Infratemporal fossa abscess is a rare and challenging condition to diagnose and manage. A few reported cases have been mostly due to odontogenic infections and were managed by external or intraoral drainage. This is the first reported case of an infratemporal fossa abscess that was successfully managed by endoscopic drainage via a transmaxillary approach.
Care of an acutely ill parturient is particularly difficult when we have to balance the needs of both mother and the fetus to survive. The literature suggests there should be emphasis on stabilising the mother's condition. In dealing with metabolic acidosis, however, we believe delivering the baby early might not only relieve the threat of the acidosis on the mother, it may be the only way to deliver a live baby. We report two parturient women with severe metabolic acidosis which was considerably reduced very soon after the delivery and how our timely delivery resulted in the birth of two neurologically intact babies.
We present the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with vertigo and right-sided weakness. Subsequent imaging demonstrated a lateral ventricle haemangioblastoma. This is the first case ever to be treated with surgical excision augmented by preoperative endovascular embolisation, as illustrated with perfusion CT scanning performed pre-embolisation and postembolisation. We present the case followed by a summary of the previously published cases and a discussion of the advantages of perfusion scanning and endovascular embolisation in these highly vascular (and therefore potentially dangerous) lesions.
Midgut malrotation commonly presents in the neonatal period, and rarely manifests its symptoms in adulthood with an estimated incidence of 0.2-0.5%. Nevertheless, the symptoms are non-specific with no strong pointers towards the clinical diagnosis. Consequently, the diagnosis is usually disclosed with imaging or surgery. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to a congenital peritoneal band with underlying midgut malrotation in a 48-year-old man.
A 62-year-old man presented with a right-sided hemichorea-hemiballismus secondary to underlying non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. This condition is recognised to have a unique finding of unilateral basal ganglia lesion, which is hyperdense on CT and hyperintense on T1-weighted MRI. The clinical course of this condition is benign and has a good prognosis with early correction of the hyperglycaemia.
A 58-year-old man presented with diplopia and partial ptosis for 10 years. It was non-progressive in nature, despite inadequate medical attention the patient received from non-specialists/general practitioners. He did not have fatigability or diurnal variation in weakness and was clinically stable without exacerbations of disease for a decade. He did not have features of Graves's disease, oculopharyngeal dystrophy, cranial nerve paralysis, polymyositis and stroke. The possibility of an atypical presentation of myasthenia gravis (MG) was considered and the patient was evaluated. Ice pack test was negative, Cogan's lid twitch (CLT) test was positive and high titres of acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChR Ab) suggestive of MG were found. He was treated accordingly with a very good response.
Pseudotumours are rare, occurring in 1-2% of severe haemophiliacs. Osseous locations are far less frequent than soft tissue location. We report a case of a 43-year-old man with haemophilia A, who presented with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass for 8 months. There were no constitutional symptoms. Plain radiograph showed an expansile lytic lesion with 'soap-bubble' appearance arising from the left femur diaphysis. On MRI, it appeared as a non-enhancing, multilobulated lesion expanding the medullary and subperiosteal spaces. The mass exhibited concentric ring sign with heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity in the core lesion, reflective of chronic haematoma with blood degradation products of different stages. A diagnosis of haemophilic pseudotumour was made. Hypercalcaemia, however, raised a diagnostic dilemma as bone malignancy needed to be considered. An open excisional biopsy and subsequent amputation confirmed the diagnosis of osseous haemophilic pseudotumour. Nuclear medicine study later revealed a concurrent parathyroid adenoma.
Arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction carries some risk of complications, including injury to the neurovascular structures at the popliteal region. We describe a delayed presentation of the right leg and foot compartment syndrome following rupture of popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm, which presented 9 days after an arthroscopic transtibial PCL reconstructive surgery. Fasciotomy, surgical exploration, repair of an injured popliteal vein and revascularisation of the popliteal artery with autogenous great saphenous vein interposition graft were performed. Owing to the close proximity of vessels to the tibial tunnel, special care should be taken in patients who undergo arthroscopic PCL reconstruction, especially if there is extensive scarring of the posterior capsule following previous injury. Emergency fasciotomy should not be delayed and is justified when the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is clinically made.
Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a known possible complication following thyroid surgery. It owes to the close relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the thyroid gland. The most feared complication of bilateral vocal cord paralysis is airway compromise. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent total thyroidectomy for multinodular goitre. The surgery was uneventful. However she developed stridor in the recovery bay needing intubation. We postulate that the cause was attributed to bilateral vocal cord paresis due to the use of the intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) whose high setting throughout the surgery was overlooked. She made a complete recovery without the need of a tracheostomy. We share our lessons learnt from this case.
This case reports a patient who developed central retinal artery occlusion following spinal surgery in the prone position. When placed in this position, especially as a result of malposition of the head, the patient may develop external compression of the eye which leads to central retinal artery occlusion. Therefore, a special precaution must be given for adequate eye protection during prolonged prone-positioned spine surgery.
A 55-year-old immunocompetent woman was presented with features of obstructive jaundice and a clinicoradiological picture suggestive of a hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour). However, caseating granulomatous lesion associated with miliary nodules were revealed intraoperatively. The lesion responded to standard antituberculous therapy. This unusual presentation highlights the considerable diagnostic challenge in such case.
The patella is an uncommon site for all primary and metastatic bone tumours and primary intra-osseous tumours of the patella are very rare. A majority of the patella tumours are benign. We report a patient with a sudden onset swelling and pain of the right knee following a staircase fall. The plain radiograph showed an expansile multiseptated patella lesion and it was further assessed with an MRI. The radiological findings and the initial histopathological features from a limited sample were suggestive of a primary aneurysmal bone cyst. However, the final histopathological diagnosis from a more adequate specimen was a giant cell tumour with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst.
Aggressive angiomyxoma is a benign soft tissue tumour usually affecting the pelvis and perineum predominantly in women. Because of its variable presentation, this tumour is often clinically misdiagnosed as liposarcoma. We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a large perineal and gluteal mass which increased in size in one year. Ultrasound showed hypoechoic mixed solid and cystic mass. Contrasted CT and MRI examinations showed typical appearance of swirling and layering pattern. She had undergone TAHBSO as the mass was difficult to dissect intra-operatively. The post-operative specimen confirmed to be an aggressive angiomyxoma.
Chronic neglected subtalar dislocation associated with a non-union talar neck fracture is rare and never documented before. The lack of information from the literature on the optimal management prompted us to describe our experience in the management of this condition. We reported a case of a 57-year-old women presented with this injury. A satisfactory outcome was obtained using a tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis through a plantar approach.
Dural venous sinus thrombosis, especially of the sigmoid sinus, is a known but uncommon intracranial extradural complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral abducens palsy in the same patient. We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure, diplopia and bilateral lateral rectus palsy associated with a history of left ear discharge and neck swelling. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis extending right up to the left internal jugular vein was confirmed on CT imaging. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic agents and antibiotic therapy. The pathophysiology of the concurrent complications is discussed.
A 35-year-old woman with background of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension secondary to chronic hepatitis C presented with complication of hypersplenism and thrombocytopenia. She developed severe menorrhagia requiring multiple blood transfusions. In addition, her interferon therapy was withheld owing to the underlying thrombocytopenia. Partial splenic embolisation was performed, which improved her platelet counts. Subsequently, the menorrhagia was resolved and her interferon therapy was restarted.