A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic-clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and muscular pains. However, these massage oils may be toxic when taken orally. Early recognition of the salicylate toxicity is very important in producing a good patient outcome.
Marjolin's ulcers are malignancies that arise from previously traumatised, chronically inflamed or scarred skin. We present a case with childhood burns, who had repeated irritation of his forearm skin with palm oil thorns that eventually led to malignant change.
A 23-year-old pregnant woman in her second trimester of pregnancy presented with blisters on the face, abdomen and the leg. Based on the clinical presentation and skin biopsy (histopathology and direct immunofluorescence) the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was established. The child born to this patient also had similar skin lesions. The lesions in the mother and the child improved after treatment. The authors report a rare case of pemphigus vulgaris in a pregnant lady and neonatal pemphigus in her child, both of whom were treated successfully.
Chronic neglected subtalar dislocation associated with a non-union talar neck fracture is rare and never documented before. The lack of information from the literature on the optimal management prompted us to describe our experience in the management of this condition. We reported a case of a 57-year-old women presented with this injury. A satisfactory outcome was obtained using a tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis through a plantar approach.
To describe the usage of 100% perfluoropropane and subsequent laser retinopexy for the repair of posterior pole retinal detachment in a previously vitrectomised patient with diabetic tractional detachment.
Dural venous sinus thrombosis, especially of the sigmoid sinus, is a known but uncommon intracranial extradural complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral abducens palsy in the same patient. We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure, diplopia and bilateral lateral rectus palsy associated with a history of left ear discharge and neck swelling. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis extending right up to the left internal jugular vein was confirmed on CT imaging. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic agents and antibiotic therapy. The pathophysiology of the concurrent complications is discussed.
Solid-pseudopapillary tumour (SPT) is a rare exocrine tumour of the pancreas and is considered to have low malignant potential. Few morphological criteria are used to predict malignant behaviour such as equivocal perineural invasion, angioinvasion and invasion to surrounding tissue, and should be designated as solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma (SPC). We report a case of SPC. Clinical and radiological findings are typical for SPT with no metastatic disease. There is no tumour recurrence after 4 months postresection. Clinical history and radiological findings were retrieved from the patient's record sheet and Viarad system. H&E staining and few immunoproxidase staining were reviewed by several pathologists. The histological findings are typical for SPT, with additional perineural invasion. There is no angioinvasion or capsular invasion identified. This is our first experience in diagnosing and managing SPC. We look forward to seeing the patient's disease status during her next routine follow-up. We expect good disease-free survival and very low risk of tumour recurrence, in view of only one risk factor (perineural invasion) and uninvolved surgical margins by the tumour.
A 55-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of left-sided body weakness and numbness, which was diagnosed as multifocal cerebral infarct with right thalamic bleed. She had concurrent hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. She suffered from central poststroke pain and reactive depression as poststroke complications, for which amitriptyline was prescribed. Unfortunately, she developed symptoms suggestive of mania and psychosis upon initiation of medications, which resolved upon withdrawal of amitriptyline. Amitriptyline is effective for treatment of poststroke pain and particularly useful in concomitant depression. Unexpectedly, this patient developed new psychopathologies after initiation of this medication. This case highlights the development of new psychopathologies that could be due to the antidepressant, underlying bipolar disorder or a complication of the stroke itself. Primary care providers need to actively enquire regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms because they can adversely affect the patient's quality of life as well as impede rehabilitation efforts.
Aggressive angiomyxoma is a benign soft tissue tumour usually affecting the pelvis and perineum predominantly in women. Because of its variable presentation, this tumour is often clinically misdiagnosed as liposarcoma. We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a large perineal and gluteal mass which increased in size in one year. Ultrasound showed hypoechoic mixed solid and cystic mass. Contrasted CT and MRI examinations showed typical appearance of swirling and layering pattern. She had undergone TAHBSO as the mass was difficult to dissect intra-operatively. The post-operative specimen confirmed to be an aggressive angiomyxoma.
The authors present an interesting case under our follow-up who has had five different forms of tumours with different pathologies throughout his lifetime. He started off with hepatoma, followed by pleomorphic sarcoma of the thigh, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, meningioma and finally schwanoma. He is still alive to this date.
Meckel's diverticulum has several known complications including diverticulitis and perforation. The presence of mesodiverticular band or a band from the diverticulum to the anterior abdominal wall is also described and can cause obstruction or rotation of the small bowel leading to volvulus. Meckel's diverticulum is also well known as the lead point for intussusception. It may be lined by ectopic gastric mucosa and can cause life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a neonate who presented with acute intestinal obstruction secondary to a large, mobile Meckel's diverticulum which due to a direct compression effect on the adjacent small bowel caused mechanical intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis was confirmed at laparoscopy, and treated by curative surgical resection. This is the first report of a large mobile Meckel's diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction due to direct compression that was managed by minimally invasive surgical resection.
To report a unique case of crystallisation in the anterior chamber and subretinal space in a Malay lady following inadvertent subretinal injection of ranibizumab prior to vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Absence of the distal crease of the fingers is usually associated with a flexion deformity. A single crease of one or more fingers is found in many syndromes. We present this report as a rare case of absence of interphalangeal crease of the right ring finger with restriction of flexion but without any other anomaly.
An epidermal cyst is the most common type of cyst to occur in subcutaneous tissue. When its size is greater than 5 cm, it is recognised as a giant epidermal cyst. A subcutaneous giant epidermal cyst with intramuscular extension is extremely rare. The authors report a case of a 74-year-old man who presented with a painless, slow-growing left gluteal mass of 6-month duration. Examination revealed a large left gluteal mass that was fixed to the underlying structures. A small epidermal cyst with visible punctum was noted at the medial aspect of the mass. MRI demonstrated a large, lobulated left gluteal lesion measuring 20 cm×16 cm×10 cm. The lesion was partly within the gluteal maximus muscle and partly within the subcutaneous tissue. MRI and ultrasound features of the lesion were consistent with a giant epidermal cyst with intramuscular extension. The lesion was excised and histology confirmed the diagnosis.
Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed.
We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis.
A healthy Danish man presented with infected prepatellar bursitis 8 months after being involved in a car accident in Malaysia resulting in exposure of a laceration of his knee to stagnant water. Tissue samples grew Burkholderia pseudomallei and diagnostic work up revealed no secondary foci. The patient was successfully treated with surgical debridement and 3 months of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. At 6 months follow-up the patient was without relapse.
A 13-year-old boy presented with a 2 weeks history of tearfulness, childish behaviour, separation anxiety, hypersomnia, hyperphagia and sexual disinhibition following a brief episode of fever. He had been experiencing the episodes since he was seven. The episodes lasted from a few days to 3 weeks and would normally occur once in a year. Most of the time it started with fever and resolved spontaneously. In the past he described auditory hallucination but not this time. Examination revealed a slightly overweight adolescent male appearing appropriate to his age. During the session he was restless, sleepy and burst into tears frequently. He constantly asked his mother when he could go home to sleep. He was very childish and clung to his mother. He was given a trial of risperidone 1 mg to be taken once a day for 3 days. On follow-up he had completely recovered.