The performance of a commercial immunochromatography test for rapid detection of dengue NS1 antigen present in serum or plasma of patients was evaluated against a commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA. The rapid immunochromatography test gave an overall sensitivity of 90.4% with a specificity of 99.5%. The sensitivity was highest for serum samples from which virus was isolated (96.3%) and lowest for those from which virus was not isolated and RT-PCR was negative (76.4%). The sensitivity was significantly higher for serum samples from patients with acute primary dengue (92.3%) than those from patients with acute secondary dengue (79.1%). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this commercial immunochromatography test were 99.6% and 87.9% respectively.