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  1. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:254152.
    PMID: 26413512 DOI: 10.1155/2015/254152
    To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins.
  2. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  3. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Apr;15(2):156-60.
    PMID: 27090369
    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  4. Misnan R, Salahudin Abd Aziz N, Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Aug;15(4):309-316.
    PMID: 27921412
    Snail is one of the worst causes of food allergy. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major and minor allergens of the local marine snail (Cerithidea obtusa) and subsequently to investigate the impacts of heat treatment on the IgE-binding activity of snail allergens. Proteins from raw and heat-treated snails (boiled, roasted and fried) were extracted and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoblotting of all extracts were then performed using sera from patients with snail allergy. The results showed that the raw extract contains numerous protein bands between 12 to>250 kDa. Some thermostable proteins, predominantly the 33 and 42 kDa bands, remained detected in all cooked extracts with decreasing intensities from boiled to roasted to fried extracts, while the majority of thermolabile bands denatured after heating. Boiled snail had more protein bands compared to roasted and fried snails. Immunoblotting of raw extract demostrated 19 IgE-binding bands ranging from 15 to 240 kDa. The thermostable bands of 33 and 42 kDa and a thermolabile of 30 kDa band were identified as the major allergens of this snail. The cooked extracts yielded less allergenic bands. The boiled extract yielded approximately 14 IgE-binding bands with some smeared bands at high molecular weight regions. The roasted extract had lesser IgE-binding bands and the majority appeared as smears, while the IgE-reactivity in the fried extract was less visible and appeared as weak smears. This study indicated that both raw and cooked snails played a crucial role in snail allergenicity, as this species of snail contains both thermostable and thermolabile major allergens. The degree of snail allergenicity was revealed in the order: raw> boiled > roasted> fried. Thus, the results would facilitate in the development of effective diagnosis and management strategies of snail allergy in this country.
  5. Lee HL, Tang MM, Bakhtiar MF, Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Johar A
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2021;182(2):153-157.
    PMID: 32927463 DOI: 10.1159/000510314
    BACKGROUND: Seafood is an important source of nutrition in Asia. However, it was believed to cause or aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD).

    OBJECTIVES: We aim to determine relevant seafood sensitization among adults with AD and investigate cross-sensitization to aeroallergens.

    METHODS: One hundred thirty-two adults with AD who were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) with 7 common local seafood allergens (anchovy, tuna, mackerel, squid, giant freshwater prawn, shrimp, and crab), house dust mites (HDMs), and cockroach were analyzed retrospectively.

    RESULTS: The median age of the study subjects was 32 years (range 17-77 years) with a male to female ratio of 1:3. The mean duration of AD was 16 years. Eighty-two patients (62.2%) had other atopic conditions. Using SCORAD, 44.7% had mild, 42.4% moderate, and 12.9% severe disease. Eighty-six patients (65.2%) self-reported to have seafood allergy, with the main symptoms of transient pruritus and erythema within 2 h of ingestion. SPT revealed 51.5% of the patients were sensitized to at least 1 of the 7 seafood allergens. The relevant sensitization rate was 45.1%. Interestingly, 46% of those without a history of seafood allergy developed at least 1 positive reaction in the SPT. Prawn, shrimp, and crab were the 3 most frequently sensitized allergens. Nearly all patients (98.3%) who were sensitized to crustaceans were also sensitized to HDMs and/or cockroach. There was no significant correlation between a positive SPT to seafood with age, age of onset of AD, duration, and severity of AD, and the presence of other atopic diatheses.

    CONCLUSION: The relevant sensitization rate of local seafood among adults with AD was 45.1%.

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