Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Tan le V, Tuyen NT, Thanh TT, Ngan TT, Van HM, Sabanathan S, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2015 Apr;215-216:30-6.
    PMID: 25704598 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.02.011
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as the most important cause of large outbreaks of severe and sometimes fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) across the Asia-Pacific region. EV-A71 outbreaks have been associated with (sub)genogroup switches, sometimes accompanied by recombination events. Understanding EV-A71 population dynamics is therefore essential for understanding this emerging infection, and may provide pivotal information for vaccine development. Despite the public health burden of EV-A71, relatively few EV-A71 complete-genome sequences are available for analysis and from limited geographical localities. The availability of an efficient procedure for whole-genome sequencing would stimulate effort to generate more viral sequence data. Herein, we report for the first time the development of a next-generation sequencing based protocol for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 directly from clinical specimens. We were able to sequence viruses of subgenogroup C4 and B5, while RNA from culture materials of diverse EV-A71 subgenogroups belonging to both genogroup B and C was successfully amplified. The nature of intra-host genetic diversity was explored in 22 clinical samples, revealing 107 positions carrying minor variants (ranging from 0 to 15 variants per sample). Our analysis of EV-A71 strains sampled in 2013 showed that they all belonged to subgenogroup B5, representing the first report of this subgenogroup in Vietnam. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing-based assay for whole-genome sequencing of EV-A71 from clinical samples.
  2. Thanarajoo SS, Kong LL, Kadir J, Lau WH, Vadamalai G
    J. Virol. Methods, 2014 Jun;202:19-23.
    PMID: 24631346 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.02.024
    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) detected Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) within 60 min at 60 °C in total nucleic acid extracted from oil palm leaves infected with CCCVd. Positive reactions showed colour change from orange to green in the reaction mix after the addition of fluorescent reagent, and a laddering pattern band on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Conventional RT-PCR with LAMP primers produced amplicons with a sequence identical to the 297-nt CCCVd oil palm variant with the primers being specific for CCCVd and not for other viroids such as PSTVd and CEVd. RT-LAMP was found to be rapid and specific for detecting oil palm CCCVd.
  3. Lazouskaya NV, Palombo EA, Poh CL, Barton PA
    J. Virol. Methods, 2014 Mar;197:67-76.
    PMID: 24361875 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.12.005
    Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) is a causative agent of mild Hand Foot and Mouth Disease but is capable of causing severe complications in the CNS in young children. Reverse genetics technology is currently widely used to study the pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the factors which can contribute to infectivity of EV 71 RNA transcripts in vitro. Two strategies, overlapping RT-PCR and long distance RT-PCR, were employed to obtain the full-length genome cDNA clones of the virus. The length of the poly(A) tail and the presence of non-viral 3'-terminal sequences were studied in regard to their effects on infectivity of the in vitro RNA transcripts of EV 71 in cell culture. The data revealed that only cDNA clones obtained after long distance RT-PCR were infectious. No differences were observed in virus titres after transfection with in vitro RNA harbouring a poly(A) tail of 18 or 30 adenines in length, irrespective of the non-viral sequences at the 3'-terminus.
  4. Wong CL, Sieo CC, Tan WS
    J. Virol. Methods, 2013 Nov;193(2):611-9.
    PMID: 23933075 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.07.053
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century. In recent years, the development of diagnostic assays for FMD has benefited considerably from the advances of recombinant DNA technology. In this study, the immunodominant region of the capsid protein VP1 of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was fused to the T7 bacteriophage and expressed on the surface of the bacteriophage capsid protein. The recombinant protein of about 42 kDa was detected by the anti-T7 tag monoclonal antibody in Western blot analysis. Phage ELISA showed that both the vaccinated and positive infected bovine sera reacted significantly with the recombinant T7 particle. This study demonstrated the potential of the T7 phage displaying the VP1 epitope as a diagnostic reagent.
  5. Chua CL, Chan YF, Sam IC
    J. Virol. Methods, 2014 Jan;195:126-33.
    PMID: 24134938 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2013.10.015
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus which has recently re-emerged globally and poses a major threat to public health. Infection leads to severe arthralgia, and disease management remains supportive in the absence of vaccines and anti-viral interventions. The high specificities of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been exploited in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy in recent decades. In this study, eight different clones of mAbs were generated and characterised. These mAbs targeted the linear epitopes on the CHIKV E2 envelope glycoprotein, which is the major target antigen during infection. All the mAbs showed binding activity against the purified CHIKV virion or recombinant E2 when analysed by immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot. The epitopes of each mAb were mapped by overlapping synthetic peptide-based ELISA. The epitopes are distributed at different functional domains of E2 glycoprotein, namely at domain A, junctions of β-ribbons with domains A and B, and domain C. Alignment of mAb epitope sequences revealed that some are well-conserved within different genotypes of CHIKV, while some are identical to and likely to cross-react with the closely-related alphavirus O'nyong-nyong virus. These mAbs with their mapped epitopes are useful for the development of diagnostic or research tools, including immunofluorescence, ELISA and Western blot.
  6. Monjezi R, Tan SW, Tey BT, Sieo CC, Tan WS
    J. Virol. Methods, 2013 Jan;187(1):121-6.
    PMID: 23022731 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.09.017
    The core antigen (HBcAg) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the markers for the identification of the viral infection. The main purpose of this study was to develop a TaqMan real-time detection assay based on the concept of phage display mediated immuno-PCR (PD-IPCR) for the detection of HBcAg. PD-IPCR combines the advantages of immuno-PCR (IPCR) and phage display technology. IPCR integrates the versatility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the sensitivity and signal generation power of PCR. Whereas, phage display technology exploits the physical association between the displayed peptide and the encoding DNA within the same phage particle. In this study, a constrained peptide displayed on the surface of an M13 recombinant bacteriophage that interacts tightly with HBcAg was applied as a diagnostic reagent in IPCR. The phage displayed peptide and its encoding DNA can be used to replace monoclonal antibody (mAb) and chemically bound DNA, respectively. This method is able to detect as low as 10ng of HBcAg with 10(8)pfu/ml of the recombinant phage which is about 10,000 times more sensitive than the phage-ELISA. The PD-IPCR provides an alternative means for the detection of HBcAg in human serum samples.
  7. Goh ZH, Tan SG, Bhassu S, Tan WS
    J. Virol. Methods, 2011 Jul;175(1):74-9.
    PMID: 21536072 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.04.021
    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) infects giant freshwater prawns and causes white tail disease (WTD). The coding region of the capsid protein of MrNv was amplified with RT-PCR and cloned into the pTrcHis2-TOPO vector. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli and protein expression was induced with IPTG. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein containing the His-tag and myc epitope has a molecular mass of about 46 kDa and it was detected by the anti-His antibody in Western blotting. The protein was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the recombinant protein assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with a diameter of about 30±3 nm. The size of the particles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Nucleic acids were extracted from the VLPs and treatment with nucleases showed that they were mainly RNA molecules. This is the first report describing the production of MrNv capsid protein in bacteria and its assembly into VLPs.
  8. Permeen AM, Sam CK, Pathmanathan R, Prasad U, Wolf H
    J. Virol. Methods, 1990 Mar;27(3):261-7.
    PMID: 2157729
    The presence of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) DNA in biopsies from the post-nasal space (PNS) of patients suspected of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was detected by in situ cytohybridization with an EBV DNA probe labelled with the novel labelling compound digoxigenin. The digoxigenin probe was hybridised to cryostat sections of NPC biopsies and subsequently detected by an enzyme immunoassay procedure. It was found that in situ cytohybridization using the digoxigenin probe was much more rapid and sensitive (96 h compared to five weeks) than the current method of using 3H-labelled probe. Using the digoxigenin EBV probe, it was found that in all the eighteen NPC biopsies tested, EBV DNA was detected in malignant epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes. EBV DNA was also detected in some normal epithelial cells in these NPC biopsies. EBV DNA was not detected in epithelial cells of non-malignant biopsies.
  9. Cardosa MJ, Hooi TP, Shaari NS
    J. Virol. Methods, 1988 Oct;22(1):81-8.
    PMID: 3058737
    Partially purified DEN3 virus was used as antigen in a sensitive dot enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) for the detection of antibodies to flavivirus antigens. We describe here the method used to prepare and optimise the antigen-bearing nitrocellulose membranes and present the results obtained from screening 20 acute phase sera from patients shown to have had recent dengue infections by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Sixteen pairs of acute and convalescent sera from dengue-negative patients had no detectable antibody to dengue virus by HI. These were shown to have no antibody detectable by DEIA. Sera positive for dengue antibodies by HI had DEIA titers ranging from 10 to several thousand times greater than the titers detected by HI.
  10. Yee SF, Chu CH, Poili E, Sum MSH
    J. Virol. Methods, 2017 02;240:69-72.
    PMID: 27923590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.12.001
    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes.
  11. Kaku Y, Park ES, Noguchi A, Inoue S, Lunt R, Malbas FF, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2019 07;269:83-87.
    PMID: 30954461 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.009
    A novel indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detection of IgM against Nipah virus (NiV) was developed using HeLa 229 cells expressing recombinant NiV nucleocapsid protein (NiV-N). The NiV IFAT was evaluated using three panels of sera: a) experimentally produced sera from NiV-N-immunized/pre-immunized macaques, b) post-infection human sera associated with a Nipah disease outbreak in the Philippines in 2014, and c) human sera from a non-exposed Malaysian population. Immunized macaque sera showed a characteristic granular staining pattern of the NiV-N expressed antigen in HeLa 229 cells, which was readily distinguished from negative-binding results of the pre-immunized macaque sera. The IgM antibody titers in sequential serum samples (n = 7) obtained from three Nipah patients correlated well with previously published results using conventional IgM capture ELISA and SNT serology. The 90 human serum samples from unexposed persons were unreactive by IFAT. The IFAT utilizing NiV-N-expressing HeLa 229 cells to detect IgM antibody in an early stage of NiV infection is an effective approach, which could be utilized readily in local laboratories to complement other capabilities in NiV-affected countries.
  12. Etemadi MR, Jalilian FA, Othman N, Lye MS, Ansari S, Yubbu P, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2019 07;269:1-6.
    PMID: 30910688 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.013
    BACKGROUND: The role of respiratory viruses as the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) in children is becoming increasingly evident due to the use of sensitive molecular detection methods. The aim of this study was to use conventional and molecular detection methods to assess the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in children less than five years of age that were hospitalized with ALRTIs.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the occurrence of respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytisl virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza virus A and B (IFV-A and B), parainfluenzavirus 1, 2, 3 and 4 (PIV 1, 2, 3 and 4), human rhinoviruses (HRV), human enterovirus (HEV), human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in hospitalized children with ALRTIs, at Hospital Serdang, Malaysia, from June 16 to December 21, 2009. The study was also designed in part to assess the performance of the conventional methods against molecular methods.

    RESULTS: Viral pathogens were detected in 158 (95.8%) of the patients. Single virus infections were detected in 114 (67.9%) patients; 46 (27.9%) were co-infected with different viruses including double-virus infections in 37 (22.4%) and triple-virus infections in 9 (5.5%) cases. Approximately 70% of samples were found to be positive using conventional methods compared with 96% using molecular methods. A wide range of respiratory viruses were detected in the study. There was a high prevalence of RSV (50.3%) infections, particularly group B viruses. Other etiological agents including HAdV, HMPV, IFV-A, PIV 1-3, HBoV, HCoV-OC43 and HEV were detected in 14.5, 9.6, 9.1, 4.8, 3.6, 2.4 and 1.8 percent of the samples, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the increased sensitivity of molecular detection methods compared with conventional methods for the diagnosis of ARTIs in hospitalized children. This is the first report of HMPV infections in Malaysia.

  13. Lim PY, Cardosa MJ
    J. Virol. Methods, 2019 08;270:113-119.
    PMID: 31100287 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.05.005
    The goal of this paper was to develop a sandwich ELISA that can detect intact human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) virus-like particles (VLPs) in vaccines. This assay specifically detected EV-A71 viruses from different sub-genogroups as well as EV-A71 VLPs, and treatment of VLPs with high heat and low pH reduced or completely abolished detection of the VLPs suggesting that the ELISA detected assembled particles. Using a purified VLP as a reference standard, a quantitative sandwich ELISA (Q-ELISA) was established which was used to monitor the yield and purity of the VLPs during manufacturing. Coupled with immunogenicity studies, the Q-ELISA was used to evaluate the performance of the VLPs and formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine. This assay has the potential to play an important role in the development of an efficient process to produce and purify the VLPs and in examining the quality of EV-A71 vaccines.
  14. Ooi DJ, Dzulkurnain A, Othman RY, Lim SH, Harikrishna JA
    J. Virol. Methods, 2006 Sep;136(1-2):160-5.
    PMID: 16781785
    A modified method for the rapid isolation of specific ligands to whole virus particles is described. Biopanning against cymbidium mosaic virus was carried out with a commercial 12-mer random peptide display library. A solution phase panning method was devised using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads. The solution based panning method was more efficient than conventional immobilized target panning when using whole viral particles of cymbidium mosaic virus as a target. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cymbidium mosaic virus-binding peptides isolated from the library identified seven peptides with affinity for cymbidium mosaic virus and one peptide which was specific to cymbidium mosaic virus and had no significant binding to odontoglossum ringspot virus. This method should have broad application for the screening of whole viral particles towards the rapid development of diagnostic reagents without the requirement for cloning and expression of single antigens.
  15. Lee TC, Yusoff K, Nathan S, Tan WS
    J. Virol. Methods, 2006 Sep;136(1-2):224-9.
    PMID: 16797732
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains can be classified as virulent or avirulent based upon the severity of the disease. Differentiation of the virus into virulent and avirulent is necessary for effective control of the disease. Biopanning experiments were performed using a disulfide constrained phage displayed heptapeptide library against three pathotypes of NDV strains: velogenic (highly virulent), mesogenic (moderately virulent) and lentogenic (avirulent). A phage clone bearing the peptide sequence SWGEYDM capable of distinguishing virulent from avirulent NDV strains was isolated. This phage clone was employed as a diagnostic reagent in a dot blot assay and it successfully detected only virulent NDV strains.
  16. Yaiw KC, Ong KC, Chua KB, Bingham J, Wang L, Shamala D, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2007 Aug;143(2):140-6.
    PMID: 17442409
    Tioman virus is a newly described bat-urine derived paramyxovirus isolated in Tioman Island, Malaysia in 2001. Hitherto, neither human nor animal infection by this virus has been reported. Nonetheless, its close relationship to another paramyxovirus, the Menangle virus which had caused diseases in humans and pigs [Philbey, A.W., Kirkland, P.D., Ross, A.D., Davis, R.J., Gleeson, A.B., Love, R.J., Daniels, P.W., Gould, A.R., Hyatt, A.D., 1998. An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans, and fruit bats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4, 269-271], raises the possibility that it may be potentially pathogenic. In this study, mice were experimentally infected with Tioman virus by intraperitoneal and intracerebral routes, and the cellular targets and topographical distribution of viral genome and antigens were examined using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The possible association between viral infection and apoptosis was also investigated using the TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry to FasL, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and bcl-2. The results showed that Tioman virus inoculated intracerebrally was neurotropic causing plaque-like necrotic areas, and appeared to preferentially replicate in the neocortex and limbic system. Viral infection of inflammatory cells was also demonstrated. TUNEL and Caspase-3 positivity was found in inflammatory cells but not in neurons, while FasL, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 were consistently negative. This suggests that neuronal infection was associated with necrosis rather than apoptosis. Moreover, the data suggest that there may be an association between viral infection and apoptosis in inflammatory cells, and that it could, at least in part, involve Caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 was expressed in some neurons and inflammatory cells indicating its possible role in anti-apoptosis. There was no evidence of central nervous system infection via the intraperitoneal route.
  17. Kong YY, Thay CH, Tin TC, Devi S
    J. Virol. Methods, 2006 Dec;138(1-2):123-30.
    PMID: 17000012 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2006.08.003
    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnosis is now accepted worldwide and has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. In the laboratory, a rapid detection, serotyping and quantitation, one-step real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for dengue virus using TaqMan probes. In this assay, a set of forward and reverse primers were designed targeting the serotype conserved region at the NS5 gene, at the same time flanking a variable region for all four serotypes which were used to design the serotype-specific TaqMan probes. This multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay was evaluated using 376 samples collected during the year 2003. These groups included RNA from prototype dengue virus (1-4), RNA from acute serum from which dengue virus was isolated, RNA from tissue culture supernatants of dengue virus isolated, RNA from seronegative acute samples (which were culture and IgM negative) and RNA from samples of dengue IgM positive sera. The specificity of this assay was also evaluated using a panel of sera which were positive for other common tropical disease agents including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, measles virus, varicella-zoster virus, rubella virus, mumps virus, WWF, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, S. typhi, Legionella, Leptospira, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma. The sensitivity, specificity and real-time PCR efficiency of this assay were 89.54%, 100% and 91.5%, respectively.
  18. Ng MY, Tan WS, Abdullah N, Ling TC, Tey BT
    J. Virol. Methods, 2006 Oct;137(1):134-9.
    PMID: 16860402
    Heat precipitation procedure has been regularly incorporated as a selective purification step in various thermostable proteins expressed in different hosts. This method is efficient in precipitation of most of the host proteins and also deactivates various host proteases that can be harmful to the desired gene products. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in the purification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) produced in Escherichia coli has been investigated. Thermal treatment of the cell homogenate at 60 degrees C for 30 min prior to subsequent clarification steps has resulted in 1.4 times and 18% higher in purity and recovery yield, respectively, compared to the non-heat-treated cell homogenate. In direct capture of HBcAg by using anion-exchangers from unclarified feedstock, pre-conditioning the feedstock by heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 45 min has increased the recovery yield of HBcAg by 2.9-fold and 42% in purity compared to that treated for 10 min. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the antigenicity of the core particles was not affected by the heat treatment process.
  19. Kumarasamy V, Wahab AH, Chua SK, Hassan Z, Chem YK, Mohamad M, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2007 Mar;140(1-2):75-9.
    PMID: 17140671
    A commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA was evaluated to demonstrate its potential application for early laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. Dengue virus NS1 antigen was detected in 199 of 213 acute serum samples from patients with laboratory confirmation of acute dengue virus infection but none of the 354 healthy blood donors' serum specimens. The dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA gave an overall sensitivity of 93.4% (199/213) and a specificity of 100% (354/354). The sensitivity was significantly higher in acute primary dengue (97.3%) than in acute secondary dengue (70.0%). The positive predictive value of the dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA was 100% and negative predictive value was 97.3%. Comparatively, virus isolation gave an overall positive isolation rate of 68.1% with a positive isolation rate of 73.9 and 31.0% for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. Molecular detection of dengue RNA by RT-PCR gave an overall positive detection rate of 66.7% with a detection rate of 65.2 and 75.9% for acute primary dengue and acute secondary dengue, respectively. The results indicate that the commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA may be superior to virus isolation and RT-PCR for the laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue infection based on a single serum sample.
  20. Zainah S, Wahab AH, Mariam M, Fauziah MK, Khairul AH, Roslina I, et al.
    J. Virol. Methods, 2009 Feb;155(2):157-60.
    PMID: 19022293 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2008.10.016
    The performance of a commercial immunochromatography test for rapid detection of dengue NS1 antigen present in serum or plasma of patients was evaluated against a commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA. The rapid immunochromatography test gave an overall sensitivity of 90.4% with a specificity of 99.5%. The sensitivity was highest for serum samples from which virus was isolated (96.3%) and lowest for those from which virus was not isolated and RT-PCR was negative (76.4%). The sensitivity was significantly higher for serum samples from patients with acute primary dengue (92.3%) than those from patients with acute secondary dengue (79.1%). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this commercial immunochromatography test were 99.6% and 87.9% respectively.
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