Social support is an essential component for the physical and emotional well-being of postpartum mothers. The objective of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the revised Malay version Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey using a confirmatory validity approach.
This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
Liver transplant candidates are vulnerable to develop depression. This paper aims to ascertain the prevalence of depression in liver transplant candidates and its psychosocial factors in a systematic review.
Numerous association studies of candidate genes studies with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been conducted for many years; however, the evidence of association between genes and the risk of developing MDD still remains inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene and MDD in three ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) within the Malaysian population.
INTRODUCTION: The symptom profile of schizophrenia can vary between ethnic groups. We explored selected symptom variables previously reported to be characteristic of schizophrenia in the Iban of Sarawak in transethnic populations from Australia, India, and Sarawak, Malaysia. We tested site differences to confirm previous research, and to explore implications of differences across populations for future investigations.
METHODS: We recruited schizophrenia samples in Australia (n = 609), India (n = 310) and Sarawak (n = 205) primarily for the purposes of genetic studies. We analyzed seven identified variables and their relationship to site using logistic regression, including: global delusions, bizarre delusions, thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, global hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and prodromal duration.
RESULTS: We identified a distinct symptom profile in our Sarawak sample. Specifically, the Iban exhibit: low frequency of thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, high frequency of auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, with a comparatively short prodrome when compared with Australian and Indian populations.
DISCUSSION: Understanding between-site variation in symptom profile may complement future transethnic genetic studies, and provide important clues as to the nature of differing schizophrenia expression across ethnically distinct groups. A comprehensive approach to subtyping schizophrenia is warranted, utilizing comprehensively ascertained transethnic samples to inform both schizophrenia genetics and nosology.
Anxiety and depression are prevalent during pregnancy. Estimates of the prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy vary according to the criteria used, variable methodologies and population characteristics.
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-based community psychiatric service (HCPS) is a developing intervention in Malaysia targeted for patients with severe mental illnesses (SMIs). Its effectiveness had not been systematically measured. This study aimed to assess the outcome of HCPS with respect to re-hospitalization and factors associated with low re-hospitalization among patients with schizophrenia in the metropolitan city of Kuala Lumpur.
METHODS: A naturalistic and retrospective cohort study was conducted using within-subject pre-post design on 155 patients with schizophrenia who received HCPS in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The selection was made by simple random sampling. The hospital admission profiles were obtained from clinical records. The socio-demographic and relevant clinical data were also assessed through clinical interviews.
RESULTS: One hundred and forty (90%) of 155 respondents had low rate of hospital admission with significant reduction of being hospitalized within 1 year after receiving HCPS (p
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data.
RESULTS: The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11).
DISCUSSION: Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls.
KEYWORDS: adolescent; risks; sexual abuse; substance abuse; suicidal behavior
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between clinical/socio-demographic factors with knowledge and attitude on sex among medical students of the National University of Malaysia (UKM).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessing 452 students using a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge and attitude was performed and had a response rate of 80%.
RESULTS: The majority of respondents were Malays (56%), females (57.5%), lived in urban areas (66.4%), had a median family income of RM3000 and perceived themselves as moderately religious (60%). The overall score on knowledge about sex was 21.7 of 35 (a higher score indicates better knowledge about sex). It was noted that 73.2% of students felt that they did not receive adequate training in medical school to deal with patients' sexuality and sexual problems, while 51.5% felt uncomfortable talking to patients about these issues. Students in the clinical year were more knowledgeable than those in pre-clinical years (22.67 versus 20.71, P 22 marks [median score]).
DISCUSSION: The students' attitude on sex was considered conservative as the majority of them disagreed on premarital sex, masturbation, abortion, homosexuality and oral sex. Gender and religiosity have a large influence on attitudes on controversial sexual issues, whereas clinical status plays a small role. Knowledge on sex among UKM medical students is inadequate and their attitudes on sex are considered conservative. Integration of sexual medicine and health modules in the medical curriculum is crucial for students to more effectively address patients' sexual problems and promote non-judgmental attitudes towards patients.
KEYWORDS: attitude; knowledge; medical student; sex
Research in the field of child sexual abuse is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of this study are to identify the association between sociodemographic factors and depression among sexually abused females.
Introduction: Research on depression in local patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is sparse. Thus, this study aims to examine the frequency and severity of depression among ESRD patients and relate depression with their coping skills.
Methods: A cross-sectional study using universal sampling method was conducted at several dialysis centers in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Johor, Malaysia. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Brief COPE scale were used to measure depression and coping skill, respectively.
Results: The study involved 274 ESRD patients, comprising of 183 hemodialysis and 91 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. The result showed that 21.1% of the patients experienced moderate to severe depression. Several components of coping skill were associated with depression. However, only two components in the Brief COPE (behavioral disengagement and self-blame) were identified as predictors.
Discussion: This study showed that depression is common in ESRD patients and is related to the types of coping skills adopted by patients. Hence, this study provides some insight into ESRD patients with depression. Appropriate counseling should be given to these patients to empower them to cope with the illness so as to enhance their quality of life.
Anxiety among house officers may impair functioning and health care delivery. This study aimed to determine the association between anxiety among house officers at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, sociodemographic and work-related factors.
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.
RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the role of social support and depression in predicting the quality of life among the elderly living in a rural Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) community in Malaysia.
METHODS: A total of 162 elderly settlers of FELDA Sungai Tengi, aged 60 years and above, were selected by universal sampling method in this cross-sectional study. Three standardized instruments - the 12-item Short Form (SF-12), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Medical Outcome Study Social Support (MOS-Social Support) - were used to assess for quality of life, depression and social support.
RESULTS: Quality of life of the elderly people in this community was high, especially in terms of physical components as compared to mental components. The mean scores for emotional role in the SF-12 was relatively the highest (90.74 ± 21.59) with social functioning being the lowest (30.35 ± 22.29). The results also showed that the mean value was higher for physical component summary (74.40) as compared to mental component summary (51.51). Approximately 23.5% suffered mild depression and only 2.5% had severe depression.
DISCUSSION: This study showed that the elderly FELDA settlers have a high quality of life, mainly on the physical components of life and low rate of severe depression, a positive indicator of their psychological well-being. Social support in the form of emotional/informational support, and depression were significant factors related to their good quality of life.
KEYWORDS: depression; elderly; quality of life; rural community; social support
Study site; FELDA Sungai Tengi, Selangor, Malaysia
Device, Questionnaire & Scale: Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15; Medical Outcome Study Social Support (MOS-Social Support)