The chemoprophylactic use of diethylcarbamazine citrate at total oral doses of 15--180 mg/kg body weight was tested against subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf monkey (Presbytis melalophos). A total dose of 45 mg/kg body weight given over 9 days killed all developing infective larvae. Similarly, a total dose of 35 mg/kg body weight given over 7 days killed all fourth stage larvae. The minimum effective dose that prevents infection would be 5 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days every month.
Quantitation of serum immunoglobulin M, G, A, D and E levels was carried out in Malaysians with Brugia malayi infections. Results showed highly elevated levels of IgM and IgE as well as moderately elevated levels of IgG. These were most significant in patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or elephantiasis. Serum IgE levels were extremely high in microfilaraemic patients (6,060 +/- 3,958 IU ml) probably due to a constant antigenic stimulation by dead and dying microfilariae.
Light and electron microscopic studies and feeding experiments have confirmed the presence of two species of Sarcocystis in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. One is the already known species with large macroscopic sarcocysts, Sarcocystis fusiformia (Railliet, 1897) Bernard and Bauche, 1912 and the other is S. levinei n. sp. which is being described in detail. The sarcocysts of S. levinei are 0.9 x 0.1 mm and the zoites in them 17.8 x 4.2 micrometer. Ultrastructurally, the primary cyst wall shows sloping villi with irregular wavy outlines. Within the villi are coarse granules and annulated fibrils. Trabeculae are present. The sexual stages of S. levinei occur in the subepithelial tissue of the small intestine of the dog and sporocysts shed by this definitive host are 15-16 by 10 micrometer.
The ultrastructure of Sarcocystis sp. from the Malaysian house rat, Rattus rattus diardii, was studied with the electron microscope. The thin, uniformly-dense primary cyst wall had a row of vesicular invaginations which were also seen along the wall of the villi-like projections or cytophaneres. Within the villi were spherical bodies and hollow, curled structures. The ground substance beneath the primary cyst wall extended into the cyst as thin septa or trabeculae separating the tightly-packed zoites into compartments. Merozoites had a double-layered membrane, a conoid, 2 conoidal rings, 22 subpellicular microtubules, 6 rhoptries, 80-100 micronemes, scattered lipid droplets, and sac-like mitochrondrion, beside which was a Golgi apparatus. A micropore was occasionally seen at the anterior third of the zoite whereas the nucleus occupied the posterior third. Metrocytes were few in number and peripheral in location.
The two species of Sarcocystis--S. levinei and S. fusiformis from the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, show some ultrastructural similarities in their cyst wall and zoites. The zoites of both species are of about the same size, banana-shaped and have 22 subpellicular microtubules, numerous micronemes, eight rhoptries, a micropore in the region of the micronemes, an elongated mitochondrion, and a nucleus. S. levinei has 200--300 micronemes and S. fusiformis has about 400. The sarcocysts of both species are trabeculated and their cyst walls have cytophaneres containing annulated fibrils and coarse, electron dense granules. The cytophaneres of S. levinei are sloping, with irregular, wavy outlines, whereas S. fusiformis has the cauliflower-type of cytophaneres. This difference in the appearance of the cytophaneres, together with the difference in size of the sarcocysts and their definitive hosts, further confirms that S. levinei and S. fusiformis are two distinct species in the water buffalo.