Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Suhaimi NS, Yap KP, Ajam N, Thong KL
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2014 Sep;358(1):11-3.
    PMID: 25047976
    Kosakonia radicincitans (formerly known as Enterobacter radicincitans), an endophytic bacterium was isolated from the symptomatic tissues of bacterial wilt diseased banana (Musa spp.) plant in Malaysia. The total genome size of K. radicincitans UMEnt01/12 is 5 783 769 bp with 5463 coding sequences (CDS), 75 tRNAs, and 9 rRNAs. The annotated draft genome of the K. radicincitans UMEnt01/12 strain might shed light on its role as a bacterial wilt-associated bacterium.
  2. Song AA, Abdullah JO, Abdullah MP, Shafee N, Othman R, Noor NM, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2014 Jun;355(2):177-84.
    PMID: 24828482 DOI: 10.1111/1574-6968.12469
    Isoprenoids are a large, diverse group of secondary metabolites which has recently raised a renewed research interest due to genetic engineering advances, allowing specific isoprenoids to be produced and characterized in heterologous hosts. Many researches on metabolic engineering of heterologous hosts for increased isoprenoid production are focussed on Escherichia coli and yeasts. E. coli, as most prokaryotes, use the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid production. Yeasts on the other hand, use the mevalonate pathway which is commonly found in eukaryotes. However, Lactococcus lactis is an attractive alternative host for heterologous isoprenoid production. Apart from being food-grade, this Gram-positive prokaryote uses the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production instead of the MEP pathway. Previous studies have shown that L. lactis is able to produce sesquiterpenes through heterologous expression of plant sesquiterpene synthases. In this work, we analysed the gene expression of the lactococcal mevalonate pathway through RT-qPCR to successfully engineer L. lactis as an efficient host for isoprenoid production. We then overexpressed the mvk gene singly or co-expressed with the mvaA gene as an attempt to increase β-sesquiphellandrene production in L. lactis. It was observed that co-expression of mvk with mvaA doubled the amount of β-sesquiphellandrene produced.
  3. Gan HM, Ibrahim Z, Shahir S, Yahya A
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2011 May;318(2):108-14.
    PMID: 21323982 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02245.x
    Genes involved in the 4-aminobenzenesulfonate (4-ABS) degradation pathway of Hydrogenophaga sp. PBC were identified using transposon mutagenesis. The screening of 10,000 mutants for incomplete 4-ABS biotransformation identified four mutants with single transposon insertion. Genes with insertions that impaired the ability to utilize 4-ABS for growth included (1) 4-sulfocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase β-subunit (pcaH2) and 3-sulfomuconate cycloisomerase involved in the modified β-ketoadipate pathway; (2) 4-aminobenzenesulfonate 3,4-dioxygenase component (sadA) involved in aromatic ring hydroxylation; and (3) transposase gene homolog with a putative cis-diol dehydrogenase gene located downstream. The pcaH2 mutant strain accumulated brown metabolite during growth on 4-ABS which was identified as 4-sulfocatechol through thin layer chromatography and HPLC analyses. Supplementation of wild-type sadA gene in trans restored the 4-ABS degradation ability of the sadA mutant, thus supporting the annotation of its disrupted gene.
  4. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Harmal NS, Sidik SM, Othman F, Sekawi Z, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2011 Feb;315(2):87-93.
    PMID: 21204918 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02170.x
    The efficacy of allicin compared with fluconazole in alleviating systemic Candida albicans infections was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo through a systemic candidiasis mouse model. Determination of in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for different C. albicans isolates revealed that both allicin and fluconazole showed different MICs that ranged from 0.05 to 12.5 μg mL(-1) and 0.25 to 16 μg mL(-1) , respectively. A time-kill study showed a significant effect of allicin (P<0.01) against C. albicans, comparable to that of fluconazole. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that, similar to fluconazole, allicin produced structural destruction of C. albicans cell surface at low MIC and lysis or puncture at high MIC concentrations. Treatment of BALB/c mice systemically infected with C. albicans showed that although the allicin treatment (at 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) was slightly less efficacious than fluconazole treatment in terms of the fungal load reduction and host survival time, it was still effective against C. albicans in terms of mean survival time, which increased from 8.4 to 15.8 days. These results demonstrate the efficacy of anticandidal effects of allicin both in vitro and in an animal model of candidiasis and affirm the potential of allicin as an adjuvant therapy to fluconazole.
  5. Abdelsalam M, Chen SC, Yoshida T
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2010 Aug 1;309(1):105-13.
    PMID: 20528946 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02024.x
    The Lancefield group C alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae (GCSD) causes systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease and high mortality rates in infected fish. Superantigen and streptolysin S genes are the most important virulence factors contributing to an invasive streptococcal infection. PCR amplification revealed that all strains isolated from moribund fish harbored the streptolysin S structural gene (sagA). GCSD fish isolates were PCR negative for emm, speA, speB, speC, speM, smeZ, and ssa. However, the size of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin G (spegg) locus, a superantigen, in positive S. dysgalactiae fish and pig strains was variable. The ORF of the spegg locus of 26 GCSD fish strains and one GCSD pig strain was inserted with IS981SC. Interestingly, the ORF of the spegg locus of two fish strains of GCSD collected in Malaysia was inserted with an IS981SC-IS1161 hybrid IS element. The hybrid IS element was found in all of the GCSD fish isolates and one GCSD pig through PCR screening. Although no insertion sequence (IS) was detected in the spegg locus of S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (GCSE) strains, a five-nucleotide deletion mutation was detected in the ORF of the spegg locus of one GCSE strain at the supposed site of IS981SC insertion, resulting in a frameshift mutation.
  6. Suppiah J, Thimma JS, Cheah SH, Vadivelu J
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2010 May;306(1):9-14.
    PMID: 20345378 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.01923.x
    Molecular-based techniques are becoming desirable as tools for identification of infectious diseases. Amongst the Burkholderia spp., there is a need to differentiate Burkholderia pseudomallei from Burkholderia cepacia, as misidentification could lead to false treatment of patients. In this study, conventional PCR assay targeting three genes was developed. Primers were designed for the amplification of Burkholderia genus-specific groEL gene, B. pseudomallei-specific mprA gene and B. cepacia-specific zmpA gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay was tested with 15 negative control strains and 71 Burkholderia spp. isolates including positive controls B. pseudomallei K96243 and ATCC B. cepacia strain. All B. pseudomallei strains were positive for groEL (139 bp) and mprA (162 bp), indicating a sensitivity of 100%. All B. cepacia strains produced amplicons for detection of groEL and zmpA (147 bp). Specificity using negative strains was 100%. In this study, a PCR assay specific for the detection of Burkholderia spp. and differentiation of the genus B. pseudomallei and B. cepacia was developed. The conventional assay has to be performed separately for each species due to the similar size of the PCR products amplified. This format may therefore be recommended for use as a diagnostic tool in laboratories where real-time PCR machines are not available. However, the real-time PCR was able to detect and differentiate the genus and species in single duplex assay.
  7. Abdelsalam M, Chen SC, Yoshida T
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2010 Jan;302(1):32-8.
    PMID: 19895643 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01828.x
    Lancefield group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging fish pathogen, which was first isolated in 2002 in Japan. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates collected from diseased fish in Japan (n=12), Taiwan (n=12), China (n=2), Malaysia (n=3), and Indonesia (n=1) were characterized using biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE), sodA gene sequence analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility. These isolates exhibited high phenotypic homogeneity irrespective of the countries from where the strains were collected. Seventeen isolates were found to be resistant to oxytetracycline and carried the tet(M) gene, except for the strains collected in Taiwan and the PP1564 strain collected in China. The sodA gene sequence analysis revealed that 23 isolates were identical, except for one Japanese isolate (KNH07902), in which a single nucleotide differed from that of the other isolates. Based on BSFGE typing by ApaI macrorestriction, the isolates - including the Japanese, Taiwanese, and Chinese isolates - could be grouped into one main cluster at a 70% similarity level. However, the macrorestriction genotypes of some isolates were apparently distinct from those of the main cluster.
  8. Lee CM, Sieo CC, Abdullah N, Ho YW
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2008 Oct;287(1):136-41.
    PMID: 18707622 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01305.x
    The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in 12 probiotic Lactobacillus strains of poultry origin were analyzed. Genomic DNA of the strains was digested with restriction endonucleases that do not cut within the 16S rRNA gene of the strains. This was followed by Southern hybridization with a biotinylated probe complementary to the 16S rRNA gene. The copy number of the 16S rRNA gene within a Lactobacillus species was found to be conserved. From the hybridization results, Lactobacillus salivarius I 24 was estimated to have seven copies of the 16S rRNA gene, Lactobacillus panis C 17 to have five copies and Lactobacillus gallinarum strains I 16 and I 26 four copies. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of L. gallinarum and L. panis reported in the present study are the first record. Lactobacillus brevis strains I 12, I 23, I 25, I 211, I 218 and Lactobacillus reuteri strains C 1, C 10, C 16 were estimated to have at least four copies of the 16S rRNA gene. In addition, distinct rRNA restriction patterns which could discriminate the strains of L. reuteri and L. gallinarum were also detected. Information on 16S rRNA gene copy number is important for physiological, evolutionary and population studies of the bacteria.
  9. Liew CW, Illias RM, Mahadi NM, Najimudin N
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2007 Nov;276(1):114-22.
    PMID: 17937670
    A Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene was isolated from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. G1. The full-length sequence of the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene was obtained using a genome walking method, and designated as g1-nhaC. An ORF preceded by a promoter-like sequence and a Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and followed by a terminator-like sequence was identified. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 535 amino acids, and a calculated molecular mass of 57 776 Da. g1-nhaC was subsequently cloned into pET22b(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Recombinant E. coli harboring the g1-nhaC gene was able to grow in modified L medium at various concentrations of NaCl (0.2-2.0 M) at different pH values. The recombinant bacteria grew well in the medium with concentrations of NaCl as high as 1.75 M at pH 8.0-9.0. Minimal growth was observed at 2.0 M NaCl, pH 8.0-9.0. At pH 10, the recombinant bacteria grew well in a medium with a low concentration of NaCl (0.2 M). These results suggested that the g1-NhaC antiporter from Bacillus sp. G1 plays a role in Na(+) extrusion at lower pH values and in pH homeostasis at pH 10 under Na(+)-limiting conditions.
  10. Zin NM, Sarmin NI, Ghadin N, Basri DF, Sidik NM, Hess WM, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2007 Sep;274(1):83-8.
    PMID: 17608698
    Three novel endophytic streptomycetes have been isolated and characterized from plants with ethnobotanical uses on the Malay Peninsula including: Thottea grandiflora (family -Aristolochiaceae), Polyalthia spp. (family -Annonaceae), and Mapania sp. (family -Cyperaceae). Each isolate, as studied by scanning electron microscopy, has small hyphae, and produces typical barrel-shaped spores arising by hyphal fragmentation. Interestingly, although none has any detectable antibacterial killing properties, each has demonstrable killing activity against one or more pathogenic fungi including organisms such as Phytophthora erythroseptica, Pythium ultimum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Rhizoctonia solani. Molecular biological studies on the rRNA gene sequence of each isolate revealed that it is distinct from all other genetic accessions of streptomyectes in GenBank, and each bears some genetic similarity to other streptomycetes. The bioactivity of each microbe was extractable in various organic solvents.
  11. Chutrakul C, Peberdy JF
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2005 Nov 15;252(2):257-65.
    PMID: 16214297
    Many species of Trichoderma have attracted interest as agents for the biological control of soil borne fungal pathogens of a range of crop plants. Research on the biochemical mechanisms associated with this application has focused on the ability of these fungi to produce enzymes which lyse fungal cell walls, and antifungal antibiotics. An important group of the latter are the non-ribosomal peptides called peptaibols. In this study Trichoderma asperellum, a strain used in biological control in Malaysia, was found to produce the peptaibol, trichotoxin. This type of peptide molecule is synthesised by a peptide synthetase (PES) enzyme template encoded by a peptide synthetase (pes) gene. Using nucleotide sequences amplified from adenylation (A-) domains as probes, to hybridise against a lambda FIXII genomic library from T. asperellum, 25 clones were recovered. These were subsequently identified as representative of four groups based on their encoding properties for specific amino acid incorporation modules in a PES. This was based on analysis of their amino acid sequences which showed up to 86% identity to other PESs including TEX 1.
  12. Looi CY, D' Silva EC, Seow HF, Rosli R, Ng KP, Chong PP
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2005 Aug 15;249(2):283-9.
    PMID: 16006060
    The aims of our research were to investigate the gene expression of the multidrug efflux transporter, CDR1 and the major drug facilitator superfamily transporter, MDR1 gene in azole drug-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical isolates recovered from vaginitis patients; and to identify hotspot mutations that may be present in the C. albicans CaCDR1 gene that could be associated with drug-resistance. The relative expression of the CDR1 and MDR1 transcripts in ketoconazole and clotrimazole-resistant isolates and drug-susceptible ATCC strains were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of CaCDR1 transcript was upregulated to varying extents in all three azole-resistant C. albicans isolates studied (1.6-, 3.7- and 3.9-fold) and all three C. glabrata isolates tested (at 1.9-, 2.3- and 2.7-fold). The overexpression level of CaCDR1 in the isolates correlated with the degree of resistance as reflected by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs. The messenger RNA for another efflux pump, MDR1, was also overexpressed in one of the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates that overexpressed CDR1. This finding suggests that drug-resistance may involve synergy between energy-dependent drug efflux pumps CDR1p and MDR1p in some but not all isolates. Interestingly, DNA sequence analysis of the promoter region of the CaCDR1 gene revealed several point mutations in the resistant clinical isolates compared to the susceptible isolates at 39, 49 and 151 nucleotides upstream from the ATG start codon. This finding provides new information on point mutations in the promoter region which may be responsible for the overexpression of CDR1 in drug-resistant isolates.
  13. Bilung LM, Radu S, Bahaman AR, Rahim RA, Napis S, Ling MW, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2005 Nov 1;252(1):85-8.
    PMID: 16216442
    This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in cockles (Anadara granosa) at a harvesting area and to detect the presence of virulent strains carrying the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and TDH-related hemolysin genes (trh) using PCR. Of 100 samples, 62 were positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus with an MPN (most probable number) value greater than 3.0 (>1100 MPN per g). The PCR analysis revealed 2 samples to be positive for the tdh gene and 11 to be positive for the trh gene. Hence, these results demonstrate the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in cockles harvested in the study area and reveal the potential risk of illness associated with their consumption.
  14. Akinsanya MA, Goh JK, Lim SP, Ting AS
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2015 Dec;362(23):fnv184.
    PMID: 26454221 DOI: 10.1093/femsle/fnv184
    Twenty-nine culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues (root, stem and leaf) of Aloe vera and molecularly characterized to 13 genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Aeromonas, Providencia, Cedecea, Klebsiella, Cronobacter, Macrococcus and Shigella. The dominant genera include Bacillus (20.7%), Pseudomonas (20.7%) and Enterobacter (13.8%). The crude and ethyl acetate fractions of the metabolites of six isolates, species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium and Shigella, have broad spectral antimicrobial activities against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans, with inhibition zones ranging from 6.0 ± 0.57 to 16.6 ± 0.57 mm. In addition, 80% of the bacterial endophytes produced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with scavenging properties of over 75% when their crude metabolites were compared with ascorbic acid (92%). In conclusion, this study revealed for the first time the endophytic bacteria communities from A. vera (Pseudomonas hibiscicola, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter ludwigii, Bacillus anthracis) that produce bioactive compounds with high DPPH scavenging properties (75-88%) and (Bacillus tequilensis, Pseudomonas entomophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Bacillus aerophilus) that produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens. Hence, we suggest further investigation and characterization of their bioactive compounds.
  15. Nicolas L, Charles JF, de Barjac H
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1993 Oct 01;113(1):23-8.
    PMID: 8243978
    The toxicity of Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia to mosquito larvae is due to protein toxins, belonging to a novel class of insecticidal toxins. Toxic extracts contains three major proteins of 66, 18 and 16 kDa. The 18-kDa and 16-kDa proteins are probably involved in toxicity. They are synthesised during sporulation, concomitant with activity. They are absent from non-toxic strains of C. bifermentans and are present at very low levels in non-toxic C. bifermentans serovar malaysia cultures produced at 42 degrees C. The 66-kDa protein is present throughout the growth phases of C. bifermentans serovar malaysia, and an immunologically related 66-kDa protein is present in non-toxic C. bifermentans strains.
  16. Kim YB, Okuda J, Matsumoto C, Morigaki T, Asai N, Watanabe H, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1998 Sep 01;166(1):43-8.
    PMID: 9741083
    Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) at Pusan University Hospital, South Korea, between 1990 and 1996 were examined for traits of the O157:H7 serogroup. One strain isolated from a patient with HUS belonged to the O157:H7 serotype, possessed a 60-MDa plasmid, the eae gene, and ability to produce Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2. Arbitrarily primed PCR analysis suggested that this strain is genetically very close to a O157:H7 strain isolated in Japan.
  17. Ansary A, Radu S
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1992 Mar 01;70(2):125-8.
    PMID: 1587459
    Six Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates were examined for the occurrence of plasmids in association with antibiotic resistances as well as conjugal transfer. All the isolates were found to carry three similar plasmids of 78 kb, 12.6 kb and 3.3 kb in size. Multiple resistance to at least three of the antibiotics tested was observed with resistance to tetracycline most common. En bloc transfer of donor resistances at frequencies ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-4) were seen in all but one of the isolates during conjugation. The conjugal transfer of erythromycin, neomycin and streptomycin were observed to occur at frequencies similar to that of chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. In isolate ABA94, three different antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the transconjugants were seen. In addition to en bloc transfer of the donor resistances, in approximately 10% of the transconjugants the streptomycin resistance was lost although these transconjugants carried the donor complement of three plasmids. In a further 1% of the transconjugants, resistance to kanamycin only was detected and these transconjugants did not carry any plasmids.
  18. Wong MV, Ho YW, Tan SG, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1995 Dec 01;134(1):9-14.
    PMID: 8593960
    Isolates of anaerobic fungi obtained from the rumen, duodenum and faeces of sheep were identified as Piromyces mae based on their morphological characteristics observed using light microscopy. There was no significant morphological variation among the isolates of P. mae from the rumen, duodenum and faeces. Isozymes of 12 isolates of P. mae (one each from the rumen, duodenum and faeces from 4 different sheep) were analysed by PAGE. A total of 12 isozymes were studied and 5 isozyme loci were successfully typed. They were malic enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, shikimate dehydrogenase, alpha-esterase and beta-esterase. All the isolates of P. mae regardless of whether they were from the rumen, duodenum or faeces or from different animals produced very similar isozyme banding patterns for each of the enzyme systems. The similar isozyme profiles of the isolates indicate that they are of the same species although they exist in different regions of the alimentary tract.
  19. Radu S, Elhadi N, Hassan Z, Rusul G, Lihan S, Fifadara N, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 1998 Aug 01;165(1):139-43.
    PMID: 9711850
    Antibiotic susceptibility, plasmid profiles and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to study strains of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles (Anadara granosa). Thirty-six isolates were analyzed. The prevalent biotypes were 1 (72.2% of the isolates) and 2 (27.8%). Among these, 21 strains of biotype 1 and two strains of biotype 2 contained plasmid DNA bands ranging in size from 1.4 to 9.7 MDa. Thirty-one (83.3%) were found to be resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested, however no specific correlation between antimicrobial resistance patterns and a single biotype was found. In addition, no particular plasmid profile was predictive of a particular pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. Two primers produced polymorphisms in all strains tested, producing bands ranging from 0.25 to 2.7 kb, indicating a high variability among both biotype 1 and biotype 2 of the V. vulnificus strains investigated. RAPD identity across biotypes was also observed among Vibrio vulnificus strains.
  20. Yan CZY, Austin CM, Ayub Q, Rahman S, Gan HM
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2019 09 01;366(17).
    PMID: 31589302 DOI: 10.1093/femsle/fnz211
    The Malaysian and global shrimp aquaculture production has been significantly impacted by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) typically caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus harboring the pVA plasmid containing the pirAVp and pirBVp genes, which code for Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxin. The limited genomic resource for V. parahaemolyticus strains from Malaysian aquaculture farms precludes an in-depth understanding of their diversity and evolutionary relationships. In this study, we isolated shrimp-associated and environmental (rearing water) V. parahaemolyticus from three aquaculture farms located in Northern and Central Malaysia followed by whole-genome sequencing of 40 randomly selected isolates on the Illumina MiSeq. Phylogenomic analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) reveal distinct lineages of V. parahaemolyticus that harbor the pirABVp genes. The recovery of pVA plasmid backbone devoid of pirAVp or pirABVp in some V. parahaemolyticus isolates suggests that the toxin genes are prone to deletion. The new insight gained from phylogenomic analysis of Asian V. parahaemolyticus, in addition to the observed genomic instability of pVa plasmid, will have implications for improvements in aquaculture practices to diagnose, treat or limit the impacts of this disease.
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