Bovine fascioliasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of bovine fascioliasis in Kelantan. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 308 stool and blood samples of farmed cattle were collected from December 2017 to June 2018. The stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Fasciola spp. eggs following a formalin-ether sedimentation process. The blood samples were subjected to a commercial ELISA kit (Bio-X-Diagnostic, Rochefort, Belgium) for the detection of anti-Fasciola IgG antibody. The association between coprological findings and risk factors was determined using Pearson's chi-square (χ2). The coproprevalence and seroprevalence of bovine fascioliasis was 14.6% and 37.3%, respectively. There were significant (P < 0.05) associations between the risk of infections and the sex, type of feedings, anthelmintic treatment and farm hygiene. Female cattle (OR: 3.104; 95% CI: 1.265, 7.615), feeding by grazing (OR: 4.458; 95% CI: 1.823, 10.90), untreated cattle (OR: 3.833; 95% CI: 1.620, 9.071), non-schedule anthelminthic treatment (OR: 3.927; 95% CI: 1.685, 9.152) and farm that have never been cleaned (OR: 2.829; 95% CI: 1.428, 5.608) showed higher odds of Fasciola spp. infection. These findings suggested bovine fascioliasis is a serious veterinary disease in Kelantan. Thus, appropriate control, prevention and monitoring strategies of this parasitic infection are urgently needed to reduce the burden of the disease.
Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) is a native plant of North Sumatra province. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium is a member of Rutaceae family widely found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The aim of this study was to barcode Z. acanthopodium in North Sumatra province, Indonesia based on cpDNA maturase K (matK). Samples were collected in seven localities across six regions of North Sumatra province. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using Maximum Likelihood method. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that Z. acanthopodium is a monophyletic group that is derived from a common ancestor. The results of the phylogenetic tree construction show that there is a grouping of accession between Z. acanthopodium species separate from other species in the Zanthoxylum genus as well as those of the Rutaceae family. The results showed that cpDNA matK marker can effectively be used as DNA barcoding to identify Z. acanthopodium.
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a member of the genus lentivirus causing caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the lungs, joints, udder and central nervous system of small ruminants such as sheep and goats. CAE is distributed worldwide and is recognised as a significant cause of morbidity and decreased milk production in dairy goats. Earlier studies highlighted the clinicopathological features and supplied preliminary serological evidence for the existence of CAE among selected goat herds in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to provide further insights into the seroprevalence and contributing factors of CAE among sheep and goat herds in two states of Peninsular Malaysia. The blood samples and biodata were randomly collected from a total of 262 individual sheep (40) and goat (222) in seven smallholder farms. Blood sera were tested for specific anti-CAEV antibodies using Qayee-Bio CAEV sandwich-ELISA test kits according to standard procedures. Our results of the study revealed 21.4% (95% CI: 15.8-28.6) apparent and 20.6% (95% CI: 14.5-27.8) true seroprevalence with significant differences (p < 0.05) in seroconversion rates between the states, farms, production systems and breeds of small ruminants. The prevalence of CAE in the Malaysian Peninsular is a potential threat to the small ruminant industry and developing agricultural economy. Further studies are required to determine the genetic characteristics, distribution and risk factors of CAEV for effective prevention and control in Malaysia.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is an exotic culinary spice that has been used for centuries due to its known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The main aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of clove ethanolic extract (CEE) and commercial clove essential oil (CEO) at a standardised eugenol content. Disk diffusion assay showed that CEE (2000 μg) was able to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against both Gram negative and Gram positive Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)-causing pathogens: Proteus mirabilis (19.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Staphylococcus epidermidis (18 mm) > Staphylococcus aureus (14.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Escherichia coli (12.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.3 ± 0.6 mm) (according to the size of inhibition zone). Interestingly, the comparison between CEE and commercial CEO revealed that the former demonstrated stronger antimicrobial and antioxidative properties at similar eugenol concentration. The EC50 of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and reducing power assay for CEE were determined as 0.037 mg/mL, 0.68 mg/mL and 0.44 mg/mL, respectively. Besides eugenol, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses identified the presence of kaempferol, gallic acid and catechin in CEE. As a conclusion, we concluded that there was a possible synergistic effect between eugenol and the others active compounds especially kaempferol which led to the observed bioactivities in CEE.
Scale structure and reflectance activity of a Mindanao endemic weevil from the genus Metapocyrtus has been studied for the first time. Specimens of Metapocyrtus apoensis Schultze, 1925 were collected through opportunistic sampling in Mount Calayo, Musuan, Mindanao, Philippines last February 2020. A total of three individuals of the species were collected all in lower dipterocarp forest with elevation of 500 masl-600 masl. Three specimens were then examined under Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM_EDX) to analyse its scale structures and reflectance activity. The study provides new locality record of the Mindanao endemic species first in Bukidnon region and an updated distribution in Mindanao based on recent published articles and museum collections. The species inhabits wide ranges of habitat types that greatly differ in elevation and vegetation. Examination of scale's structure through SEM revealed that M. apoensis scales are 50 μm-70 μm in diameter which are almost circular in shape, slightly convex with rough like surface which is termed as non-ordered nipple-like structure. The scales' shape and surface structure clearly differ from other genera of curculionids based on published articles. Analysis of the particles on the weevil's elytra done by EDX reveals several elements that contribute to its iridescence. Major elements such as carbon (42.3%), oxygen (27.7%) and nitrogen (15.1%) come in relatively high atomic concentrations. Microspectrometer revealed a peak reflectance wavelength of about 569.7 nm. This explains the yellow-green iridescence observed on the dorsal side of the weevil. The concentration of the scale in pits serves for protection, intraspecific recognition and camouflage. Despite of widespread distribution and high abundance of this species in Mindanao, anthropogenic disturbances such as agricultural activities are on-going which extend towards their microhabitat. Monitoring to its population is recommended as the species is restricted only in Mindanao.
Macrophages provide the first line of defense against Shigella flexneri infection in the gastrointestinal tract by inducing a variety of inflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Secondary metabolites of plants are used as drugs against infections that are resistant to common antibiotics. In this study, the innate effects of asiaticoside on the proinflammatory activity of mouse macrophages infected with S. flexneri were investigated. The viability of the infected mouse macrophages were examined using viability assay, while the pro-inflammatory cytokines productions were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of IL-1β, IL-12 p40 and TNF-α levels. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein were determined using the Griess assay and western blot, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20. The data obtained from independent experiments (n = 3) were presented as the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The results showed that, asiaticoside stimulated the infected macrophages by stimulating increased production of TNF-α, IL-12 p40 and NO as well as increased expression of iNOS in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast the viability of the cells and the production of IL-1β and were reduced also in a dose-dependent manner when compared to untreated cells. These results indicate that asiaticoside has immunomodulatory effects on the innate immune function of infected macrophages, showing the potential use of this compound to reduce the clinical symptoms of the infections.
Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria are ecologically distributed microorganisms. They have been isolated in many types of ecosystems like soil, water, air, in association with plants and even as pathogens in humans. However, a yet unexplored area for PPFM bacteria research is in food. Hence, the objective of this study was to establish the presence of PPFM bacteria in Philippine fermented food, in particular shrimp paste, and characterise them phenotypically and genotypically. A total of 13 PPFM bacteria were obtained from Philippine shrimp paste. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the PPFM bacterial isolates belong to the genus Methylobacterium. A total of 35 phenotypic characterisations were performed that included morphological, biochemical and physiological tests. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to establish the genetic relatedness of the isolates. Morphological test results showed that all 13 isolates were consistent with the established phenotypic characters of the genus such as pink colony colour, Gram negative and rod-shaped. Biochemically, the use of API® 20 NE tests showed heterogeneity of results and physiological tests exhibited that the isolates are primarily mesophilic and halotolerant, being able to grow at 2% salt. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates are Methylobacterium populi, M. dankookense, M. lusitanum, M. radiotolerans and M. zatmanii. This study confirmed the presence and diversity of PPFM bacteria in Philippine shrimp paste. Further studies are needed to show the functional activity of Methylobacterium in Philippine shrimp paste production.
Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum (serai kayu) leaves is a popular herb and widely used in traditional medicine. Despite the ethnomedicinal benefits, very limited studies have researched on the toxicity of this plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of methanolic extract of Syzygium polyanthum (MESP) leaves via 28-day repeated oral dosing in Sprague Dawley rats. MESP leaves was administered at doses of 0 (control), 400, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg to an equal number of male and female rats (n = 10/group). Results obtained indicated that MESP did not affect the general conditions (body weight, feed intake and oestrous cycle) and apparent behavioural changes of the rats. Biochemical parameters revealed a slight significant variation in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level between the male rats treated with the lowest and highest doses of MESP, but these findings were both statistically insignificant when compared to the control group. The liver of the males (dose 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day) also exhibited histoarchitectural defects on the hepatocytes and cytoplasm when compared to those of the control group. In contrast, female rats did not encounter any significant findings in all parameters tested. In conclusion, this study suggests that the MESP leaves might exhibit sex-based variation effects and thus, the use of this extract particularly at higher doses should be thoroughly considered.
Epiphytes as the important features in the seagrass ecosystems have been studied widely, and their functions as a primary producer, influence rates of herbivory grazer, and prevent seagrass leaf from desiccation is well known. However, patterns and distribution among seagrasses especially in Indonesia, which was known as hotspot marine biodiversity is not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to examined epiphytic assemblages on two seagrass species with different morphological and longevity, Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata, in two different meadows (conservation area and non-conservation area) in Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali and Lombok). A total of 22 taxa of microalgae epiphytes species were identified from eight sites and 2 different species of seagrass. The highest number of collected species between class was from Bacillariophyceae (18), followed by Cyanophyceae (3) and Fragilariophyceae (1). Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) revealed a significant difference of microalgae epiphytes assemblages between sites and seagrasses. Epiphytes assemblages in conservation area were more abundant than non-conservation area, both in Bali and Lombok. On seagrass comparison, Enhalus acoroides showed higher abundance of epiphytes assemblages than those on Cymodocea rotundata. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), this study highlights the microalgae epiphytic communities strongly influenced by seawater temperature, phosphate's concentration, and pH in sediment. This study also demonstrated that the assemblages of microalgae epiphytic communities affected by differences of seagrass morphological and longevity.
Leachate from landfill contains concentrated nutrients that may enter the terrestrial and aquatic environment, including nearby coastal areas. The nutrient contaminants eventually bring harm to marine organisms, including microalgae. This study was performed to investigate the growth of two green microalgal species, i.e. Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. in diluted landfill leachate. Besides, the ability of nutrient removal by these microalgal was also explored from the changes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients content. The initial and final concentrations of COD, NH3-N, and PO4 3- in the diluted leachate (5%, 10% and 15%) were measured and the growth patterns of these species were determined by counting the cell numbers for 12 days. Comparison of these microalgae showed that the growth rate of Nannochloropsis was significantly higher compared to Chlorella in all leachate concentrations. Leachate at 5% enhanced the growth of both microalgae, while leachates at 10% and 15% decreased their growth as early as at the beginning of the test. It is apparent that the less concentrated leachate discharged into seawater would not pose any toxicity to the environment and would not bear adverse effect to microalgae yet could promote their growth. This study also revealed that the microalgae could remediate leachate pollution by its ability of nutrient removal; thus, leading to the potential application in wastewater bioremediation, including industrial waste and palm oil mill effluent.
Fruit phenotypes are often hypothesised to be affected by selection by frugivores. Here, we tested two hypotheses concerning frugivore-fruit interactions from the perspective of fruit colours. We measured the spectral properties of 26 fruits and the associated leaves of plants from 2 islands in New Zealand. Visual observations were also performed to record the birds that fed on the fruits. First, we tested the fruit-foliage hypothesis, where fruit colours are assumed to be evolutionarily constrained by their own leaf colour to maximise colour contrast and fruit conspicuousness. We ran a null model analysis comparing fruit colour contrast using an avian eye model. Second, we tested the frugivore specificity hypothesis, where specific fruit colours are thought to be connected with a specific bird frugivore. We performed a regression on the number of bird visits against the fruit colour in tetrahedral colour space based on an avian eye calculation using Mantel's test. The results show that fruit colours are not constrained by their own leaf colours. There is also no relationship or pattern suggesting a link between a specific fruit colour and specific bird visitors. We suggest that although fruit colour is one of the most highly discussed components, it is not the most important single deciding factor in frugivore fruit selection.
Staphylococcus kloosii, an orange pigment-producing bacterium, was isolated from the respiratory tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Teluk Nipah, Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. This report is the first documentation of this Gram-positive strain, referred to as Strain 68 in Malaysia. A partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the mesophilic strain has been registered with GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine) with accession number JX102547. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method further supported the identification of Strain 68 as S. kloosii. The circular strain produced orange pigments on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar (TGYEA) and in nutrient broth (NB) at approximately pH 7. The visible spectra of ethanolic and methanolic pigment extracts of the bacterial strain were considered identical with λmax at 426, 447 and 475 nm and λmax at 426, 445 and 473 nm, respectively. Both visible spectra resemble the visible spectra of lutein, which is a commercial carotenoid; however, further analyses are required to confirm the identity of this pigment. The methanolic extracts of the intracellular pigments comprised at least three pigment compounds: an orange pigment compound (major compound), a yellow pigment compound (the least polar) and a pink pigment compound (the most polar). These findings are the first documentation of the pigment composition of S. kloosii as no such record could be found to date.
A total of 34 bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples collected from Changar Hot Spring, Malang, Indonesia. Of these, 13 isolates produced a zone of hydrolysis in starch-nutrient agar medium and generated various amylases in liquid medium. One isolate was selected as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis BT5.9. The improvement of culture conditions (initial medium pH of 5.0, cultivation temperature of 50°C, agitation speed of 100 rpm and inoculum size of 1.7 × 10(9) cells/ml) provided the highest amylase production (0.327 U/ml).
In this study, Centella asiatica and surface soils were collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia, and the barium (Ba) concentrations were determined. The Ba concentration [μg/g dry weight (dw)] was 63.72 to 382.01 μg/g in soils while in C. asiatica, Ba concentrations ranged from 5.05 to 21.88 μg/g for roots, 3.31 to 11.22 μg/g for leaves and 2.37 to 6.14 μg/g for stems. In C. asiatica, Ba accumulation was found to be the highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. The correlation coefficients (r) of Ba between plants and soils were found to be significantly positively correlated, with the highest correlation being between roots-soils (r=0.922, p<005), followed by leaves-soils (r=0.890, p<005) and stems-soils (r=0.848, p<005). This indicates that these three parts of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution. For the transplantation study, four sites were selected as unpolluted [(Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)], semi-polluted (Seri Kembangan and Balakong) and polluted sites (Juru). Based on the transplantation study under experimental field and laboratory conditions, Ba concentrations in C. asiatica were significantly (p<0.05) higher after three weeks of exposure at Seri Kembangan, Balakong and Juru. Thus, these experimental findings confirm that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica can reflect the Ba levels in the soils where this plant is found. Three weeks after back transplantation to clean soils, the Ba levels in C. asiatica were still higher than the initial Ba level even though Ba elimination occurred. In conclusion, the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are good biomonitors of Ba pollution.
The distribution of benthic Foraminifera throughout the coastal waters of Taman Negara Pulau Pinang (Penang National Park), Malaysia was studied to assess the impact of various anthropogenic activities, such as fishing, ecotourism and floating cage culture. Samples were obtained at 200 m intervals within the subtidal zone, extending up to 1200 m offshore at Teluk Bahang, Teluk Aling, Teluk Ketapang and Pantai Acheh. The depth within coastal waters ranged between 1.5 m and 10.0 m, with predominantly muddy substrate at most stations. Water quality analysis showed little variation in micronutrient (nitrite, NO2; nitrate, NO3; ammonia, NH4 and orthophosphate, PO4) concentrations between sampling stations. Temperature (29.6±0.48°C), salinity (29.4±0.28 ppt), dissolved oxygen content (5.4±0.95 mg/l) and pH (8.5± 0.13) also showed little fluctuation between stations. A total of nine genera of foraminifera were identified in the study (i.e., Ammonia, Elphidium, Ammobaculites, Bigenerina, Quinqueloculina, Reopax, Globigerina, Textularia and Nonion). The distribution of benthic foraminifera was dominated by opportunistic groups that have a high tolerance to anthropogenic stressors. Ammonia had the highest frequency of occurrence (84.7%), followed by Bigenerina (50%), Ammobaculites (44.2%) and Elphidium (38.9%). The Ammonia-Elphidium Index (AEI) was used to describe the hypoxic condition of benthic communities at all sites. Teluk Bahang had the highest AEI value. The foraminiferal assemblages and distribution in Teluk Bahang, Teluk Aling, Teluk Ketapang and Pantai Acheh showed no correlation with physical or chemical environmental parameters.
This paper aimed to describe the effects of sand mining on the Kelantan River with respect to physical and chemical parameter analyses. Three replicates of water samples were collected from five stations along the Kelantan River (November 2010 until February 2011). The physical parameters included water temperature, water conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, whereas the chemical parameters included the concentration of nitrogen nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. The Kelantan River case study revealed that TSS, turbidity and nitrate contents exceed the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) range and are significantly different between Station 1 (KK) and Station 3 (TM). Station 1 has the largest variation of TDS, TSS, turbidity and nitrogen nutrients because of sand mining and upstream logging activities. The extremely high content of TSS and the turbidity have caused poor and stressful conditions for the aquatic life in the Kelantan River.
A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.
THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts.
Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.