A fully integrated, flexible, and functional sensing device for exhaled breath analysis drastically transforms conventional medical diagnosis to non-invasive, low-cost, real-time, and personalized health care. 2D materials based on MXenes offer multiple advantages for accurately detecting various breath biomarkers compared to conventional semiconducting oxides. High surface sensitivity, large surface-to-weight ratio, room temperature detection, and easy-to-assemble structures are vital parameters for such sensing devices in which MXenes have demonstrated all these properties both experimentally and theoretically. So far, MXenes-based flexible sensor is successfully fabricated at a lab-scale and is predicted to be translated into clinical practice within the next few years. This review presents a potential application of MXenes as emerging materials for flexible and wearable sensor devices. The biomarkers from exhaled breath are described first, with emphasis on metabolic processes and diseases indicated by abnormal biomarkers. Then, biomarkers sensing performances provided by MXenes families and the enhancement strategies are discussed. The method of fabrications toward MXenes integration into various flexible substrates is summarized. Finally, the fundamental challenges and prospects, including portable integration with Internet-of-Thing (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), are addressed to realize marketization.
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials play an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing, and they are among the more prominent materials used in aircraft manufacturing today. However, CFRP is highly prone to delamination and other damage when drilled due to it being extremely strong with a good strength-to-weight ratio and high thermal conductivity. Because of this problem and CFRP's growing importance in aircraft manufacture, research has focused on the entry and exit holes as indicators of damage occurrence during drilling of screws, rivets, and other types of holes. The inside of the hole was neglected in past research and a proper way to quantify the internal side of a hole by combining the entry and exit hole should be included. To fill this gap and improve the use of CFRP, this paper reports a novel technique to measure the holes by using the extension of the adjusted delamination factor (SFDSR) for drilling thick CFRP composites in order to establish the influence of machining input variables on key output measures, i.e., delamination and other damages. The experimental results showed a significant difference in interpretation of the damage during the analysis. Improvement was made by providing better perspectives of identifying hole defects.
Particleboard is not entirely a wood replacement but a particular material with its properties, making it more effective at different times than heavy or solid wood. The world's biggest concern is environmental problems with formaldehyde as a particulate board binder that can lead to human carcinogenic agents. A cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) of particleboard production was performed using openLCA software. The impact assessment was carried out according to the software's features. This preliminary investigation aims to analyze the chemical composition of particleboard and identify its environmental impact. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) system was used to track the functional group of aliphatic hydrocarbons, inorganic phosphates, and main aliphatic alcohols found in particleboards made in Malaysia. Based on the FTIR results, aliphatic groups were found in numerous aggravates that the spectroscopic infrared was likely to experience. The most important vibrational modes were C-H, at approximately 3000 cm-1, and -CH deformations around 1460 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1. Eight effect groups demonstrated that 100% of the input and all analyses produced the same relative outcome. The life cycle of a product is determined by pollution of the air, water, and soil. Thus, particleboard has a minimal impact on the environment, except for global warming.