A 25-year-old gravida 2 para 1 with 12-week amenorrhoea presented a second time for recurrent vomiting in pregnancy. She was diagnosed to have a missed miscarriage following absent fetal heart seen in an early scan. She opted for conservative management. However, on the third presentation, her vomiting continued. Repeated transvaginal ultrasound scan showed a fetus with a crown rump length of 19 mm, which is equivalent to 8 weeks and 4 days, with absence of fetal heart pulsation. Thyroid function tests and β human chorionic gonadotropin were then requested. Results showed that the patient's serum β human chorionic gonadotropin level was markedly raised to 147,000. A molar pregnancy was suspected. Her thyroid function tests came back normal. Suction curettage was performed and histopathology confirmed a partial molar pregnancy. On follow-up, the β human chorionic gonadotropin level was normal by 7 weeks after the curettage.
We describe a case of extensive ocular injury secondary to an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)-related explosion. The explosion was the result of modifications made to a heating element of the e-cigarette device by a non-professional. Extensive ocular injuries that result from an explosion of an e-cigarette device can potentially cause significant and permanent visual impairment.
Spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of inflammatory conditions that include spondylitis, sacroiliitis, asymmetrical peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. This condition is known as juvenile SpA when the diagnosis is made in patients up to 16 years of age. Enthesitis is a highly specific feature that occurs more often in juvenile SpA than in the adult form. In contrast to adult onset SpA, the initial manifestation of juvenile SpA rarely presents as inflammatory back pain. Peripheral arthritis is the more common presenting feature. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a 1-year history of progressive low back pain, gluteal pain and thigh pain. There were no clinical symptoms of arthropathy of the distal extremities. MRI of the whole spine was performed twice, which, unfortunately, was unyielding. Finally, MRI of the sacroiliac joints revealed asymmetric sacroiliitis as well as enthesitis of the hips and pelvis. Further laboratory data showed negative rheumatoid factor and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27. A diagnosis of juvenile SpA with sacroiliitis and enthesitis was made. The imaging characteristics of juvenile SpA are highlighted.
Congenital spinal fusion of an odontoid process to an atlantal hemiarch is very rare. The unfamiliarity of the medical fraternity with this congenital malformation can easily be mistaken for an acute fracture, chronic infection or inflammatory disease. We present our experience of managing an adult who presented with neck pain after a motor vehicle accident. Radiological investigation revealed congenital fusion of the odontoid process to the atlantal hemiarch. The prevalence, embryology and clinical significance of this anomaly are discussed. As the natural progression of this anomaly is not well documented, we suggest periodic follow-up to monitor the progression of degenerative changes and instability of the occipitoatlantal junction.
A 35-year-old woman with background of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension secondary to chronic hepatitis C presented with complication of hypersplenism and thrombocytopenia. She developed severe menorrhagia requiring multiple blood transfusions. In addition, her interferon therapy was withheld owing to the underlying thrombocytopenia. Partial splenic embolisation was performed, which improved her platelet counts. Subsequently, the menorrhagia was resolved and her interferon therapy was restarted.
Chronic neglected subtalar dislocation associated with a non-union talar neck fracture is rare and never documented before. The lack of information from the literature on the optimal management prompted us to describe our experience in the management of this condition. We reported a case of a 57-year-old women presented with this injury. A satisfactory outcome was obtained using a tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis through a plantar approach.
Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.
Solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare, poorly characterised variant and predominantly reported in children with a history of radiation exposure. This variant has a high propensity for extra-thyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. A 14-year-old Malay girl who had no history of radiation exposure, presented with multiple cervical lymphadenopathy and it was clinically suspicious for tuberculosis or lymphoma. An incisional biopsy revealed a metastatic PTC. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lateral neck dissection and histopathology report was solid variant of PTC. Whole-body I(131) scan was performed which revealed an intense tracer uptake in the neck. She was planned for radioactive iodine ablation and now on regular follow-up for monitoring of possible tumour metastasis.
Aggressive angiomyxoma is a benign soft tissue tumour usually affecting the pelvis and perineum predominantly in women. Because of its variable presentation, this tumour is often clinically misdiagnosed as liposarcoma. We describe a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a large perineal and gluteal mass which increased in size in one year. Ultrasound showed hypoechoic mixed solid and cystic mass. Contrasted CT and MRI examinations showed typical appearance of swirling and layering pattern. She had undergone TAHBSO as the mass was difficult to dissect intra-operatively. The post-operative specimen confirmed to be an aggressive angiomyxoma.
Dural venous sinus thrombosis, especially of the sigmoid sinus, is a known but uncommon intracranial extradural complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral abducens palsy in the same patient. We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure, diplopia and bilateral lateral rectus palsy associated with a history of left ear discharge and neck swelling. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis extending right up to the left internal jugular vein was confirmed on CT imaging. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic agents and antibiotic therapy. The pathophysiology of the concurrent complications is discussed.
A 38-year-old man with an underlying psychiatric illness presented with altered sensorium and abnormal behaviour. He was febrile at 38°C and weak looking; otherwise no other abnormalities were detected. A blood film conducted for malarial parasite (BFMP) revealed Plasmodium falciparum; hence a diagnosis of cerebral malaria was made. He was treated with antimalarial drugs for 2 days prior to being transferred out to the ward following clinical improvement. He subsequently developed episodes of stupor and refusal of feeding. Following an evaluation by the psychiatrist, a diagnosis of catatonic schizophrenia was made and he was started on oral sulpiride and benhexol. Unfortunately, he developed high-grade fever at 40°C with muscle rigidity and fasciculation. The diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) was clinched and the antipsychotics were discontinued. However he succumbed to NMS several days later due to multiorgan failure.
We present a case of a 20-year-old woman presenting initially with an asymptomatic palatal swelling. Radiographic examination showed a cyst at the right maxilla with bucco-lingual expansion and perforation of palatal bone. Incisional biopsy was carried out via a buccal approach and the result revealed a benign odontogenic cyst, in keeping with radicular cyst. The patient was then scheduled for cyst enucleation. During the procedure, it was found that the palatal lesion was unrelated to the maxillary cyst. Incisional biopsy of the palatal mass was carried out and revealed a low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The patient then had a partial maxillectomy with fibula flap reconstruction. There was no recurrence at postoperative 1 year follow-up and she was rehabilitated with dental implants.
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a continuum of fat emboli. Variants of FES: acute fulminant form and classic FES are postulated to represent two different pathomechanisms. Acute fulminant FES occurs during the first 24 h. It is attributed to massive mechanical blockage pulmonary vasculature by the fat emboli. The classic FES typically has a latency period of 24-36 h manifestation of respiratory failure and other signs of fat embolism. Progression of asymptomatic fat embolism with FES frequently represents inadequate treatment of hypovolaemic shock. We present a rare case of two variants of FES evolving in a patient with multiple fractures to emphasis the importance of adequate and appropriate treatment of shock in preventing the development of FES. Since supportive therapy which is a ventilatory support remains as the treatment of FES, it is appropriate to treat FES in the intensive care unit setting.
This paper describes a rare case of Coats disease with late presentation in a young adult. The condition improved with a combination of focal photocoagulation, cryotherapy and intravitreal ranibizumab.
A 2-year-old boy was presented with symptoms of chest infection. The chest radiograph showed a large mediastinal mass, which led to further investigations including biopsy of the tumour. Histopathological analysis revealed a diagnosis of lipoblastoma. We highlight the imaging appearance of the lesion. Although histopathological analysis is required for the confirmation of the diagnosis, cross-sectional imaging is useful in evaluating the extent of the tumour for surgical planning.
Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is an uncommon, but highly prevalent parasitic infection in parts of Malaysia. This is the case of a 14-year-old Singaporean boy presenting to our emergency department with an 11-day history of fever following a school trip to Malaysia. Hepatosplenomegaly was the only clinical finding; laboratory tests showed thrombocytopaenia, lymphopaenia, mild anaemia and liver transaminitis. Specific malaria antigen tests were negative, but the peripheral blood film showed plasmodia with atypical features, with a parasite load of 0.5%. PCR confirmed the diagnosis of P knowlesi. The patient was successfully treated with chloroquine. The clinical course of P knowlesi malaria is indistinguishable from that of Plasmodium falciparum. This case highlights the importance of taking detailed travel history, careful examination of malaria blood films and judicious use of molecular techniques. Antigen tests alone may have missed a malaria diagnosis altogether, while blood film examination may wrongly identify the species as Plasmodium malariae or P falciparum. Third-generation PCR assays can be used to reliably identify P knowlesi.
A 31-year-old Malaysian man was presented with an episode of seizures by the roadside, after having been recently diagnosed as HIV positive accompanied with miliary tuberculosis. On physical examination, he was oriented to person, but not to time or place. There was no neck stiffness or papilloedema. The other systemic examination was unremarkable. Chest examination revealed crepitations at the upper zone of the right lung. After diagnosis suspicion, the case was confirmed as toxoplasma encephalitis by MRI and serological tests. Patient was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 480-2400 mg/day with folinic acid supplement for 60 days. Two months later, a repeat brain MRI showed resolution of the cerebral lesions.
Meckel's diverticulum has several known complications including diverticulitis and perforation. The presence of mesodiverticular band or a band from the diverticulum to the anterior abdominal wall is also described and can cause obstruction or rotation of the small bowel leading to volvulus. Meckel's diverticulum is also well known as the lead point for intussusception. It may be lined by ectopic gastric mucosa and can cause life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a neonate who presented with acute intestinal obstruction secondary to a large, mobile Meckel's diverticulum which due to a direct compression effect on the adjacent small bowel caused mechanical intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis was confirmed at laparoscopy, and treated by curative surgical resection. This is the first report of a large mobile Meckel's diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction due to direct compression that was managed by minimally invasive surgical resection.