Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Gao XL, Hsu CY, Xu YC, Loh T, Koh D, Hwarng HB
    J. Dent. Res., 2010 Sep;89(9):985-90.
    PMID: 20554887 DOI: 10.1177/0022034510372896
    Policymakers' understanding of and ability to reduce health disparities are pivotal for health promotion worldwide. This study aimed to verify the behavioral pathways leading to oral health disparities. Oral examinations were conducted for 1782 randomly selected preschoolers (3-6 yrs), and 1576 (88.4%) participants were followed up after 12 months. Parents were surveyed on their knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practices (P) regarding their children's oral health homecare (infant feeding, diet, and oral hygiene) and dental attendance. Structural equation modeling substantiated the links between specific KAs and corresponding practices, while generic KA did not affect practices. KAP pathways partly explained the ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health. Deprivation had a direct effect (not mediated by KA) on dental attendance, but not on oral health homecare. Ethnicity directly influenced oral health homecare practices, but not dental attendance. These behavioral pathways, furthering our understanding of health disparity, may have practical implications for health promotion and policy-making.
  2. Liao JF, Hsu CC, Chou GT, Hsu JS, Liong MT, Tsai YC
    Benef Microbes, 2019 Apr 19;10(4):425-436.
    PMID: 30882243 DOI: 10.3920/BM2018.0077
    Maternal separation (MS) has been developed as a model for inducing stress and depression in studies using rodents. The concept of the gut-brain axis suggests that gut health is essential for brain health. Here, we present the effects of administration of a probiotic, Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 (PS23), to MS mice against psychological traits including anxiety and depression. The administration of live and heat-killed PS23 cells showed positive behavioural effects on MS animals, where exploratory tendencies and mobility were increased in behavioural tests, indicating reduced anxiety and depression compared to the negative control mice (P<0.05). Mice administered with both live and heat-killed PS23 cells also showed lower serum corticosterone levels accompanied by higher serum anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels, compared to MS separated mice (P<0.05), indicating a stress-elicited response affiliated with increased immunomodulatory properties. Assessment of neurotransmitters in the brain hippocampal region revealed that PS23 affected the concentrations of dopaminergic metabolites differently than the control, suggesting that PS23 may have improved MS-induced stress levels via neurotransmitter pathways, such as dopamine or other mechanisms not addressed in the current study. Our study illustrates the potential of a probiotic in reversing abnormalities induced by early life stress and could be an alternative for brain health along the gut-brain axis.
  3. Lai EL, Huang WN, Chen HH, Hsu CY, Chen DY, Hsieh TY, et al.
    Lupus, 2019 Jul;28(8):945-953.
    PMID: 31177913 DOI: 10.1177/0961203319855122
    The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) has been used universally for the purpose of fracture risk assessment. However, the predictive capacity of FRAX for autoimmune diseases remains inconclusive. This study aimed to compare the applicability of FRAX for autoimmune disease patients. This retrospective study recruited rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) patients with bone mineral density (BMD) tests. Patients with any osteoporotic fractures were identified. Taiwan-specific FRAX with and without BMD were then calculated. In total, 802 patients (451 RA, 233 SLE and 118 pSS) were enrolled in this study. The cumulative incidences of osteoporotic fractures in the RA, SLE and pSS patients were 43.0%, 29.2% and 33.1%, respectively. For those with a previous osteoporotic fracture, T-scores were classified as low bone mass. Overall, the patients' 10-year probability of major fracture risk by FRAX without BMD was 15.8%, which then increased to 20.3% after incorporation of BMD measurement. When analyzed by disease group, the fracture risk in RA patients was accurately predicted by FRAX. In contrast, current FRAX, either with or without BMD measurement, underestimated the fracture risk both in SLE and pSS patients, even after stratification by age and glucocorticoid treatment. For pSS patients with major osteoporotic fractures, FRAX risks imputed by RA were comparable to major osteoporotic fracture risks of RA patients. Current FRAX accurately predicted fracture probability in RA patients, but not in SLE and pSS patients. RA-imputed FRAX risk scores could be used as a temporary substitute for SLE and pSS patients.
  4. Sibidanov A, Varvell KE, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Jul 20;121(3):031801.
    PMID: 30085771 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.031801
    We report the results of a search for the rare, purely leptonic decay B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ} performed with a 711  fb^{-1} data sample that contains 772×10^{6}  BB[over ¯] pairs, collected near the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. The signal events are selected based on the presence of a high momentum muon and the topology of the rest of the event showing properties of a generic B-meson decay, as well as the missing energy and momentum being consistent with the hypothesis of a neutrino from the signal decay. We find a 2.4 standard deviation excess above background including systematic uncertainties, which corresponds to a branching fraction of B(B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ})=(6.46±2.22±1.60)×10^{-7} or a frequentist 90% confidence level interval on the B^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ} branching fraction of [2.9,10.7]×10^{-7}.
  5. Li YB, Shen CP, Yuan CZ, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Mar 01;122(8):082001.
    PMID: 30932568 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.082001
    We present the first measurements of absolute branching fractions of Ξ_{c}^{0} decays into Ξ^{-}π^{+}, ΛK^{-}π^{+}, and pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+} final states. The measurements are made using a dataset comprising (772±11)×10^{6} BB[over ¯] pairs collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^{+}e^{-} collider. We first measure the absolute branching fraction for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} using a missing-mass technique; the result is B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})=(9.51±2.10±0.88)×10^{-4}. We subsequently measure the product branching fractions B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}), B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+}), and B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+}) with improved precision. Dividing these product branching fractions by the result for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} yields the following branching fractions: B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+})=(1.80±0.50±0.14)%, B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+})=(1.17±0.37±0.09)%, and B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+})=(0.58±0.23±0.05)%. For the above branching fractions, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. Our result for B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}) can be combined with Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions measured relative to Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+} to yield other absolute Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions.
  6. Seong IS, Vahsen SE, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Jan 11;122(1):011801.
    PMID: 31012694 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.011801
    We report on the first Belle search for a light CP-odd Higgs boson, A^{0}, that decays into low mass dark matter, χ, in final states with a single photon and missing energy. We search for events produced via the dipion transition ϒ(2S)→ϒ(1S)π^{+}π^{-}, followed by the on-shell process ϒ(1S)→γA^{0} with A^{0}→χχ, or by the off-shell process ϒ(1S)→γχχ. Utilizing a data sample of 157.3×10^{6} ϒ(2S) decays, we find no evidence for a signal. We set limits on the branching fractions of such processes in the mass ranges M_{A^{0}}<8.97  GeV/c^{2} and M_{χ}<4.44  GeV/c^{2}. We then use the limits on the off-shell process to set competitive limits on WIMP-nucleon scattering in the WIMP mass range below 5  GeV/c^{2}.
  7. Adachi I, Adye T, Ahmed H, Ahn JK, Aihara H, Akar S, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Dec 28;121(26):261801.
    PMID: 30636113 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.261801
    We present first evidence that the cosine of the CP-violating weak phase 2β is positive, and hence exclude trigonometric multifold solutions of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) Unitarity Triangle using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} with D→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decays, where h^{0}∈{π^{0},η,ω} denotes a light unflavored and neutral hadron. The measurement is performed combining the final data sets of the BABAR and Belle experiments collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance at the asymmetric-energy B factories PEP-II at SLAC and KEKB at KEK, respectively. The data samples contain (471±3)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the BABAR detector and (772±11)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the Belle detector. The results of the measurement are sin2β=0.80±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst)±0.03(model) and cos2β=0.91±0.22(stat)±0.09(syst)±0.07(model). The result for the direct measurement of the angle β of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is β=[22.5±4.4(stat)±1.2(syst)±0.6(model)]°. The measurement assumes no direct CP violation in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays. The quoted model uncertainties are due to the composition of the D^{0}→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decay amplitude model, which is newly established by performing a Dalitz plot amplitude analysis using a high-statistics e^{+}e^{-}→cc[over ¯] data sample. CP violation is observed in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays at the level of 5.1 standard deviations. The significance for cos2β>0 is 3.7 standard deviations. The trigonometric multifold solution π/2-β=(68.1±0.7)° is excluded at the level of 7.3 standard deviations. The measurement resolves an ambiguity in the determination of the apex of the CKM Unitarity Triangle.
  8. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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