Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.
A study of 1,437 unselected febrile patients in rural Malaysia yielded a diagnosis of leptospirosis in 86 (6.0%). The clinical syndrome was mild to moderate in all cases, jaundice was observed in only 2 (2.3%) and no deaths were documented. The diagnosis was not clinically obvious in most cases, and it is apparent that many infections must be going unnoticed at present.
The aetiology of dry socket continues to be the subject of intense research. Local disturbances of fibrinolytic activity appear to be the most satisfactory explanation for the pathogenesis of this disorder. The factors that are responsible for local changes in fibrinolytic activity are reviewed and evaluated. In the management of this disorder attention should be directed towards the prevention of local changes in fibrinolytic activity.
Ten out of 237 patients who underwent renal transplantation between 1975 and October 1986 developed tuberculosis. Most patients presented with vague symptoms, and typical symptoms commonly associated with tuberculosis were not common. Six had positive urine cultures. One patient had positive sputum and urine cultures and one had positive sputum and cerebrospinal fluid cultures for tuberculosis. In this last patient cryptococcus was also cultured from the sputum and CSF. Nine of the 10 patients responded well to antituberculosis therapy and was cured of the infection. The patient with associated cryptococcal infection died 2 months after presentation. Side effects of antituberculous therapy was minimal and easily resolved on stopping the offending drug.
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the nervous system which can be potentially debilitating. Its prevalence is estimated to be around 0.5-10 per 100,000 population with predilection towards Asians and females. It can be diagnosed based on core clinical characteristics, serum aquaporin antibodies and neuroimaging features. It is important to pick up the diagnosis of NMOSD as the treatment is different from other demyelinating disease. Here, we illustrate a case of NMOSD presented with intractable vomiting.
Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis secondary to subclinical hyperthyroidism is an uncommon clinical phenomenon characterised by lower limb paralysis secondary to hypokalaemia in the background of subclinical hyperthyroidism. In this article, we report a patient who presented with progressive lower limb muscle weakness secondary to hypokalaemia that was refractory to potassium replacement therapy. He has no diarrhoea, no reduced appetite and was not taking any medication that can cause potassium wasting. Although he was clinically euthyroid, his thyroid function test revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. His 24-hour urine potassium level was normal, which makes a rapid transcellular shift of potassium secondary to subclinical hyperthyroidism as the possible cause. He was successfully treated with potassium supplements, non-selective beta-blockers and anti-thyroid medication. This case report aimed to share an uncommon case of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis secondary to subclinical hyperthyroidism, which to our knowledge, only a few has been reported in the literature.
Suspension laryngoscopy is a common laryngeal procedure in Endolaryngeal microsurgery (ELMS). Oral mucosa and dental injuries are the known complications of the procedure. Nerve injury however is an infrequent encounter. We report a rare complication of lingual nerve injury which manifested as tongue numbness and altered taste following Endolaryngeal microsurgery procedure. The condition improved completely after few months of conservative management.
Visual impairment among the elderly is a major health problem. With advancing age, the normal function of eye tissues decreases and there is an increased incidence of ocular pathology. Demographic studies have shown that age is the best predictor of blindness and visual impairment. The most common causes of age related visual impairment in the elderly are presbyopia, cataracts, age related macular degeneration, primary open angle glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Untreated visual impairment leads to physical handicap, increased incidence of fall, depression, social isolation and dependency. Active screening for visual loss in the elderly should be part of the health examination. The elderly should be encouraged to come for formal 1-2 yearly eye assessment for early detection of visual impairment and to treat all associated problems in order to prevent permanent visual loss.
In the setting of transplantation and chronic hepatitis B viral infection there is a unique histological feature termed cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. The use of nucleoside analogues in the treatment of this condition has been successful. We describe a case of cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis, which occurred after intense immunosuppression for graft versus host disease in a patient with bone marrow transplantations. She was commenced on lamivudine therapy and showed good clinical, biochemical and virological response. However she succumbed due to sepsis.
The case of a 32 year old male with normal male adrenarchal hair pattern, bilateral gynaecomastia, a small phallus, hypospadias and bilateral poorly developed testes presenting with primary infertility secondary to azoospermia and a pelvic cyst is described. Repeated chromosomal analysis showed 46XX chromosomal constitution. Laparotomy revealed a simple cyst between the urinary bladder and the rectum. XX male syndrome is a rare cause of male infertility. The majority of cases is due to interchange of a fragment of the short arm of the Y chromosome containing the region that encodes the testes determining factor with the X chromosome. The presence of a simple cyst in the anatomical location of the uterus to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature.
A 44 year old lady with primary hypothyroidism presented with massive pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Pericardial tap was done twice and the effusion resolved as the hypothyroid state improved. She remained hypertensive despite the euthyroid state. She was discharged well with L-thyroxine and anti-hypertensive therapy.
Clinical characteristics are essential for the correct diagnosis of diseases. The current review aimed to summarize the global clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients systematically and identify their diagnostic challenges to help the medical practitioners properly diagnose and for better management of COVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases for original articles containing clinical information of COVID-19 published up to 7th May 2020. Two researchers independently searched the databases to extract eligible articles. A total of 34 studies from 8 different countries with 10889 case-patients were included for clinical characteristics. The most common clinical symptoms were cough 59.6, fever 46.9, fatigue 27.8, and dyspnea 20.23%. The prominent laboratory findings were lymphocytopenia 55.9, elevated levels of CRP 61.9, aspartate aminotransferase 53.3, LDH 40.8, ESR 72.99, serum ferritin 63, IL-6 52, and prothrombin time 35.47%, and decreased levels of platelets 17.26, eosinophils 59.0, hemoglobin 29, and albumin 38.4%. CT scan of the chest showed an abnormality in 93.50% cases with bilateral lungs 71.1%, ground-glass opacity 48%, lesion in lungs 78.3%, and enlargement of lymph node 50.7%. Common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. The estimated median incubation period was 5.36 days, and the overall case fatality rate was 16.9% (Global case fatality outside China was 22.24%: USA 21.24%, Italy 25.61%, and others 0%; whereas the case fatality inside the Hubei Province of China was found to be 11.71%). Global features on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 obtained from laboratory tests and CT scan results will provide useful information to the physicians to diagnose the disease and for better management of the patients as well as to address the diagnostic challenges to control the infection.
Gall stone is responsible for about 1% of total small bowel obstruction, 1.2 and recurrent gall stone ileus is even more unusual. 3 Gall stone ileus is caused by the impaction of the stone in bowel lumen. It was first described in a patient examined at autopsy by Bartholin in 1654. This paper based on unusual recurrent intestinal obstructions by a gall stone. The patient presented with large bowel obstruction and it was due to a large gall stone impacted in the pelvic colon. Four months later the same patient presented with small bowel obstruction due to large gall stone impacted in the terminal part of the ileum at 61 cms from the ileo-caecal valve. Gall stone obstruction of the colon is one of the rare complications. This rare complication usually occurs in elderly females' in whom there is frequently an underlying pathological condition at the site of obstruction in the colon. The calculus usually migrates through a cholecysto-colonic fistula in case of large bowel obstruction. In case of a small bowel obstruction the calculus usually migrates through a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Diagnosis can be established by plain X-rays of the abdomen where there is gas shadow in the biliary system, sometimes the gall stone can be seen if it is radio opague (10-16% gall stone is radio opaque) at the site of obstruction. Otherwise diagnosis is always
made at laparotomy.