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  1. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Meinir J, Masita A, Noormalin A, Jamaluddin M
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2013;162(4):299-309.
    PMID: 24193115 DOI: 10.1159/000354544
    The longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) is widely consumed in Asia. Parvalbumin, the main major allergen of fish, has been well identified in multiple fish species, yet little is known about the allergenic proteins in T. tonggol. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the major allergens of T. tonggol using a proteomics approach.
  2. Greaves MW, Hussein SH
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2002 May;128(1):1-7.
    PMID: 12037395 DOI: 10.1159/000057997
    A careful drug history should be obtained from all patients with acute or chronic urticaria/angioedema, especially in the elderly. Although strictly comparable data are lacking, drug-induced urticaria appears to be more common in developed countries than in Malaysia, at least in a Hospital setting. Culprit drugs include antibiotics, analgesics and contrast media. Pseudoallergic drug-induced urticaria mimicks true allergic urticaria, but without an evident immunological basis, and is at least as common as the allergic type. In Malaysia, and in many other countries compulsory, ingredient labelling of 'traditional' medicines would do much to reduce the frequency of drug-induced urticaria.
  3. Greaves MW
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2002 Jan;127(1):3-9.
    PMID: 11893848 DOI: 10.1159/000048163
    Chronic urticaria includes several different subsets with distinct pathophysiologies, and with important implications for investigation and treatment. Chronic 'idiopathic' urticaria represents a special challenge, which, until recently, was not taken up by dermatological or immunological investigators. However, it has now emerged that at least 30% of patients possess histamine-releasing autoantibodies against Fc epsilon R1, or less commonly IgE itself. These autoantibodies are causative. Recent work implicates complement activation in most cases. Functional (i.e. histamine releasing) autoantibodies are specific to chronic urticaria. However, immunoreactive (non-histamine-releasing) anti-Fc epsilon R1 autoantibodies can be found in sera of patients with physical urticarias and with autoimmune connective tissue and bullous diseases. The reason for the occurrence of this disease type in some individuals but not others is unclear. One possibility is the development, in genetically predisposed persons, of autoantibodies by molecular mimicry - perhaps against lipopolysaccharide of Helicobacter pylori, an organism frequently infecting the upper gastrointestinal tract of chronic urticaria patients.
  4. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
  5. Wang Y, Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, et al.
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2018;177(1):69-79.
    PMID: 29874659 DOI: 10.1159/000489015
    BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are common and little studied in the Asia-Pacific region.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate real-world practice patterns for these respiratory diseases in India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study enrolled adults (age ≥18 years) presenting to general practitioners (GP) or specialists for physician-diagnosed AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis. Physicians and patients completed study-specific surveys at one visit, recording patient characteristics, health-related quality of life (QoL), work impairment, and healthcare resource use. Findings by country and physician category (GP or specialist) were summarized.

    RESULTS: Of the 13,902 patients screened, 7,243 (52%) presented with AR (18%), asthma (18%), COPD (7%), or rhinosinusitis (9%); 5,250 of the 7,243 (72%) patients were eligible for this study. Most eligible patients (70-100%) in India, Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore attended GP, while most (83-85%) in Taiwan and Thailand attended specialists. From 42% (rhinosinusitis) to 67% (AR) of new diagnoses were made by GP. On average, patients with COPD reported the worst health-related QoL, particularly to GP. Median losses of work productivity for each condition and activity impairment, except for asthma, were numerically greater for patients presenting to GP vs. specialists. GP prescribed more antibiotics for AR and asthma, and fewer intranasal corticosteroids for AR, than specialists (p < 0.001 for all comparisons).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, albeit mostly descriptive and influenced by between-country differences, suggest that practice patterns differ between physician types, and the disease burden may be substantial for patients presenting in general practice.
  6. Lee HL, Tang MM, Bakhtiar MF, Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Johar A
    PMID: 32927463 DOI: 10.1159/000510314
    BACKGROUND: Seafood is an important source of nutrition in Asia. However, it was believed to cause or aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD).

    OBJECTIVES: We aim to determine relevant seafood sensitization among adults with AD and investigate cross-sensitization to aeroallergens.

    METHODS: One hundred thirty-two adults with AD who were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) with 7 common local seafood allergens (anchovy, tuna, mackerel, squid, giant freshwater prawn, shrimp, and crab), house dust mites (HDMs), and cockroach were analyzed retrospectively.

    RESULTS: The median age of the study subjects was 32 years (range 17-77 years) with a male to female ratio of 1:3. The mean duration of AD was 16 years. Eighty-two patients (62.2%) had other atopic conditions. Using SCORAD, 44.7% had mild, 42.4% moderate, and 12.9% severe disease. Eighty-six patients (65.2%) self-reported to have seafood allergy, with the main symptoms of transient pruritus and erythema within 2 h of ingestion. SPT revealed 51.5% of the patients were sensitized to at least 1 of the 7 seafood allergens. The relevant sensitization rate was 45.1%. Interestingly, 46% of those without a history of seafood allergy developed at least 1 positive reaction in the SPT. Prawn, shrimp, and crab were the 3 most frequently sensitized allergens. Nearly all patients (98.3%) who were sensitized to crustaceans were also sensitized to HDMs and/or cockroach. There was no significant correlation between a positive SPT to seafood with age, age of onset of AD, duration, and severity of AD, and the presence of other atopic diatheses.

    CONCLUSION: The relevant sensitization rate of local seafood among adults with AD was 45.1%.

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