Social support is an essential component for the physical and emotional well-being of postpartum mothers. The objective of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the revised Malay version Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey using a confirmatory validity approach.
Providing optimal care to patients with recent-onset psychosis can improve outcomes and reduce relapse. However, there is a lack of consistency of the implementation of guidelines for such patients across the Asia-Pacific region. We determined a pragmatic set of recommendations for use on a day-to-day basis to help provide optimal care at this crucial stage of illness. The recommendations were developed over a series of meetings by an international faculty of 15 experts from the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and South Africa. A structured search of the PubMed database was conducted. This was further developed based on the faculty's clinical experience and knowledge of the literature into 10 key aspects of optimal care for patients during the first five years of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, with particular relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. Several common principles emerged: adherence to antipsychotic medications is crucial; substance abuse, psychiatric and medical comorbidities should be addressed; psychosocial interventions play a pivotal role; and family members can play a vital role in overall patient care. By following these recommendations, clinicians may improve outcomes for patients with recent-onset psychosis.
This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Liver transplant candidates are vulnerable to develop depression. This paper aims to ascertain the prevalence of depression in liver transplant candidates and its psychosocial factors in a systematic review.
This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.
Numerous association studies of candidate genes studies with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been conducted for many years; however, the evidence of association between genes and the risk of developing MDD still remains inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene and MDD in three ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) within the Malaysian population.
The National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM) is a nationwide system that captures data on completed suicides in Malaysia from all forensic departments under the purview of the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
Major depressive disorder is prevalent worldwide, and only about half of those affected will experience no further episodes or symptoms. Additionally, depressive symptoms can be challenging to identify, with many patients going undiagnosed despite a wide variety of available treatment options. Antidepressants are the cornerstone of depression treatment; however, a large number of factors must be considered in selecting the treatment best suited to the individual. To help support physicians in this process, international and national treatment guidelines have been developed. This review evaluates the current use of antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder in six Asian countries (China, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand). No remarkable differences were noted between Asian and international treatment guidelines or among those from within Asia as these are adapted from western guidelines, although there were some local variations. Importantly, a shortage of evidence-based information at a country level is the primary problem in developing guidelines appropriate for Asia, so most of the guidelines are consensus opinions derived from western research data utilized in western guidelines. Treatment guidelines need to evolve from being consensus based to evidence based when evidence is available, taking into consideration cost/effectiveness or cost/benefit with an evidence-based approach that more accurately reflects clinical experience as well as the attributes of each antidepressant. In everyday practice, physicians must tailor their treatment to the patient's clinical needs while considering associated external factors; better tools are needed to help them reach the best possible prescribing decisions which are of maximum benefit to patients.
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia.
METHODS: A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records.
RESULTS: All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028).
DISCUSSION: We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed.
KEYWORDS: antipsychotics; psychosocial function; schizophrenia; symptoms
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic debilitating illness with onset in early childhood. The objective of this study was to look at the impact of children with ADHD on their parents.
INTRODUCTION: The symptom profile of schizophrenia can vary between ethnic groups. We explored selected symptom variables previously reported to be characteristic of schizophrenia in the Iban of Sarawak in transethnic populations from Australia, India, and Sarawak, Malaysia. We tested site differences to confirm previous research, and to explore implications of differences across populations for future investigations.
METHODS: We recruited schizophrenia samples in Australia (n = 609), India (n = 310) and Sarawak (n = 205) primarily for the purposes of genetic studies. We analyzed seven identified variables and their relationship to site using logistic regression, including: global delusions, bizarre delusions, thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, global hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and prodromal duration.
RESULTS: We identified a distinct symptom profile in our Sarawak sample. Specifically, the Iban exhibit: low frequency of thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, high frequency of auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, with a comparatively short prodrome when compared with Australian and Indian populations.
DISCUSSION: Understanding between-site variation in symptom profile may complement future transethnic genetic studies, and provide important clues as to the nature of differing schizophrenia expression across ethnically distinct groups. A comprehensive approach to subtyping schizophrenia is warranted, utilizing comprehensively ascertained transethnic samples to inform both schizophrenia genetics and nosology.
INTRODUCTION: Loneliness has long been known to have strong association with depression. The relationship between loneliness and depression, however, has been associated with other risk factors including social support. The aim of this paper is to describe the role of social support in the association between loneliness and depression.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined the mediating effects of social support among 161 community-based elderly in agricultural settlement of a rural area in Sungai Tengi, Malaysia. Subjects were investigated with De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale and Medical Outcome Survey Social Support Survey. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, linear and hierarchical regression.
RESULTS: Results indicated that social support partially mediated the relationship between loneliness and depression.
DISCUSSION: This suggests that social support affects the linear association between loneliness and depression in the elderly.
KEYWORDS: depression; elderly; loneliness; rural community; social support
Study site; FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, Malaysia
Device, Questionnaire & Scale: De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15): Medical Outcome Survey Social Support Survey
Hospital-based community psychiatric service (HCPS) is a developing intervention in Malaysia targeted for patients with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). Its effectiveness had not been systematically measured. This study aimed to assess the outcome of HCPS with respect to re-hospitalization and factors associated with low re-hospitalization among patients with schizophrenia in the metropolitan city of Kuala Lumpur.
The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior.
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.
RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of social support and depression in predicting the quality of life among the elderly living in a rural Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) community in Malaysia.
METHODS: A total of 162 elderly settlers of FELDA Sungai Tengi, aged 60 years and above, were selected by universal sampling method in this cross-sectional study. Three standardized instruments - the 12-item Short Form (SF-12), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Medical Outcome Study Social Support (MOS-Social Support) - were used to assess for quality of life, depression and social support.
RESULTS: Quality of life of the elderly people in this community was high, especially in terms of physical components as compared to mental components. The mean scores for emotional role in the SF-12 was relatively the highest (90.74 ± 21.59) with social functioning being the lowest (30.35 ± 22.29). The results also showed that the mean value was higher for physical component summary (74.40) as compared to mental component summary (51.51). Approximately 23.5% suffered mild depression and only 2.5% had severe depression.
DISCUSSION: This study showed that the elderly FELDA settlers have a high quality of life, mainly on the physical components of life and low rate of severe depression, a positive indicator of their psychological well-being. Social support in the form of emotional/informational support, and depression were significant factors related to their good quality of life.
KEYWORDS: depression; elderly; quality of life; rural community; social support
Study site; FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, Malaysia
Device, Questionnaire & Scale: Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15; Medical Outcome Study Social Support (MOS-Social Support)