approach that combines microwave heating and arcing in transforming crude palm oil into magnetic nanocarbon (MNC), which can be considered a new alternative for the palm oil sectors. It involves synthesizing the medium at a partial inert condition with constant coiled stainless steel metal wire (dielectric media) and ferrocene (catalyst). This approach successfully demonstrates heating at a temperature ranging from 190.9 to 472.0 °C with different synthesis times (10-20 min). The produced MNC shows formations of spheres with average sizes of 20.38-31.04 nm, mesoporous structure (SBET: 14.83-151.95 m2/g), and high content of fixed carbon (52.79-71.24wt%), and the ratio of the D and G bands (ID/IG) is 0.98-0.99. The formation of new peaks in the FTIR spectra (522.29-588.48 cm-1) supports the appearance of the FeO compounds from the ferrocene. The magnetometer shows high magnetization saturation (22.32-26.84 emu/g) in ferromagnetic materials. The application of the MNC in wastewater treatment has been demonstrated by evaluating their adsorbent capability with Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption test at a different concentrations varying between 5 and 20 ppm. The MNC produced at synthesis time (20 min) shows the highest adsorption efficiency (10.36 mg/g) compared to others, with 87.79% removal of MB dye. As a result, the value for Langmuir is not promising compared to Freundlich, with R2 being around 0.80, 0.98, and 0.99 for MNC synthesized at 10 min (MNC10), 15 min (MNC15), and 20 min (MNC20), respectively. Hence, the adsorption system is in a heterogeneous condition. The microwave-assisted arcing thereby presents a promising approach to transforming CPO into MNC that could remove the hazardous dye.
Nowadays, emerging hazardous pollutants have caused many harmful effects on the environment and human health, calling for the state of the art methods for detection, qualification, and treatment. Metal-organic frameworks are porous, flexible, and versatile materials with unique structural properties, which can solve such problems. In this work, we reviewed the synthesis, activation, and characterization, and potential applications of NH2-MIL-53(Al). This material exhibited intriguing breathing effects, and obtained very high surface areas (182.3-1934 m2/g) with diverse morphologies. More importantly, NH2-MIL-53(Al) based materials could be used for the detection and removal of various toxic pollutants such as organic dyes, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, insecticides, phenols, heavy metals, and fluorides. We shed light on plausible adsorption mechanisms such as hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking interactions, and electrostatic interactions onto NH2-MIL-53(Al) adsorbents. Interestingly, NH2-MIL-53(Al) based adsorbents could be recycled for many cycles with high stability. This review also recommended that NH2-MIL-53(Al) based materials can be a good platform for the environmental remediation fields.
Excessive phosphorus causes eutrophication problems. The adsorptive removal of phosphate is prevalent and practical in large-scale applications, such as column adsorption. A metal organic framework (MOF)-enhanced layered double hydroxide (LDH) adsorbent material was developed and studied for batch adsorption and then combined with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to form MOF/LDH/PAN composite beads working as a functional material for columns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the well-dispersed adsorbent powder in porous composite beads. The Fowler-Guggenheim isotherm model described the phosphate adsorption behavior of the MOF/LDH powder with a maximum capacity of 74.96 mg P/g. Mass transfer in the composite beads was successfully described with the Fickian diffusion model. The composite-packed fixed bed treated 37.95 BVs of the influent (55.51 mg P/L phosphate solution) and achieved an uptake of 18.92 mg P/g, with a removal efficiency of 96.42%, before the breakthrough point in the column study. The phosphate-loaded composite bed was regenerated with 0.1 M NaOH to 70% efficiency within 30 BVs. The polymer composite can be considered a practical solution for adsorption-based water treatment applications in tank and column processes where powder adsorbents cannot be applied.
An exponential rise in global pollution and industrialization has led to significant economic and environmental problems due to the insufficient application of green technology for the chemical industry and energy production. Nowadays, the scientific and environmental/industrial communities push to apply new sustainable ways and/or materials for energy/environmental applications through the so-called circular (bio)economy. One of today's hottest topics is primarily valorizing available lignocellulosic biomass wastes into valuable materials for energy or environmentally related applications. This review aims to discuss, from both the chemistry and mechanistic points of view, the recent finding reported on the valorization of biomass wastes into valuable carbon materials. The sorption mechanisms using carbon materials prepared from biomass wastes by emphasizing the relationship between the synthesis route or/and surface modification and the retention performance were discussed towards the removal of organic and heavy metal pollutants from water or air (NOx, CO2, VOCs, SO2, and Hg0). Photocatalytic nanoparticle-coated biomass-based carbon materials have proved to be successful composites for water remediation. The review discusses and simplifies the most raised interfacial, photonic, and physical mechanisms that might take place on the surface of these composites under light irradiation. Finally, the review examines the economic benefits and circular bioeconomy and the challenges of transferring this technology to more comprehensive applications.
Over the past decades, increasing research in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) being a large family of highly tunable porous materials with intrinsic physical properties, show propitious results for a wide range of applications in adsorption, separation, electrocatalysis, and electrochemical sensors. MOFs have received substantial attention in electrochemical sensors owing to their large surface area, active metal sites, high chemical and thermal stability, and tunable structure with adjustable pore diameters. Benefiting from the superior properties, MOFs and MOF-derived carbon materials act as promising electrode material for the detection of food contaminants. Although several reviews have been reported based on MOF and its nanocomposites for the detection of food contaminants using various analytical methods such as spectrometric, chromatographic, and capillary electrophoresis. But there no significant review has been devoted to MOF/and its derived carbon-based electrodes using electrochemical detection of food contaminants. Here we review and classify MOF-based electrodes over the period between 2017 and 2022, concerning synthetic procedures, electrode fabrication process, and the possible mechanism for detection of the food contaminants which include: heavy metals, antibiotics, mycotoxins, and pesticide residues. The merits and demerits of MOF as electrode material and the need for the fabrication of MOF and its composites/derivatives for the determination of food contaminants are discussed in detail. At last, the current opportunities, key challenges, and prospects in MOF for the development of smart sensing devices for future research in this field are envisioned.
The surfaces of NaY zeolite particles were modified by the alkylsilylation of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). Two kinds of modified NaY zeolites were prepared; one with its external surface partially and the other fully covered with alkylsilyl groups. Since the size of OTS is bigger than the pore diameter of NaY, it is attached on the external surface, leaving the internal pore accessible to adsorbate molecules. As a result of alkylsilylation, the adsorption properties of these sorbents were improved. The adsorption properties of these materials were tested by their reaction in a mixture of paraquat and blue dye. The results demonstrate that the alkysilylated NaY materials are capable of simultaneous adsorption of paraquat and blue dye. Paraquat was selectively adsorbed into the internal pore of the zeolite whereas the dye on the externally attached alkylsilyl groups of the sorbent; displaying the unique bimodal amphiphilic character of the alkylsilylated NaY zeolites.