METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min.
RESULTS: (1) Total sweat rates were greater for H30% (179.4 ± 35.6 g h-1) than for H85% (148.1 ± 27.2 g h-1) (P
METHODS: A total of 256 Ross 308 one-day-old broilers (42.28±0.16 g) were randomly allocated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to 32 pens with eight chicks per cage. Birds were fed one of four dietary treatments as follows: i) positive control (PCN; energy sufficient diet); ii) negative control (NCN; energy-deficient diet, -100 ME kcal/kg); iii) PCL (PCN plus 0.05% emulsifier); and iv) NCL (NCN plus 0.05% emulsifier). Growth performance was evaluated weekly whereas assessments for the carcass traits, digestibility, some blood metabolites, ileal morphology, and meat quality were measured on d 21 and d 35.
RESULTS: Birds fed the NCL diet had higher (p<0.05) body weights, daily gains, daily feed intake, and improved feed efficiency over the entire 35-day period. Improvements (p<0.05) for the ileal digestibility of crude fat, energy, and dry matter commensurate with longer (p<0.05) villus heights were also observed with emulsifiers in the NCL and PCL diets. For the carcass measurements, only the liver weights were increased (p<0.05) with emulsifiers in the supplemented groups. For blood metabolites, higher (p<0.05) lipase levels were noticed with emulsifiers in the NCL and PCL diets. In addition, marginal reductions (p = 0.076; p = 0.095, respectively) were also noted with emulsifiers for the total cholesterol and triglyceride contents on d 35. Regarding meat quality, breast muscle yellowness was increased (p<0.05) with emulsifier use in supplemented groups.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that emulsifier supplementation at 0.05% in diets could potentially improve the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broilers over 35 days. This could compensate for the lower growth performance that could be recorded with fat-incorporated lower-energy diets.
Objectives: To synthesize evidence from the GM2.0 to GM4.0 (2016-2022) in Asian countries.
Methods: Report Card grades on behavioral/individual and sources of influence indicators were reported from 18 Asian countries. Letter grades were converted into numerical values for quantitative analyses. Based on this, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to investigate patterns and trends. Qualitative evidence synthesis was performed based on Report Card grades and published papers to identify gaps and suggest future recommendations.
Results: In total, 18 countries provided grades for at least one round of GM, 12 countries provided grades for at least two rounds, and seven countries provided grades for all three GMs. Of possible grades, 72.8%, 69.2%, and 76.9% of the grades were assigned from GM 2.0 to GM 4.0, respectively. In terms of the Report Card grades, there was a slight decrease in behavioral/individual indicators from "D+" in GM 2.0 to "D-" in GM 3.0 but this reverted to "D" in GM 4.0. For the sources of influence, a "C" grade was given in all three rounds of GM. Longitudinal observation of seven Asian countries that provided grades in all three rounds of GM revealed that grades are generally stable for all indicators with some country-specific fluctuations. In future GM initiatives and research, considerations should be made to provide more accurate and rich data and to better understand contextual challenges in evaluating certain indicators such as Active Transportation, Active Play, and Physical Fitness in particular. Further, macro level factors such as socioeconomic/cultural disparities and gender-specific barriers, ideology, or climate change should also be proactively considered in future research as these factors are becoming increasingly relevant to indicators of GM and United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.
Conclusions: Participation from Asian countries in GM has increased over the years, which demonstrates the region's enthusiasm, capacity, and support for global PA promotion efforts. The efforts to promote a physically active lifestyle among children and adolescents should be a collective interest and priority of the Asia region based on the gaps identified in this paper.