BACKGROUND: Organic Brain Syndromes (OBS) are often missed in clinical practice. Determining their varied presentations may help in earlier detection, better management, and, assessing prognosis and outcome. We described the in-patient referrals of patients suffering from the psychiatric effects of organic states and compared the symptomatology and mortality between those with the Acute and Chronic varieties. METHODS: 59 patients referred to our Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry services and given a clinical diagnosis of OBS were selected over a 6-month period. Psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities and treatment regimes were recorded and fatality rates determined. Information regarding their condition 24 months after their index hospitalization was recorded. All data were entered into a proforma and analyzed after exclusion. RESULTS: The mean duration of detecting the symptoms by the physician was 3.52 days. The presence of a premorbid psychiatric illness had no influence on the clinical presentation but did on the mortality of patients with OBS (p = 0.029).Patients with the Acute syndrome had significantly more symptom resolution as compared to those with the Chronic syndrome (p = 0.001) but mortalityrates did not differ. Elderly patients and those with symptom resolution upon discharge did not show statistically significant higher mortality rates. The most popular combination of treatment was that of a low-dose neuroleptic and a benzodiazepine (34.7%). The need for maintenance treatment was not significantly different in any group, even in those with a past history of a functional disorder. CONCLUSION: Other than the Acute group having a significantly better outcome in terms of symptom resolution, our findings suggest that there was no significant difference in the clinical presentation between those with Acute or Chronic OBS. Mortality-wise, there was also no difference between the Acute and Chronic syndromes, nor was there any difference between the elderly and the younger group. There was also no significant difference in the need for continued treatment in both groups.
Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.
We present a patient with topiramate-induced psychosis who developed alternative psychosis following temporal lobectomy. The number of surgical candidates for temporal lobectomy is increasing as is the frequency of psychiatric co-morbidities. Preoperative planning should take account of these psychiatric co-morbidities. In particular, precautions should be taken when antiepileptic drug-induced psychosis occurs, as this could predict the occurrence of alternative psychosis following lobectomy.
In this open-label pilot study, 20 adult patients hospitalized for acute bipolar mania received oral quetiapine as a single evening dose of 200 mg on day 1, increased by 200 mg/day on days 2, 3, and 4 until 800 mg/day taken in 2 divided doses on day 4. From day 5 onward, patients received a flexible total dose of 400-800 mg/day until completion of 3 weeks of treatment. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse-event (AE)-related dropouts in week 1, incidence of AEs including EPS, changes in electrocardiogram, and vital signs. Efficacy was assessed using the YMRS, PANSS, and CGI scales. Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) completed the quetiapine rapid titration during week 1. Significant improvement was observed in YMRS, PANSS, and CGI Severity of Illness scores by day 5, and was maintained throughout the study. A reduction of > or = 50% in YMRS score was achieved by 75% of patients by day 7, and maintained to day 21. Overall, 20% of patients discontinued due to AEs. Agitation was the most common cause of AE-related study discontinuation. Thirty-five per cent of patients required dose adjustment due to AEs after rapid dose administration was completed. Most patients tolerated rapid titration of quetiapine to 800 mg/day by day 4 of therapy, with a significant improvement in manic symptoms by day 7 of treatment.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
METHODS: Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56).
DISCUSSION: FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; healthcare personnel; prevalence; risk factor; sexual desire disorder
INTRODUCTION: Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nicotine dependence and investigate the effect of nicotine dependence on psychopathology among schizophrenia patients.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at a general hospital in Malaysia. 180 recruited subjects were administered the Malay version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Malay version of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M) questionnaires.
RESULTS: The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the subjects was 38.1% (n = 69) and they were mainly composed of male gender, Malay ethnicity, being treated with atypical antipsychotics, and taking other illicit drugs or alcohol. Subjects with severe nicotine dependence scored less in the negative subscale of PANSS compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.011). On performing the hierarchy multiple regressions, dependence status still significantly predicted negative scores after adjusting the confounders (t = -2.87, P = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: The rate of nicotine use disorder among schizophrenia patients in this study is higher than that of the general population in Malaysia. The significant association between nicotine dependence and negative psychopathology symptoms will help the healthcare practitioners in their management of nicotine dependence among schizophrenia patients.
Study site: outpatient psychiatric clinic in a general hospital
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among healthcare personnel in selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at three large healthcare facilities that were selected by convenience sampling. Within each facility, stratified random sampling was used to select suitable candidates to participate in the study (n=201). Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners.
RESULTS: The prevalence of FSD was 5.5%. Women with sexual dysfunction were more likely to be married longer (OR=4.08; 95% CI; 1.15-4.50), had lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR=5.00; 95% C; 1.05-23.76) and had a spouse with ED (OR=24.35; 95% CI; 4.55-130.37). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was the strongest predictor for FSD (AOR=27.30; 95% CI; 4.706-159.08).
CONCLUSION: One in eighteen female healthcare personnel suffered from FSD and presence of ED in the partner strongly impacted her sexual function, negatively. The findings highlight the importance of including the male partner in clinical assessment of FSD.