Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of inflammatory conditions that include spondylitis, sacroiliitis, asymmetrical peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. This condition is known as juvenile SpA when the diagnosis is made in patients up to 16 years of age. Enthesitis is a highly specific feature that occurs more often in juvenile SpA than in the adult form. In contrast to adult onset SpA, the initial manifestation of juvenile SpA rarely presents as inflammatory back pain. Peripheral arthritis is the more common presenting feature. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a 1-year history of progressive low back pain, gluteal pain and thigh pain. There were no clinical symptoms of arthropathy of the distal extremities. MRI of the whole spine was performed twice, which, unfortunately, was unyielding. Finally, MRI of the sacroiliac joints revealed asymmetric sacroiliitis as well as enthesitis of the hips and pelvis. Further laboratory data showed negative rheumatoid factor and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. A diagnosis of juvenile SpA with sacroiliitis and enthesitis was made. The imaging characteristics of juvenile SpA are highlighted.
A healthy Danish man presented with infected prepatellar bursitis 8 months after being involved in a car accident in Malaysia resulting in exposure of a laceration of his knee to stagnant water. Tissue samples grew Burkholderia pseudomallei and diagnostic work up revealed no secondary foci. The patient was successfully treated with surgical debridement and 3 months of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. At 6 months follow-up the patient was without relapse.
We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis.
Hypercementosis is excessive deposition of non-neoplastic cementum over normal root cementum, which alters root morphology. This cementum may be either hypocellular or cellular in nature. The aetiopathogenesis of hypercementosis is ambiguous. Although most of the cases are idiopathic, several local and systemic factors are also linked to this condition, such as Paget's disease, acromegaly, vitamin A deficiency, etc. We report two rare cases of hypercementosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, not previously described in the literature, and also discuss the possible aetiopathogenesis.
An epidermal cyst is the most common type of cyst to occur in subcutaneous tissue. When its size is greater than 5 cm, it is recognised as a giant epidermal cyst. A subcutaneous giant epidermal cyst with intramuscular extension is extremely rare. The authors report a case of a 74-year-old man who presented with a painless, slow-growing left gluteal mass of 6-month duration. Examination revealed a large left gluteal mass that was fixed to the underlying structures. A small epidermal cyst with visible punctum was noted at the medial aspect of the mass. MRI demonstrated a large, lobulated left gluteal lesion measuring 20 cm×16 cm×10 cm. The lesion was partly within the gluteal maximus muscle and partly within the subcutaneous tissue. MRI and ultrasound features of the lesion were consistent with a giant epidermal cyst with intramuscular extension. The lesion was excised and histology confirmed the diagnosis.
We present the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with vertigo and right-sided weakness. Subsequent imaging demonstrated a lateral ventricle haemangioblastoma. This is the first case ever to be treated with surgical excision augmented by preoperative endovascular embolisation, as illustrated with perfusion CT scanning performed pre-embolisation and postembolisation. We present the case followed by a summary of the previously published cases and a discussion of the advantages of perfusion scanning and endovascular embolisation in these highly vascular (and therefore potentially dangerous) lesions.
Infratemporal fossa abscess is a rare and challenging condition to diagnose and manage. A few reported cases have been mostly due to odontogenic infections and were managed by external or intraoral drainage. This is the first reported case of an infratemporal fossa abscess that was successfully managed by endoscopic drainage via a transmaxillary approach.
Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a known possible complication following thyroid surgery. It owes to the close relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the thyroid gland. The most feared complication of bilateral vocal cord paralysis is airway compromise. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent total thyroidectomy for multinodular goitre. The surgery was uneventful. However she developed stridor in the recovery bay needing intubation. We postulate that the cause was attributed to bilateral vocal cord paresis due to the use of the intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) whose high setting throughout the surgery was overlooked. She made a complete recovery without the need of a tracheostomy. We share our lessons learnt from this case.
Care of an acutely ill parturient is particularly difficult when we have to balance the needs of both mother and the fetus to survive. The literature suggests there should be emphasis on stabilising the mother's condition. In dealing with metabolic acidosis, however, we believe delivering the baby early might not only relieve the threat of the acidosis on the mother, it may be the only way to deliver a live baby. We report two parturient women with severe metabolic acidosis which was considerably reduced very soon after the delivery and how our timely delivery resulted in the birth of two neurologically intact babies.
A 62-year-old man presented with a right-sided hemichorea-hemiballismus secondary to underlying non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. This condition is recognised to have a unique finding of unilateral basal ganglia lesion, which is hyperdense on CT and hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI. The clinical course of this condition is benign and has a good prognosis with early correction of the hyperglycaemia.
A 58-year-old man presented with diplopia and partial ptosis for 10 years. It was non-progressive in nature, despite inadequate medical attention the patient received from non-specialists/general practitioners. He did not have fatigability or diurnal variation in weakness and was clinically stable without exacerbations of disease for a decade. He did not have features of Graves's disease, oculopharyngeal dystrophy, cranial nerve paralysis, polymyositis and stroke. The possibility of an atypical presentation of myasthenia gravis (MG) was considered and the patient was evaluated. Ice pack test was negative, Cogan's lid twitch (CLT) test was positive and high titres of acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChR Ab) suggestive of MG were found. He was treated accordingly with a very good response.
Pseudotumours are rare, occurring in 1-2% of severe haemophiliacs. Osseous locations are far less frequent than soft tissue location. We report a case of a 43-year-old man with haemophilia A, who presented with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass for 8 months. There were no constitutional symptoms. Plain radiograph showed an expansile lytic lesion with 'soap-bubble' appearance arising from the left femur diaphysis. On MRI, it appeared as a non-enhancing, multilobulated lesion expanding the medullary and subperiosteal spaces. The mass exhibited concentric ring sign with heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity in the core lesion, reflective of chronic haematoma with blood degradation products of different stages. A diagnosis of haemophilic pseudotumour was made. Hypercalcaemia, however, raised a diagnostic dilemma as bone malignancy needed to be considered. An open excisional biopsy and subsequent amputation confirmed the diagnosis of osseous haemophilic pseudotumour. Nuclear medicine study later revealed a concurrent parathyroid adenoma.
Midgut malrotation commonly presents in the neonatal period, and rarely manifests its symptoms in adulthood with an estimated incidence of 0.2-0.5%. Nevertheless, the symptoms are non-specific with no strong pointers towards the clinical diagnosis. Consequently, the diagnosis is usually disclosed with imaging or surgery. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to a congenital peritoneal band with underlying midgut malrotation in a 48-year-old man.
Arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction carries some risk of complications, including injury to the neurovascular structures at the popliteal region. We describe a delayed presentation of the right leg and foot compartment syndrome following rupture of popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm, which presented 9 days after an arthroscopic transtibial PCL reconstructive surgery. Fasciotomy, surgical exploration, repair of an injured popliteal vein and revascularisation of the popliteal artery with autogenous great saphenous vein interposition graft were performed. Owing to the close proximity of vessels to the tibial tunnel, special care should be taken in patients who undergo arthroscopic PCL reconstruction, especially if there is extensive scarring of the posterior capsule following previous injury. Emergency fasciotomy should not be delayed and is justified when the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is clinically made.
A 55-year-old immunocompetent woman was presented with features of obstructive jaundice and a clinicoradiological picture suggestive of a hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour). However, caseating granulomatous lesion associated with miliary nodules were revealed intraoperatively. The lesion responded to standard antituberculous therapy. This unusual presentation highlights the considerable diagnostic challenge in such case.
This case reports a patient who developed central retinal artery occlusion following spinal surgery in the prone position. When placed in this position, especially as a result of malposition of the head, the patient may develop external compression of the eye which leads to central retinal artery occlusion. Therefore, a special precaution must be given for adequate eye protection during prolonged prone-positioned spine surgery.