Rotigotine, a non-ergoline dopamine agonist, has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, despite its therapeutic potential, its' clinical applications were hindered due to low aqueous solubility, first-pass metabolism and low bioavailability. Therefore, we developed rotigotine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (RNPs) for nose-to-brain delivery and evaluated its neuronal uptake, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects using cell-based studies. The pharmacological effects of nose-to-brain delivery of the RNPs were also evaluated in an animal model of PD. The average particle size, particle size distribution and entrapment efficiency of the RNPs were found to be satisfactory. Exposure of RNPs for 24 h did not show any cytotoxicity towards SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, the RNPs caused a decrease in alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in these cells, suggestion that the exposure alleviated some of the direct neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA. Behavioral and biochemical testing of RNPs in haloperidol-induced PD rats showed a reversal of catalepsy, akinesia and restoration of swimming ability. A decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and an increase in catalase activities were also observed in the brain tissues. The results from the animal model of PD show that intranasally-administered RNPs enhanced brain targeting efficiency and drug bioavailability. Thus, RNPs for nose-to-brain delivery has significant potential to be developed as a treatment approach for PD.
Transdermal delivery of drugs is more challenging for drugs that are insoluble or sparingly soluble in water and most organic solvents. To overcome this problem, ionic liquid (IL)-mediated ternary systems have been suggested as potential drug carriers. Here, we report potent ternary (IL-EtOH-IPM) systems consisting of biocompatible ILs, ethanol (EtOH), and isopropyl myristate (IPM) that can dissolve a significant amount of the sparingly soluble drug acyclovir (ACV). The ternary systems were optically transparent and thermodynamically stable with a wide range of IL pertinence. An in vitro drug permeation study showed that the ILs in the ternary systems dramatically enhanced ACV permeation into and across the skin. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy of the stratum corneum (sc) after treatment with ternary systems showed that the skin barrier function was reduced by disturbance of the regularly ordered arrangement of corneocytes and modification of the surface properties of the sc during permeation. Histological analysis, and skin irritation studies using a reconstructed human epidermis model showed the safety profile of the ternary system, and there were no significant changes in the structures of the sc, epidermis, and dermis. Therefore, ternary systems containing biocompatible ILs are promising for transdermal delivery of insoluble or sparingly soluble drugs.
Active targeting compound, a non-iodinated derivative of IK-IK-I2-azaBODIPY (1a) was previously reported to preferentially bind melanoma over healthy cells. In this study, we evaluate the photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency on melanoma cells of 1a, together with its reversed sequence compound KI-KI-I2-azaBODIPY (1b) and a non-targeted control I2-azaBODIPY-NH2 (2). All three test compounds possess absorption wavelengths in the near-infrared (NIR) region (λmax between 678 and 687 nm) which alleviate melanin interference and allow deeper tissue penetration. In vitro studies revealed 1a and 1b are promising photosensitizers with enhanced singlet oxygen generation, have increased uptake by B16-F10 melanoma cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and good photocytotoxic efficacies. Ex vivo biodistribution assays showed both 1a and 1b accumulated in the tumour. In B16-F10 tumour bearing-C57BL/6 mice, 10 mg/kg of 1b and light irradiation was found to reduce tumour volume by up to 23% at day-3. Doubling the dosage of 1b (20 mg/kg) enhanced the antitumour effect, showing 96% maximum tumour volume reduction at day-7 and tumour growth suppression for up to 12 days.
The application of time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) analysis to quantify water content in pharmaceutical ingredients is demonstrated. The initial phase of the study employed a range of disintegrants with defined amounts of added water (0-30% of the total weight) as samples; the disintegrants included croscarmellose sodium, corn starch, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, and crospovidone. After acquisition of the T2 relaxation curves of the samples by TD-NMR measurements, these curves were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) regression. According to the analysis, accurate and reliable PLS models were created that enabled accurate assessment of water content in the samples. A powder blend consisting of acetaminophen (paracetamol) and tablet excipients was also examined. Both a physical mixture of the powder blend and a wet granule prepared with a high-speed granulator were tested as samples in this study. Precise determination of water content in the powder blend was achieved by using the TD-NMR method. The accuracy of water content determination was equivalent to or better than that of the conventional loss on drying method. TD-NMR analysis samples were measured nondestructively and rapidly with low cost; thus, it could be a powerful quantitative method for determining water content in pharmaceuticals.
The objective of this study was to investigate the in-vivo behavior of topically applied cationic polymeric chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) loaded with anti-inflammatory (hydrocortisone, HC) and antimicrobial (hydroxytyrosol, HT) drugs, to elucidate their skin targeting potential for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Compared to the commercial formulation, the HC-HT loaded CSNPs showed significantly improved drug penetration into the epidermal and dermal layers of albino Wistar rat skin without saturation. Dermal pharmacokinetic of CSNPs with a size of 228.5±7nm and +39±5mV charges revealed that they penetrated 2.46-fold deeper than the commercial formulation did, and had greater affinity at the skin target site without spreading to the surrounding tissues, thereby providing substantial safety benefits. In repeated dermal application toxicity studies, the HC-HT CSNPs showed no evidence of toxicity compared to the commercial formulation, which induced skin atrophy and higher liver enzyme levels. In conclusion, the positively charged HC-HT CSNP formulation exhibited promising local delivery and virtually no treatment-related toxicities, suggesting it may be an efficient and viable alternative for commercially available AD treatments.
Poly(d,l-lactic acid) biodegradable microspheres, loaded with the drugs cisplatin and/or sorafenib tosylate, were prepared, characterized and studied. Degradation of the microspheres, and release of cisplatin and/or sorafenib tosylate from them, were investigated in detail. Incubation of the drug-carrying microspheres in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) revealed slow degradation. Nevertheless, significant release of cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate from microspheres loaded with both drugs was apparent in vitro; this can be attributed to their porous structure. Supernatants from microspheres loaded with both drugs showed strong toxic effects on cells (i.e. endothelial cells, fibroblast cells and Renca tumor cells) and potent anti-angiogenic effect in the matrigel endothelial tube assay. In vivo anti-tumor effects of the microspheres were also observed, in a Renca tumor mouse model. The poly(d,l-lactic acid) microspheres containing both cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate revealed highest therapeutic efficacy, probably demonstrating that combined local administration of cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate synergistically inhibits tumor growth in situ. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the applicability of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic acid) microspheres loaded with cisplatin and sorafenib tosylate for local drug delivery as well as the potential of these microspheres for future use in transarterial chemoembolization.
The capacity of microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to characterize the matrix property of binary polymeric films for use as transdermal drug delivery system was investigated. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 were the choice of polymeric matrix and plasticizer, respectively with loratadine as the model drug. Both blank and drug loaded HPMC-PEG 3000 films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method. These films were conditioned at the relative humidity of 25, 50 and 75% prior to physicochemical characterization using the established methods of ultra-violet spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods, as well as, novel microwave NDT technique. Blank films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer interaction at the O-H domain upon storage at a lower level of relative humidity, whereas drug loaded films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer and/or drug-polymer interaction via the O-H, C-H and/or aromatic C=C functional groups when they were stored at a lower or moderate level of relative humidity. The absorption and transmission characteristics of both blank and drug loaded films for microwave varied with the state of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer, and/or drug-polymer interaction of the matrix. The measurements of microwave NDT test at 8 and 12 GHz were sensitive to the polar fraction of film involving functional group such as O-H moiety and the less polar environment of matrix consisting of functional groups such as C-H and aromatic C=C moieties. The state of interaction between polymer, plasticizer and/or drug of a binary polymeric film can be elucidated through its absorption and transmission profiles of microwave.
A polyglycolised glyceride carrier, Gelucire 50/13, was incorporated with paracetamol as a model drug, filled into hard gelatin capsules and stored at three different temperatures for various lengths of time. The resultant solidified matrix within the capsule was subjected to thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to ascertain its supramolecular structure. Polymorphic transformations towards more stable gelucire forms were observed upon aging the matrices, with samples stored at a temperature near the melting range of the lower temperature gelucire melting fraction showing the most profound changes. The increase in the rate of drug release from aged samples could be correlated to the alterations to the supramolecular structure of the gelucire. Accelerated drug release from aged samples could also be seen from in vivo studies using healthy human volunteers, although the extent of absorption was not affected. Therefore, even though the sustainability of release may be compromised by aging the gelucire matrices, the bioavailability of the incorporated drug is unlikely to be affected.
The drug release characteristics of beads made of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) using Zn2+ as the crosslinking agent were investigated with respect to the influence of microwave irradiation. The beads were prepared by an extrusion method with sodium diclofenac as a model water-soluble drug. They were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80W for 5 and 20 min, and at 300W for 1 min 20s and 5 min 20s. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug-polymer interaction and polymer-polymer interaction were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Treatment of beads by microwave at varying intensities of irradiation can aid to retard the drug release with a greater reduction extent through treating the beads for a longer duration of irradiation. The treatment of beads by microwave induced the formation of multiple polymeric domains of great strength and extent of polymer-polymer and drug-polymer interaction. The release of drug from beads was retarded via the interplay of O-H, N-H, C-H, (CH2)n and C-O functional groups of these domains, and was mainly governed by the state of polymer relaxation of the matrix unlike that of the untreated beads of which the release of drug was effected via drug diffusion and polymer relaxation. In comparison to Ca2+ crosslinked matrix which exhibited inconsistent drug release retardation behavior under the influence of microwave, the extent and rate of drug released from the Zn2+ crosslinked beads were greatly reduced by microwave and the release of drug from these beads was consistently retarded in response to both high and low intensity microwaves.
The aims of this research were to develop a novel bilayer hydrocolloid film based on alginate and to investigate its potential as slow-release wound healing vehicle. The bilayer is composed of an upper layer impregnated with model drug (ibuprofen) and a drug-free lower layer, which acted as a rate-controlling membrane. The thickness uniformity, solvent loss, moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR), hydration rate, morphology, rheology, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and in vivo wound healing profiles were investigated. A smooth bilayer film with two homogenous distinct layers was produced. The characterisation results showed that bilayer has superior mechanical and rheological properties than the single layer films. The bilayers also showed low MVTR, slower hydration rate and lower drug flux in vitro compared to single layer inferring that bilayer may be useful for treating low suppurating wounds and suitable for slow release application on wound surfaces. The bilayers also provided a significant higher healing rate in vivo, with well-formed epidermis with faster granulation tissue formation when compared to the controls. In conclusions, a novel alginate-based bilayer hydrocolloid film was developed and results suggested that they can be exploited as slow-release wound dressings.
Conventional melt pelletization and granulation processes produce round and dense, and irregularly shaped but porous agglomerates respectively. This study aimed to design centrifugal air-assisted melt agglomeration technology for manufacture of spherical and yet porous "granulets" for ease of downstream manufacturing and enhancing drug release. A bladeless agglomerator, which utilized shear-free air stream to mass the powder mixture of lactose filler, polyethylene glycol binder and poorly water-soluble tolbutamide drug into "granulets", was developed. The inclination angle and number of vane, air-impermeable surface area of air guide, processing temperature, binder content and molecular weight were investigated with reference to "granulet" size, shape, texture and drug release properties. Unlike fluid-bed melt agglomeration with vertical processing air flow, the air stream in the present technology moved centrifugally to roll the processing mass into spherical but porous "granulets" with a drug release propensity higher than physical powder mixture, unprocessed drug and dense pellets prepared using high shear mixer. The fast-release attribute of "granulets" was ascribed to porous matrix formed with a high level of polyethylene glycol as solubilizer. The agglomeration and drug release outcomes of centrifugal air-assisted technology are unmet by the existing high shear and fluid-bed melt agglomeration techniques.
The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of novel aspirin oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion formulations generated using ultrasound cavitation techniques. The anti-inflammatory activities of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion were determined using the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The analgesic activities of both nanoformulations were determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and hot plate assay. For comparison, the effect of pretreatment with blank nanoemulsion and reference aspirin suspension were also studied for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The results showed that oral administration of nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion containing aspirin (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan injection. Both nanoformulations decreased the number of abdominal constriction in acetic acid-induced writhing model. Pretreatment with nanoformulations led to a significant increase in reaction time in hot plate assay. Nanoemulsion demonstrated an enhanced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects compared to reference suspension while nano multiple emulsion exhibited a mild inhibitory effects in the three experimental animal model tests. The results obtained for nano multiple emulsion were relatively lower than reference. However, administration of blank nanoemulsion did not alter the nociceptive response significantly though it showed slight anti-inflammatory effect. These experimental studies suggest that nanoemulsion and nano multiple emulsion produced a pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in rats and may be candidates as new nanocarriers for pharmacological NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and alleviating pains.
The influx of medicines from different sources into healthcare systems of developing countries presents a challenge to monitor their origin and quality. The absence of a repository of reference samples or spectra prevents the analysis of tablets by direct comparison. A set of paracetamol tablets purchased in Malaysian pharmacies were compared to a similar set of sample purchased in the UK using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Additional samples of products containing ibuprofen or paracetamol in combination with other actives were added to the study as negative controls. NIR spectra of the samples were acquired and compared by using multivariate modeling and classification algorithms (PCA/SIMCA) and stored in a spectral database. All analysed paracetamol samples contained the purported active ingredient with only 1 out of 20 batches excluded from the 95% confidence interval, while the negative controls were clearly classified as outliers of the set. Although the substandard products were not detected in the purchased sample set, our results indicated variability in the quality of the Malaysian tablets. A database of spectra was created and search methods were evaluated for correct identification of tablets. The approach presented here can be further developed as a method for identifying substandard pharmaceutical products.
Topical chemotherapy is the application of cancer drugs directly onto the skin, which has become a standard treatment for basal cell carcinoma. Due to the promising results in the treatment of skin cancer, topical chemotherapy has recently been applied to breast cancer patients because some breast cancer tissues are only superficial. Hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic compound from olives that is present in high amounts in Hidrox(®) olive extract, has been shown to have a protective effect on normal cells and selective antitumor activities on cancerous cells. The aims of the present study were to develop an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) and to investigate its potential use as a topical chemotherapeutic agent. Alginate films were characterized for swelling and for physical, thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties. Drug content uniformity and in vitro drug release tests were also investigated. The alginate bilayer films containing Hidrox(®), HB2, showed controlled release of hydroxytyrosol at a flux of 0.094±0.009 mg/cm(2)/h. The results of the cytotoxic assay showed that the HB2 films were dose-dependent and could significantly reduce the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) at 150 μg/mL for a cell viability of 29.34±4.64%. In conclusion, an alginate bilayer film containing Hidrox(®) can be a potential alternative for topical chemotherapeutic agent for skin and breast cancer treatment.
Curcumin (CUR) has been formulated into a host of nano-sized formulations in a bid to improve its in vivo solubility, stability and bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the encapsulation of CUR in nanocarriers would impede its biological interactivity, specifically its potential anti-cancer adjuvant activity via the modulation of CYP enzymes in vitro. NanoCUR, a micellar dispersion prepared via a thin film method using only Pluronic F127 as excipient, was amenable to lyophilization, and retained its nano-sized spherical dimensions (17-33 nm) upon reconstitution with water followed by dilution to 5 μM with HBSS or EMEM. NanoCUR was a weaker cytotoxic agent compared to CUR in solution (sCUR), affecting HepG2 cell viability only when the incubation time was prolonged from 4h to 48 h. Correlation with 2h uptake data suggests this was due to a lower cellular uptake rate of CUR from NanoCUR than from sCUR. The poorer CUR accessibility might also account for NanoCUR being a weaker inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 than sCUR. NanoCUR was, however, 1.76-fold more potent against the CYP3A4 (IC50 5.13 ± 0.91 μM) metabolic function. The higher activity against CYP3A4 might be attributed to the synergistic action of Pluronic F127, since the blank micellar dispersion also inhibited CYP3A4 activity. Both sCUR and NanoCUR had no effect on the CYP3A4 mRNA levels in the HepG2 cells. NanoCUR therefore, maintained most of the biological activities of CUR in vitro, albeit at a lower potency and response rate.
The interaction of tranilast (TRN), an antiallergic drug with the main drug transporter in human circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence spectroscopy and in silico docking methods. ITC data revealed the binding constant and stoichiometry of binding as (3.21 ± 0.23) × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.80 ± 0.08, respectively, at 25°C. The values of the standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) and the standard entropy change (ΔS°) for the interaction were found as -25.2 ± 5.1 kJ mol(-1) and 46.9 ± 5.4 J mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. Both thermodynamic data and modeling results suggested the involvement of hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and van der Waals forces in the complex formation. Three-dimensional fluorescence data of TRN-HSA complex demonstrated significant changes in the microenvironment around the protein fluorophores upon drug binding. Competitive drug displacement results as well as modeling data concluded the preferred binding site of TRN as Sudlow's site I on HSA.
Imiquimod is a chemotherapeutic agent for many skin-associated diseases, but it has also been associated with inflammatory side effects. The aim of this study was to prevent the inflammatory effect of commercial imiquimod (Aldara(®)) by controlled release of imiquimod through a hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture (CA bigel) containing fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent. Imiquimod permeability from Aldara® cream and bigel through mice skin was evaluated, and the drug content residing in the skin via the tape stripping technique was quantified. The fish oil fatty acid content in skin along with its lipophilic environment was also determined. An inflammation study was conducted using animal models, and Aldara(®) cream was found to potentially cause psoriasis-like inflammation, which could be owing to prolonged application and excessive drug permeation. Controlled release of imiquimod along with fish oil through CA bigel may have caused reduced imiquimod inflammation. NMR studies and computerized molecular modeling were also conducted to observe whether the fish oil and imiquimod formed a complex that was responsible for improving imiquimod transport and reducing its side effects. NMR spectra showed dose-dependent chemical shifts and molecular modeling revealed π-σ interaction between EPA and imiquimod, which could help reduce imiquimod inflammation.
This study investigated critical physicochemical attributes of low (LV), medium (MV) and high molecular weight (HV) sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) scaffolds in partial thickness wound healing. SCMC scaffolds were prepared by solvent-evaporation technique. Their in vitro erosion, moisture affinity, morphology, tensile strength, polymer molecular weight and carboxymethyl substitution, and in vivo wound healing profiles were determined. Inferring from rat wound size, re-epithelialization and histological profiles, wound healing progressed with HV scaffold>LV-MV scaffold>control with no scaffold. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from wound of rats treated by control>HV scaffold>LV-MV scaffold. HV scaffold had the highest tensile strength of all matrices and was resistant to erosion in simulated wound fluid. In spite of constituting small nanopores, it afforded a substantial TEWL than MV and LV scaffolds from wound across an intact matrix through its low moisture affinity characteristics. The HV scaffold can protect moisture loss without its excessive accumulation at wound bed which hindered re-epithelialization process. Regulation of transepidermal water movement and wound healing by scaffolds was governed by SCMC molecular weight instead of its carboxymethyl substitution degree or matrix pore size distribution, with large molecular weight HV preferred over lower molecular weight samples.
The human small intestine, with its enormous absorptive surface area, is invariably the principal site of drug absorption. Hence, the residence time of a dosage form in this part of the gut can have a great influence on the absorption of the contained drug. Various methods have been employed to monitor the gastrointestinal transit of pharmaceutical dosage forms, but the use of gamma-scintigraphy has superceded all the other methods. However, careful consideration of the time interval for image acquisition and proper analysis of the scintigraphic data are important for obtaining reliable results. Most studies reported the mean small intestinal transit time of various dosage forms to be about 3-4h, being closely similar to that of food and water. The value does not appear to be influenced by their physical state nor the presence of food, but the timing of food intake following administration of the dosage forms can influence the small intestinal transit time. While the mean small intestinal transit time is quite consistent among dosage forms and studies, individual values can vary widely. There are differing opinions regarding the effect of density and size of dosage forms on their small intestinal transit properties. Some common excipients employed in pharmaceutical formulations can affect the small intestinal transit and drug absorption. There is currently a lack of studies regarding the effects of excipients, as well as the timing of food intake on the small intestinal transit of dosage forms and drug absorption.