Renal angiomyolipoma, once considered a rare benign renal tumour, is relatively common these days. They account for 0.3-3.0% of all renal masses. Histologically, it is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscles and blood vessels. Here, we wish to highlight five cases of renal angiomyolipomas which were presented to the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a two-year period between June 2005 and June 2007. This study wish to illustrate its varied clinical presentation and the management undertaken for each underlying condition. These cases were presented in the form of spontaneous perirenal haemorrhage, a large asymptomatic renal mass, a small asymptomatic renal mass, a symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma and a case of renal angiomyolipoma mimicking a renal tumour. Each of these cases varied in its clinical presentation; thus, management has become very challenging to clinicians ranging from conservative management to active intervention, be it operatively or non-operatively.
Male factor infertility which accounts for 30-50% of infertility is a major problem faced by married couples. Congenital absence of the vas deferens, though uncommon, remains the most common abnormality seen in extratesticular ductal and ejaculatory system, accounting for 1-2% of male infertility. It may be unilateral or bilateral. Association with renal abnormality has also been reported with congenital absence of vas deferens (1). The patients are asymptomatic and the congenital abnormality is usually detected when investigation for infertility is carried out. We present a case of an unusual presentation of congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD).
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, although is less invasive than open surgery, is not completely pain free. The use of local anaesthesia to relieve pain following this procedure is a common practice. However, it remains debatable whether a pre- or post-operative drug administration is more effective. Here, we investigated the role of preemptive local anaesthetic infiltration given pre- or post-incisional, in relieving the pain during laparoscopic surgery.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 96 patients receiving 0.5% Bupivacaine 100mg. Group A (n=48) received post-incisional skin infiltration whilst Group B (n=48) received pre-incisional infiltration. Incisional (somatic) and intra-abdominal (visceral) pain was assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operative days.
Baseline characteristics between the two groups were similar. Incisional pain was lower in Group B as compared to Group A at day 0 (P=0.03) and day 1 (P0.05).
Administration of pre-incisional local anaesthesia offers better pre-emptive pain relief measure than post-incisional administration by reducing somatic and visceral pain in laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.