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  1. Nor AM, Jagdeesh K, Mohd FAS, Kamraul AK, Yusmadi A, Noraslawati R, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 Nov;78(6):756-762.
    PMID: 38031217
    INTRODUCTION: The study aims to evaluate and report on the clinical characteristics, incidence, risk factors and associated complications of emergency and planned peripartum hysterectomy in a single training and research tertiary health care centre in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 6-year retrospective cross-sectional study from the 1st January 2016 until 31st December 2021. Clinical, demographic characteristics, perioperative parameters, operative indications, blood loss, maternal/neonatal outcomes and complications were analysed. Patients were subdivided, analysed and studied in two subgroups- emergency hysterectomy (EH) and planned hysterectomy (PH).

    RESULTS: There were 65 cases of peripartum hysterectomy out of total 100,567 deliveries, with a prevalence rate of 0.06%. Overall, the majority of patients were multiparous (96.9%), having previous caesarean scar (73.8%) or diagnosed with placenta praevia (75.4%). More than half of the total patients (61.5%) have both previous caesarean scar and concomitant placenta praevia. EH was carried out in 39(60%) patients while 26(40%) patients underwent PH. The only indication for surgery in the PH group (100%) was abnormal placentation while the most common indication for surgery in the EH group (53.8%) was postpartum haemorrhage related to abnormal placentation. Patients who underwent EH were more likely to have massive blood loss (p=0.001), require ICU admissions (p=0.001), have DIVC cycles transfused (mean [SD] regime: 1.35 [0.95] vs 0.54 [0.99]; p=0.002), have lower postoperative haemoglobin level (mean [standard deviation, SD] haemoglobin: 9.23g/l [SD1.8] vs. 10.8 g/l [SD1.86]; p=0.001) and have higher difference between pre/post operative haemoglobin level (mean [SD] haemoglobin difference: 1.78g/l [SD6.34] vs 0.32g/l [SD1.7]; p=0.008) compared to patients with PH. Red blood cell transfusion, operating time, length of stay, weight of babies and Apgar score between two groups showed no significant differences. A significant reduction of blood loss between the first and the second half duration of the study (mean [SD] blood loss: 6978 ml [SD 4999.45] vs. 4100ml [SD2569.48]; p=0.004) was also observed. In the emergency group, 'non-placental cause' EH required significantly more red blood cell transfusion than 'placental cause' (p<0.05) while in the PH group, no significant difference was observed between the occlusive internal iliac artery 'balloon' and 'no balloon' subgroup in terms of operating time, total blood loss or blood transfusion. Overall complications showed more cases of post operative fever and relaparotomy in the EH group (18.4% vs. 7.6%) while urinary tract injuries including injuries to bladder and ureter occurred only in the PH group (9.4% vs. 0%).

    CONCLUSION: The majority of peripartum hysterectomy cases are due to placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Planned peripartum hysterectomies have a lower morbidity rate compared to emergency hysterectomies. Therefore, early identification of placenta accreta spectrum disorders and timely planning for elective procedures are crucial to minimise the need for emergency surgery.

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