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  1. Aye MTH, Naing T, Myint KT
    BMJ Case Rep, 2018 Sep 05;2018.
    PMID: 30185451 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-225040
    We report a case of a 70-year-old farmer admitted for viper bite who presented with bilateral hyphema and angle closure attack. He was managed conservatively with topical steroids and cycloplegics. He responded well and was discharged after 2 weeks.
  2. Sahoo S, Myint KT, Soe HH, Singh S
    PMID: 26107029 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0b013e3182a6481a
    PURPOSE: One of the major challenges lies in the use of strategies to assess students working in small groups. The assessment by tutors and peers, and self-assessment by students appear to be integral parts of problem-based-learning (PBL) tutorials. Our study aimed to analyze the formative assessment scores by students themselves, their tutor and peers during undergraduate ophthalmology tutorials.
    DESIGN: A cross sectional study.
    METHODS: One hundred undergraduate students' self-assessment made during ophthalmology PBL tutorials were compared with that made by their tutor and student peers. At the end of every session, each student and student peers were given an assessment form dealing with criteria like responsibility, information processing, communication, critical analysis and self-awareness. The questionnaires were filled using the 5-point Likert scale. The tutor's assessment was made using the same criteria.
    RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between self-assessment and tutor assessment in regard to participation in PBL session (P = 0.01), punctuality for each session (P ≤ 0.001) and bring new information (P = 0.001). There was a positive correlation between self-assessment and peer assessment regarding active participation (P = 0.02) and bringing new information (P = 0.003). However, there was no significant correlation between the overall scores given by selves and those by peers and the tutor.
    CONCLUSIONS: Students tended to overrate themselves. The self-assessment scores were generally higher than those given by their tutor and peers. To foster evidence-based practice of ophthalmology, the information acquisition skills need to be improved.
  3. Ni H, Moe S, Myint KT, Htet A
    ISRN Rheumatol, 2013;2013:357904.
    PMID: 23970975 DOI: 10.1155/2013/357904
    Since the introduction of immune modulators in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there has been hope that orally effective biologic agents would be developed. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, has become the first oral biologic to receive approval for use in active RA patients. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety profile of Tofacitinib at dosages of 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily. Remarkable improvement in terms of ACR 20 response and HAQ-DI score was noted at month 3 and month 6. DAS 28-4 ESR < 2.6 achievement was noticeably obvious at month 6 for both dosages. No significant serious adverse events, serious infections, neutropenia, or anaemia were observed compared to placebo. In fact, Tofacitinib 5 mg was even found to have significant protective effect of anaemia in the meta-analysis (P = 0.004). Tofacitinib has a noticeable efficacy in controlling disease activity in RA with a manageable safety profile. However, longer studies are needed for its long-term safety profile.
  4. Myint KT, Sahoo S, Thein AW, Moe S, Ni H
    PMID: 26451693 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010790.pub2
    Sickle cell disease includes a group of inherited haemoglobinopathies affecting multiple organs including the eyes. Some people with the disease develop ocular manifestations due to vaso-occlusion. Vision-threatening complications of sickle cell disease are mainly due to proliferative sickle retinopathy which is characterized by proliferation of new blood vessels. Laser photocoagulation is widely applicable in proliferative retinopathies such as proliferative sickle retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. It is important to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser photocoagulation in the treatment of proliferative sickle retinopathy to prevent sight-threatening complications.
  5. Sahoo S, Venkatesan P, Myint KT, Moe S
    PMID: 26065348 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000094
    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the attitude of peer tutors (PTs) toward peer-assisted learning (PAL) and to explore the perceived benefits of PAL by PTs and peer learners (PLs).
    DESIGN: A qualitative and quantitative research study.
    METHODS: This study involved fourth-year medical undergraduates during their clinical posting in ophthalmology. One PAL session was conducted in each of the 4-week clinical postings. Peer tutors were selected during the first week and were briefed on PAL. Premultiple and postmultiple choice questions were distributed to PLs before and after each PAL session. One focus group discussion was conducted with PLs to explore their perception. Peer tutors were requested to give feedback in the form of structured Likert scale statements with 2 open-ended questions.
    RESULTS: A total of 104 students, 6 PTs and 98 PLs, participated in this study. Both tutor and learner groups expressed positive attitudes toward PAL. Peer learners preferred having PAL in a clinical setting. There were some issues related with PAL that emerged from both groups. Success in PAL depends on the teaching ability of PTs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Students have positive perceptions toward PAL. Most of the students believed PAL was beneficial to them.
  6. Ni H, Moe S, Soe Z, Myint KT, Viswanathan KN
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 Dec 11;12:CD011594.
    PMID: 30536566 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011594.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Several dual bronchodilator combinations of long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have been approved for treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) recommendations suggest the use of LABA/LAMA combinations in people with group B COPD with persistent symptoms, group C COPD with further exacerbations on LAMA therapy alone and group D COPD with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Fixed-dose combination (FDC) of aclidinium/formoterol is one of the approved LABA/LAMA therapies for people with stable COPD.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of combined aclidinium bromide and long-acting beta2-agonists in stable COPD.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturers' websites as well as the reference list of published trials up to 12 October 2018.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing combined aclidinium bromide and LABAs in people with stable COPD.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane for data collection and analysis. The primary outcomes were exacerbations requiring a short course of an oral steroid or antibiotic, or both; quality of life measured by a validated scale and non-fatal serious adverse events (SAEs). Where the outcome or study details were not reported, we contacted the study investigators or pharmaceutical company trial co-ordinators (or both) for missing data.

    MAIN RESULTS: We identified RCTs comparing aclidinium/formoterol FDC versus aclidinium, formoterol or placebo only. We included seven multicentre trials of four to 52 weeks' duration conducted in outpatient settings. There were 5921 participants, whose mean age ranged from 60.7 to 64.7 years, mostly men with a mean smoking pack-years of 46.4 to 61.3 of which 43.9% to 63.4% were current smokers. They had a moderate-to-severe degree of COPD with a mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) between 50.5% and 61% of predicted normal and the baseline mean FEV1 of 1.23 L to 1.43 L. We assessed performance and detection biases as low for all studies whereas selection, attrition and reporting biases were either low or unclear.FDC versus aclidiniumThere was no evidence of a difference between FDC and aclidinium for exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.27; 2 trials, 2156 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); quality of life measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (MD -0.92, 95% CI -2.15 to 0.30); participants with significant improvement in SGRQ score (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.41; 2 trials, 2002 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); non-fatal SAE (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.80; 3 trials, 2473 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); hospital admissions due to severe exacerbations (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.29; 2 trials, 2156 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) or adverse events (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.18; 3 trials, 2473 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared with aclidinium, FDC improved symptoms (Transitional Dyspnoea Index (TDI) focal score: MD 0.37, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.68; 2 trials, 2013 participants) with a higher chance of achieving a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of at least one unit improvement (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.62; high-certainty evidence); the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) being 14 (95% CI 9 to 39).FDC versus formoterolWhen compared to formoterol, combination therapy reduced exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99; 3 trials, 2694 participants; high-certainty evidence); may decrease SGRQ total score (MD -1.88, 95% CI -3.10 to -0.65; 2 trials, 2002 participants; low-certainty evidence; MCID for SGRQ is 4 units); increased TDI focal score (MD 0.42, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.72; 2 trials, 2010 participants) with more participants attaining an MCID (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.56; high-certainty evidence) and an NNTB of 16 (95% CI 10 to 60). FDC lowered the risk of adverse events compared to formoterol (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.93; 5 trials, 3140 participants; high-certainty evidence; NNTB 22). However, there was no difference between FDC and formoterol for hospital admissions, all-cause mortality and non-fatal SAEs.FDC versus placeboCompared with placebo, FDC demonstrated no evidence of a difference in exacerbations requiring steroids or antibiotics, or both (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.12; 2 trials, 1960 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) or hospital admissions due to severe exacerbations (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.18; 2 trials, 1960 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), although estimates were uncertain. Quality of life measure by SGRQ total score was significantly better with FDC compared to placebo (MD -2.91, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.50; 2 trials, 1823 participants) resulting in a corresponding increase in SGRQ responders who achieved at least four units decrease in SGRQ total score (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.13; high-certainty evidence) with an NNTB of 7 (95% CI 5 to 12). FDC also improved symptoms measured by TDI focal score (MD 1.32, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69; 2 studies, 1832 participants) with more participants attaining at least one unit improvement in TDI focal score (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.11; high-certainty evidence; NNTB 4). There were no differences in non-fatal SAEs, adverse events and all-cause mortality between FDC and placebo.Combination therapy significantly improved trough FEV1 compared to aclidinium, formoterol or placebo.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: FDC improved dyspnoea and lung function compared to aclidinium, formoterol or placebo, and this translated into an increase in the number of responders on combination treatment. Quality of life was better with combination compared to formoterol or placebo. There was no evidence of a difference between FDC and monotherapy or placebo for exacerbations, hospital admissions, mortality, non-fatal SAEs or adverse events. Studies reported a lower risk of moderate exacerbations and adverse events with FDC compared to formoterol; however, larger studies would yield a more precise estimate for these outcomes.

  7. Sahoo S, Barua A, Myint KT, Haq A, Abas AB, Nair NS
    PMID: 25686158 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010009.pub2
    Diabetic cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a condition which involves fluid accumulation in the inner portion of the retina. It often follows changes in retinal blood vessels which enhance the fluid to come out of vessels. Although it may be asymptomatic, symptoms are primarily painless loss of central vision, often with the complaint of seeing black spots in front of the eye.It is reported that CMO may resolve spontaneously, or fluctuate for months, before causing loss of vision. If left untreated or undiagnosed, progression of CMO may lead to permanent visual loss.It has been noted that patients with diabetic retinopathy have elevated inflammatory markers, and therefore it is likely that inflammation aids in the progression of vascular disease in these patients. Several topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketorolac 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%, have therefore also been used topically to treat chronic diabetic CMO. Hence this review was conducted to find out the effects of topical NSAIDs in diabetic CMO.
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