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  1. Yusof YA, Yan KL, Hussain SN
    Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol., 2003 Dec;25(6):332-8.
    PMID: 14714299
    To determine whether tumor marker pi glutathione transferase (GST-pi) is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other chronic liver diseases and to compare its expression with that of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
  2. Shaharudin SH, Sulaiman S, Emran NA, Shahril MR, Hussain SN
    Altern Ther Health Med, 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):50-6.
    PMID: 21614944
    BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by breast cancer survivors.
    METHODS: A descriptive survey design was developed. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, cancer clinical treatment history, and use of CAM were obtained through a modified self-administered questionnaire from 116 Malay breast cancer survivors aged 21 to 67 years who were 2 years postdiagnosis and currently undergoing follow-up treatment at breast cancer clinics at Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.
    RESULTS: Data suggest that 64% of the participants were identified as CAM users; dietary supplements were the most common form used, followed by prayer and Malay traditional medicine. Within the wide range of dietary supplements, multivitamins were most often taken followed by spirulina, vitamin C, evening primrose oil, and herbal products. Contrary to other findings, the CAM users were found to be older, had secondary education levels, and were from middle-income households. However, there was no significant difference between CAM users and nonusers in this study. Family members played an important role as the main source of information along with doctors/health care providers, friends, and printed materials/mass media. The reasons participants gave for using CAM were mainly to assist in healing the body's inner strength, to cure cancer, and to reduce stress. Only half of the participants consulted with their physicians regarding the safety of CAM use. The participants began to use CAM while undergoing clinical treatments. Most of the participants used CAM for more than a year. About RM100 to RM149 (31.88 USD to 47.50 USD at press time) were spent monthly on CAM by 32% of the participants. The CAM use was found to be effective and beneficial for patients' disease states, and they were contented with the usage of the CAM therapies. Multivariate analysis revealed that thedecision to use or not to use CAM was not dependent on sociodemographic background or cancer clinical treatment history.
    CONCLUSIONS: CAM was commonly used by breast cancer survivors as a coping mechanism to battle the disease.
    Study site: Breast cancer clinics, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. Bong PN, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Emran NA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):117-22.
    PMID: 21329183 MyJurnal
    The GATA3 gene is a potential tumour marker and putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Its expression is associated with better prognosis and disease free survival in breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate GATA3 transcriptome expression and mutation in breast carcinomas and correlate its expression with oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node (LN) status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression. Twenty-two breast infiltrating ductal carcinomas and paired normal tissues were used in Branch DNA assay to detect GATA3 mRNA expression. Normalized data for GATA3 mRNA expression were grouped according to the ER, PR and LN status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression of the tumours. Statistical significance was tested using t-test and ANOVA at 95% confidence interval level. Mutational analysis of GATA3 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding regions of GATA3 mRNA. Our findings showed that GATA3 gene were over-expressed and under-expressed by > 2 fold change in 12 and 4 tested samples, respectively. Eighty per cent of ER positive breast carcinomas were GATA3 positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between GATA3 expression and ER at 95% confidence interval level between the study groups. On the contrary, GATA3 expression was not statistically significant with PR, LN, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression in our study. In addition, we observed that there was no mutation in mRNA coding region in 16 breast carcinomas that showed GATA3 differential gene expression. Our preliminary results suggested that GATA3 is linked to the ER. This scenario suggests that GATA3 may play a crucial role in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Whether GATA3 expression is involved in regulating tumour cell growth in oestrogen responsive breast cancer is a key question that remains to be answered.
  4. Pau Ni IB, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Aina Emran N, et al.
    Pathol. Res. Pract., 2010 Apr 15;206(4):223-8.
    PMID: 20097481 DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2009.11.006
    Genomic and transcriptomic alterations that affect cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion, commonly occur in breast oncogenesis. Epidemiological evidence has proven that the risk of breast cancer predisposition varies among different ethnicities. This study aims to identify the transcriptome changes that commonly occur during the transition of normal breast epithelium to carcinoma in three local ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians). The gene expression patterns of 43 breast carcinomas with 43 patient-matched normal breast tissues were investigated using Affymetrix U133A GeneChip (containing 22,283 probe sets targeting approximately 18,400 different transcripts) and analyzed with GeneSpring GX10. Our findings revealed a total of 33 significantly differentially expressed genes, which showed>2-fold change at a 99.9% confidence interval level (p<0.001). The significantly differentially expressed genes included CD24, CD36, CD9, TACSTD1, TACSTD2, HBB, LEP, LPL, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. Our results indicate that the vast majority of gene expression changes, from normal breast epithelial to carcinoma, found in our three major ethnic populations are similar to those in the Caucasian population. Further study of the differentially expressed genes identified in our present study is needed to search for potential breast tumor biomarkers. This will eventually help to improve the therapeutic and treatment strategies for breast cancer patients in the future.
  5. Abdul Murad NA, Razak ZA, Hussain RM, Syed Hussain SN, Ko Ching Huat C, Che Md Ali SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1655-9.
    PMID: 23679251
    BACKGROUND: HER-2/neu is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase growth factor which is crucial for stimulating growth and cellular motility. Overexpression of HER-2/neu is observed in 10-35% of human breast cancers and is associated with pathogenesis, prognosis as well as response to therapy. Given the imperative role of HER-2/neu overexpression in breast cancer, it is important to determine the magnitude of amplification which may facilitate a better prognosis as well as personalized therapy in affected patients. In this study, we determined HER-2/neu protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) concurrently with HER-2/neu DNA amplification by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification.

    RESULTS: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.

  6. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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