Displaying all 3 publications

  1. Kumar Dubey S, Pradhan R, Hejmady S, Singhvi G, Choudhury H, Gorain B, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2021 May 01;600:120499.
    PMID: 33753164 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120499
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative eye disease, is the major cause of irreversible loss of vision among individuals aged 50 and older. Both genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the progressive damage to central vision. It is a multifactorial retinal disease with features such as drusen, hypopigmentation and/or hyperpigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium, and even choroidal neovascularization in certain patients. AMD is of two major forms: exudative (wet) and atrophic (dry) with changes affecting the macula leading to impaired vision. Although the retina remains an accessible portion for delivering drugs, there are no current options to cure or treat AMD. The existing expensive therapeutics are unable to treat the underlying pathology but display several side effects. However, recent innovations in nanotherapeutics provide an optimal alternative of drug delivery to treat the neovascular condition. These new-age technologies in the nanometer scale would enhance bioactivity and improve the bioavailability of drugs at the site of action to treat AMD. The nanomedicine also provides sustained release of the drug with prolonged retention after penetrating across the ocular tissues. In this review, the insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of AMD are provided. It also serves to review the current progress in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems that offer feasible treatments in AMD.
  2. Kumar AVP, Dubey SK, Tiwari S, Puri A, Hejmady S, Gorain B, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Sep 05;606:120848.
    PMID: 34216762 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120848
    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive procedure for treating cancer. The two significant prerequisites of PTT are the photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) and near-infrared radiation (NIR). The PTA absorbs NIR, causing hyperthermia in the malignant cells. This increased temperature at the tumor microenvironment finally results in tumor cell damage. Nanoparticles play a crucial role in PTT, aiding in the passive and active targeting of the PTA to the tumor microenvironment. Through enhanced permeation and retention effect and surface-engineering, specific targeting could be achieved. This novel delivery tool provides the advantages of changing the shape, size, and surface attributes of the carriers containing PTAs, which might facilitate tumor regression significantly. Further, inclusion of surface engineering of nanoparticles is facilitated through ligating ligands specific to overexpressed receptors on the cancer cell surface. Thus, transforming nanoparticles grants the ability to combine different treatment strategies with PTT to enhance cancer treatment. This review emphasizes properties of PTAs, conjugated biomolecules of PTAs, and the combinatorial techniques for a better therapeutic effect of PTT using the nanoparticle platform.
  3. Hejmady S, Pradhan R, Alexander A, Agrawal M, Singhvi G, Gorain B, et al.
    Drug Discov Today, 2020 12;25(12):2227-2244.
    PMID: 33011342 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2020.09.031
    A tumor serves as a major avenue in drug development owing to its complexity. Conventional therapies against tumors possess limitations such as suboptimal therapeutic efficacy and extreme side effects. These display poor pharmacokinetics and lack specific targeting, with non-specific distribution resulting in systemic toxicity. Therefore, nanocarriers targeted against cancers are increasingly being explored. Nanomedicine aids in maintaining a balance between efficacy and toxicity by specifically accumulating in tumors. Nanotherapeutics possess advantages such as increased solubility of chemotherapeutics, encapsulation of multiple drugs and improved biodistribution, and can ensure tumor-directed drug delivery and release via the approaches of passive targeting and active targeting. This review aims to offer a general overview of the current advances in tumor-targeting nanocarriers for clinical and diagnostic use.
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