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  1. Norhayati H, Mohd Khan Ayob
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1333-1344.
    Prebiotic, such as inulin, has been applied as functional food and known for its various health benefit effects such as increased mineral absorption, improved immune response and colorectal cancer prevention. An attempt was made to determine the level of Malaysian consumers’ acceptance and market potential of newly developed pilot scale prebiotic milk chocolates (MC-1) and dark chocolates (DC-1) with no sugar added as compared to control milk and dark chocolate (containing sugar), MC-0 and DC-0, respectively. Trained panels were employed to evaluate the sensory quality of the chocolate products using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) technique and the 7-point hedonic scale was used by consumer panels. In comparison with control milk chocolate (MC-0), consumer and trained panels gave better (p<0.05) overall acceptance score for MC-1. Both MC-1 and DC-1 showed similar smoothness attribute (p>0.05) as control chocolates (MC-0 and DC-0). Similar likeness were shown by both trained panels and untrained Malaysian public consumers, where prebiotic milk chocolate MC-1 was the most preferred compare to prebiotic dark chocolate DC-1. This could be due to bitter taste driven by high cocoa liquor content in dark chocolate compared to milk chocolate. However, both type of prebiotic chocolates have high potential (>70%) to be bought by Malaysian consumers once introduced in the market.
  2. Norhayati Hussain, Muhammad Anas Othaman, Mohd Khan Ayob
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1223-1231.
    Coklat adalah salah satu daripada makanan pembekal tenaga segera dan mempunyai kandungan antioksida yang tinggi. Dalam kajian ini, fungsi coklat telah ditingkatkan dengan menjadikannya sebagai pembawa bahan prebiotik melalui penukaran keseluruhan kandungan gula dengan inulin. Ujian awal telah dilakukan untuk memilih kepekatan atau dos inulin yang paling sesuai sebagai sumber karbon untuk merangsang pertumbuhan bifidobakteria dalam fermentasi kultur kelompok selama 24 jam dengan menilai kesannya terhadap perubahan kepekatan sel. Ujian dilakukan terhadap 4 strain bifidobakteria iaitu Bifidobacterium longum BB536, B. breve ATCC 15700, B. infantis ATCC 15697 dan B. pseudocatenulatum G4. Keputusan menunjukkan kesemua strain bifidobakteria mampu menggunakan inulin sebagai sumber karbon pada kepekatan 2, 5, 10 hinggalah 15 g/L inulin. Manakala kepekatan 5 g/L inulin dilihat mampu digunakan secara optimum (tiada perbezaan signifikan pada p>0.05) oleh keempat-empat spesies bifidobakteria tersebut. Inulin pada kepekatan 5 g/L telah digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk coklat susu (MC-1) dan coklat gelap (DC-2) berinulin, yang seterusnya dinilai kemampuan produk merangsang pertumbuhan spesis bifidobakteria berkenaan secara in vitro. Didapati wujud korelasi negatif yang signifikan (p<0.01) antara pertambahan bilangan bifidobakteria dan pH untuk setiap kultur tulen B. pseudocatenulatum G4, B. Infantis, B. Breve (masing-masing r= -0.97) dan B. longum BB536 (r= -0.95). Inulin dengan kepekatan 5 g/L telah digunakan sebagai ramuan produk coklat berinulin atau prebiotik. Ia didapati dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan keempat-empat spesis bifidobakteria berkenaan dengan lebih berkesan berbanding penggunaan inulin sahaja sebagai sumber karbon.
  3. Desmelati, Mohd Khan Ayob, Aminah Abdullah, Abdul Salam Babji
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1123-1127.
    Sebanyak 6 jenis sampel nuget ikan komersial yang dipasarkan di Malaysia telah ditentukan komposisi proksimat (kandungan air, protein, lemak, abu dan karbohidrat), warna, kehilangan memasak, keupayaan memegang air, aktiviti air dan pH. Hasil analisis menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan bererti (p<0.05) bagi komposisi proksimat dan ciri-ciri warna, kehilangan memasak dan keupayaan memegang air. Kandungan air, protein, lemak, abu dan karbohidrat masing-masing berada dalam julat 58.97-64.58%, 9.30-11.60%, 0.14-5.23%, 1.95-2.84% dan 22.81-23.69%. Nilai L*, a* dan b* bagi warna, masing-masing adalah antara 49.72-56.80, 16.64-19.57 dan 38.40-59.58. Walau bagaimanapun tiada perbezaan yang bererti (p>0.05)untuk nilai aktiviti air dan pH antara sampel nuget ikan.
  4. Rita Hayati, Aminah Abdullah, Mohd Khan Ayob, Soekarto ST
    Sains Malaysiana, 2006;35:83-87.
    Kajian terhadap kesan suhu pengeringan (50, 60, 70oC) dan kepekatan garam (3, 5, 7%) terhadap kualiti ikan tongkol (Euthynnus affinis) telah dilakukan. Analisis kandungan proksimat menunjukkan nilai yang berbeza secara bererti (p<0.05), terutama kandungan protein (76.66%) ikan yang dikering pada suhu 50°C. Pengeringan pada suhu dan kepekatan garam yang tinggi cenderung untuk menghasilkan ikan tongkol kering dengan wama yang agak gelap (72.39). Ikon tongkol kering memiliki keupayaan memegang air yang rendah iaitu antara 3.43-3.66 ml/g sampel. Aktiviti air (aw) ikon tongkol yang hanya mencapai 0.76 atau kurang, merupakan tahap yang paling baik untuk tujuan penyimpanan, dan dapat mengawal pertumbuhan mikroorganisma, merencat aktiviti enzim dan memenuhi keperluan pembungkusan.
  5. Norazlanshah Hazali, Azizah Mohamed, Muhammad Ibrahim, Mashita Masri, Fazlyla Nadya Mohd Fadzlan, Khairil Anuar Md Isa, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:649-654.
    Previously, researchers had initiated investigation to find an alternative drug that can treat diabetes mellitus without dragging patients into more complicated health problems. After many studies, they found a new and high potential plant-based drug named stevia that is able to reduce diabetic patients’ blood glucose. This study aimed to determine the effect of stevia on blood glucose of healthy subjects. The study was carried out by comparing the glycemic response between sucrose and stevia (500 and 1000 mg) among 32 subjects aged between 18 and 23 years old. Subjects were required to fast 8 to 10 h prior to each test which was done on different days. Finger prick test were done on 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min to construct a blood sugar response curve for 2 h period. There is a significant difference between the glycemic response of sucrose and stevia 500 mg. Sucrose significantly increased the post prandial blood glucose while stevia 500 mg reduced blood glucose after 30 min of consumption. Sucrose also produced higher glycemic response at min-30 when compared with stevia 1000 mg. There is no significant difference between the glycemic response of stevia of different dose, 500 and 1000 mg. No dose-dependent effect was observed in this study. In conclusion, stevia does not raise blood glucose significantly when consumed in short period. Stevia is effective to be used by healthy people to maintain blood glucose even when consumed in short length of time.
  6. Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Darina Ibrahim, Muhammad Ibrahim, Norazlanshah Hazali, Mohammad Nor Adros Yahya, Norazmir Md Nor, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:129-134.
    Baccaurea angulata or locally known as ‘belimbing dayak’ or ‘belimbing hutan’ is an underutilized fruit indigenous to Borneo with its proximate analysis and antioxidant values are yet to be explored. Proximate analysis and antioxidative properties of oven-dried B. angulata fruits of three fractions; whole fruit, skins and berries were evaluated. From the analysis conducted, whole fruit, berries and skins fraction of B. angulata contained 2.83%, 5.15% and 0.28% of total fat; 3.11%, 3.43% and 3.89% of protein; 16.66%, 19.09% and 11.37% of moisture; 4.57%, 3.68% and 7.28% of total ash and water activity (Aw) of 0.41, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox/ABTS equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the skins fraction exhibits highest antioxidant activities (p<0.05) followed by whole fruit and berries fractions. The antioxidant activities were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with total phenolic and total flavonoid content but not to anthocyanins. Considering the nutritional values it contained, B. angulata is another good source of natural antioxidants with significant health benefits and high value for commercialization.
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