Riparian areas hold vast number of flora and fauna with exceptional contributions to the ecosystem. A study was conducted in Sungai Sepetang, Sungai Rembau and Sungai Chukai to identify the insect community in a riparian zone of Peninsular Malaysia. Sampling was conducted in six consecutive months from December 2017 to May 2018 during both day and night using sweep nets. Twenty sampling stations (S1-S20) had been assembled along the riverbanks with an average distance of 200 m between each station. The 17,530 collected insects were from 11 orders and consisted of Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Blattodea, Thysanoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. The three most abundant orders were Diptera (33.84%; 5933 individuals), Coleoptera (28.82%; 5053 individuals) and Hemiptera (25.62%: 4491 individuals). The collected insect community consisted of different guilds such as the scavenger, predator, herbivore, pollinator and parasitoid. Sungai Sepetang and Sungai Rembau were dominated by mangrove flora, Sonneratia caseolaris (Myrtales: Lythraceae), while Sungai Chukai was dominated by Barringtonia racemosa. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the composition of insects between the three rivers though clustering analysis showed that the insect communities in Sungai Sepetang and Sungai Rembau were 100% similar compared to Sungai Chukai which consisted of a totally different community. There is a significant negative correlation between abundance of insects with salinity and wind speed at Sungai Chukai and Sungai Sepetang.
We studied the water quality of the riparian firefly sanctuary of Sungai Rembau, or Rembau River, in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, from January 2018 to November 2018 to determine the possible influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of the water on the firefly populations living within the sanctuary. We set up a total of five water quality sampling stations and 10 firefly sampling stations along the river. Dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ, while chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) were analysed in the laboratory. Firefly samples were collected using a sweep net at both day and night for 1 min. Sungai Rembau was categorized as Class II on the Malaysian water quality index (WQI), which indicates slight pollution. Except for EC and DO, the water quality parameter values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the sampling stations. A total of 529 firefly individuals consisting of Pteroptyx tener (n = 525, 99.24%), P. malaccae (n = 3, 0.57%) and P. asymmetria (n = 1, 0.19%) were collected. There was significant correlation between firefly abundance and BOD (r = - 0.198, p